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Large food molecules (for example, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and starches) must be broken down into subunits that are small enough to be absorbed by the lining of the alimentary canal. In the small intestine, pancreatic amylase does the ‘heavy lifting’ for starch and carbohydrate digestion ([link]). The digestion of protein starts in the stomach, where HCl and pepsin break proteins into smaller polypeptides, which then travel to the small intestine ([link]). The three lipases responsible for lipid digestion are lingual lipase, gastric lipase, and pancreatic lipase. The mechanical and digestive processes have one goal: to convert food into molecules small enough to be absorbed by the epithelial cells of the intestinal villi. Absorption can occur through five mechanisms: (1) active transport, (2) passive diffusion, (3) facilitated diffusion, (4) co-transport (or secondary active transport), and (5) endocytosis.
Because the cell’s plasma membrane is made up of hydrophobic phospholipids, water-soluble nutrients must use transport molecules embedded in the membrane to enter cells.
In contrast to the water-soluble nutrients, lipid-soluble nutrients can diffuse through the plasma membrane. Active transport mechanisms, primarily in the duodenum and jejunum, absorb most proteins as their breakdown products, amino acids. The large and hydrophobic long-chain fatty acids and monoacylglycerides are not so easily suspended in the watery intestinal chyme.
The free fatty acids and monoacylglycerides that enter the epithelial cells are reincorporated into triglycerides. The products of nucleic acid digestion—pentose sugars, nitrogenous bases, and phosphate ions—are transported by carriers across the villus epithelium via active transport. The electrolytes absorbed by the small intestine are from both GI secretions and ingested foods.
In general, all minerals that enter the intestine are absorbed, whether you need them or not. Iron—The ionic iron needed for the production of hemoglobin is absorbed into mucosal cells via active transport.
Bile salts and lecithin can emulsify large lipid globules because they are amphipathic; they have a nonpolar (hydrophobic) region that attaches to the large fat molecules as well as a polar (hydrophilic) region that interacts with the watery chime in the intestine. Intrinsic factor secreted in the stomach binds to the large B12 compound, creating a combination that can bind to mucosal receptors in the ileum.
Minerals, vitamins and water are already small enough to be absorbed by the body without being broken down, so they are not digested. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Because catabolic reactions produce energy and anabolic reactions use energy, ideally, energy usage would balance the energy produced. Catabolic reactions break down large organic molecules into smaller molecules, releasing the energy contained in the chemical bonds. Structurally, ATP molecules consist of an adenine, a ribose, and three phosphate groups ([link]).
The energy from ATP drives all bodily functions, such as contracting muscles, maintaining the electrical potential of nerve cells, and absorbing food in the gastrointestinal tract. Of the four major macromolecular groups (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) that are processed by digestion, carbohydrates are considered the most common source of energy to fuel the body.
Among the lipids (fats), triglycerides are most often used for energy via a metabolic process called ?-oxidation. Proteins, which are polymers, can be broken down into their monomers, individual amino acids. In contrast to catabolic reactions, anabolic reactions involve the joining of smaller molecules into larger ones.
Metabolic Processes: Cushing Syndrome and Addison’s Disease As might be expected for a fundamental physiological process like metabolism, errors or malfunctions in metabolic processing lead to a pathophysiology or—if uncorrected—a disease state.
Patients with Cushing syndrome can exhibit high blood glucose levels and are at an increased risk of becoming obese. The chemical reactions underlying metabolism involve the transfer of electrons from one compound to another by processes catalyzed by enzymes.
Oxidation-reduction reactions are catalyzed by enzymes that trigger the removal of hydrogen atoms. Metabolism is the sum of all catabolic (break down) and anabolic (synthesis) reactions in the body. Catabolic reactions break down larger molecules, such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins from ingested food, into their constituent smaller parts. Anabolic reactions, or biosynthetic reactions, synthesize larger molecules from smaller constituent parts, using ATP as the energy source for these reactions. An increase or decrease in lean muscle mass will result in an increase or decrease in metabolism.
Glucose, galactose, and fructose are the three monosaccharides that are commonly consumed and are readily absorbed. After amylases break down starch into smaller fragments, the brush border enzyme ?-dextrinase starts working on ?-dextrin, breaking off one glucose unit at a time.
Chemical digestion in the small intestine is continued by pancreatic enzymes, including chymotrypsin and trypsin, each of which act on specific bonds in amino acid sequences. The most common dietary lipids are triglycerides, which are made up of a glycerol molecule bound to three fatty acid chains. However, because the pancreas is the only consequential source of lipase, virtually all lipid digestion occurs in the small intestine.
Two types of pancreatic nuclease are responsible for their digestion: deoxyribonuclease, which digests DNA, and ribonuclease, which digests RNA.
As you will recall from Chapter 3, active transport refers to the movement of a substance across a cell membrane going from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration (up the concentration gradient). Moreover, substances cannot pass between the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa because these cells are bound together by tight junctions.
Once inside the cell, they are packaged for transport via the base of the cell and then enter the lacteals of the villi to be transported by lymphatic vessels to the systemic circulation via the thoracic duct. The small intestine is highly efficient at this, absorbing monosaccharides at an estimated rate of 120 grams per hour.
Bile salts not only speed up lipid digestion, they are also essential to the absorption of the end products of lipid digestion. However, bile salts and lecithin resolve this issue by enclosing them in a micelle, which is a tiny sphere with polar (hydrophilic) ends facing the watery environment and hydrophobic tails turned to the interior, creating a receptive environment for the long-chain fatty acids. The triglycerides are mixed with phospholipids and cholesterol, and surrounded with a protein coat.
Since electrolytes dissociate into ions in water, most are absorbed via active transport throughout the entire small intestine. Once inside mucosal cells, ionic iron binds to the protein ferritin, creating iron-ferritin complexes that store iron until needed.
When blood levels of ionic calcium drop, parathyroid hormone (PTH) secreted by the parathyroid glands stimulates the release of calcium ions from bone matrices and increases the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys. Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are absorbed along with dietary lipids in micelles via simple diffusion. Chemical digestion breaks large food molecules down into their chemical building blocks, which can then be absorbed through the intestinal wall and into the general circulation. This is only a start to the process of digestion, as chewed pieces of food are still too large to be absorbed by the body. If you chew a piece of bread for long enough, the starch it contains is digested to sugar, and it begins to taste sweet. Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content. Metabolism is the sum of all of the chemical reactions that are involved in catabolism and anabolism.


If the net energy change is positive (catabolic reactions release more energy than the anabolic reactions use), then the body stores the excess energy by building fat molecules for long-term storage.
The chemical bond between the second and third phosphate groups, termed a high-energy bond, represents the greatest source of energy in a cell. They take the form of either complex carbohydrates, polysaccharides like starch and glycogen, or simple sugars (monosaccharides) like glucose and fructose. About one-half of excess fat is stored in adipocytes that accumulate in the subcutaneous tissue under the skin, whereas the rest is stored in adipocytes in other tissues and organs. Amino acids can be used as building blocks of new proteins or broken down further for the production of ATP. During digestion, nucleic acids including DNA and various RNAs are broken down into their constituent nucleotides. Anabolic reactions combine monosaccharides to form polysaccharides, fatty acids to form triglycerides, amino acids to form proteins, and nucleotides to form nucleic acids.
Metabolic diseases are most commonly the result of malfunctioning proteins or enzymes that are critical to one or more metabolic pathways. They also show slow growth, accumulation of fat between the shoulders, weak muscles, bone pain (because cortisol causes proteins to be broken down to make glucose via gluconeogenesis), and fatigue. Adrenal insufficiency, or Addison’s disease, is characterized by the reduced production of cortisol from the adrenal gland. The electrons in these reactions commonly come from hydrogen atoms, which consist of an electron and a proton. They also include the breakdown of ATP, which releases the energy needed for metabolic processes in all cells throughout the body. Chemical digestion, on the other hand, is a complex process that reduces food into its chemical building blocks, which are then absorbed to nourish the cells of the body ([link]).
At the same time, the cells of the brush border secrete enzymes such as aminopeptidase and dipeptidase, which further break down peptide chains.
Pancreatic lipase breaks down each triglyceride into two free fatty acids and a monoglyceride.
The nucleotides produced by this digestion are further broken down by two intestinal brush border enzymes (nucleosidase and phosphatase) into pentoses, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases, which can be absorbed through the alimentary canal wall.
Each day, the alimentary canal processes up to 10 liters of food, liquids, and GI secretions, yet less than one liter enters the large intestine. In this type of transport, proteins within the cell membrane act as “pumps,” using cellular energy (ATP) to move the substance.
Thus, substances can only enter blood capillaries by passing through the apical surfaces of epithelial cells and into the interstitial fluid. The absorption of most nutrients through the mucosa of the intestinal villi requires active transport fueled by ATP. All normally digested dietary carbohydrates are absorbed; indigestible fibers are eliminated in the feces.
Short-chain fatty acids are relatively water soluble and can enter the absorptive cells (enterocytes) directly. During absorption, co-transport mechanisms result in the accumulation of sodium ions inside the cells, whereas anti-port mechanisms reduce the potassium ion concentration inside the cells. When the body has enough iron, most of the stored iron is lost when worn-out epithelial cells slough off. PTH also upregulates the activation of vitamin D in the kidney, which then facilitates intestinal calcium ion absorption.
This is why you are advised to eat some fatty foods when you take fat-soluble vitamin supplements.
Intestinal brush border enzymes and pancreatic enzymes are responsible for the majority of chemical digestion. With the help of bile salts and lecithin, the dietary fats are emulsified to form micelles, which can carry the fat particles to the surface of the enterocytes.
Food has to be broken down chemically into really small particles before it can be absorbed.
Digestion of proteins in the stomach is helped by stomach acid, which is strong hydrochloric acid. The reactions governing the breakdown of food to obtain energy are called catabolic reactions. On the other hand, if the net energy change is negative (catabolic reactions release less energy than anabolic reactions use), the body uses stored energy to compensate for the deficiency of energy released by catabolism. When one is chronically starving, this use of amino acids for energy production can lead to a wasting away of the body, as more and more proteins are broken down.
These nucleotides are readily absorbed and transported throughout the body to be used by individual cells during nucleic acid metabolism.
These processes require energy in the form of ATP molecules generated by catabolic reactions. Other symptoms include excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis), capillary dilation, and thinning of the skin, which can lead to easy bruising. It can result from malfunction of the adrenal glands—they do not produce enough cortisol—or it can be a consequence of decreased ACTH availability from the pituitary. A molecule gives up a hydrogen atom, in the form of a hydrogen ion (H+) and an electron, breaking the molecule into smaller parts. The two most common coenzymes of oxidation-reduction reactions are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).
An organism must ingest a sufficient amount of food to maintain its metabolic rate if the organism is to stay alive for very long. Oxidation-reduction reactions transfer electrons across molecules by oxidizing one molecule and reducing another, and collecting the released energy to convert Pi and ADP into ATP.
In this section, you will look more closely at the processes of chemical digestion and absorption. Your bodies do not produce enzymes that can break down most fibrous polysaccharides, such as cellulose. The fatty acids include both short-chain (less than 10 to 12 carbons) and long-chain fatty acids. Almost all ingested food, 80 percent of electrolytes, and 90 percent of water are absorbed in the small intestine. Passive diffusion refers to the movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, while facilitated diffusion refers to the movement of substances from an area of higher to an area of lower concentration using a carrier protein in the cell membrane. Water-soluble nutrients enter the capillary blood in the villi and travel to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. The monosaccharides glucose and galactose are transported into the epithelial cells by common protein carriers via secondary active transport (that is, co-transport with sodium ions). Despite being hydrophobic, the small size of short-chain fatty acids enables them to be absorbed by enterocytes via simple diffusion, and then take the same path as monosaccharides and amino acids into the blood capillary of a villus.
Without micelles, lipids would sit on the surface of chyme and never come in contact with the absorptive surfaces of the epithelial cells. After being processed by the Golgi apparatus, chylomicrons are released from the cell ([link]).
To restore the sodium-potassium gradient across the cell membrane, a sodium-potassium pump requiring ATP pumps sodium out and potassium in.
When the body needs iron because, for example, it is lost during acute or chronic bleeding, there is increased uptake of iron from the intestine and accelerated release of iron into the bloodstream. Most water-soluble vitamins (including most B vitamins and vitamin C) also are absorbed by simple diffusion.
Water absorption is driven by the concentration gradient of the water: The concentration of water is higher in chyme than it is in epithelial cells.
Conversely, anabolic reactions use the energy produced by catabolic reactions to synthesize larger molecules from smaller ones, such as when the body forms proteins by stringing together amino acids. Approximately 40 percent of energy yielded from catabolic reactions is directly transferred to the high-energy molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).


The products of this reaction are a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a lone phosphate group (Pi). Among the monosaccharides, glucose is the most common fuel for ATP production in cells, and as such, there are a number of endocrine control mechanisms to regulate glucose concentration in the bloodstream.
Anabolic reactions, also called biosynthesis reactions, create new molecules that form new cells and tissues, and revitalize organs.
However, normally functioning proteins and enzymes can also have deleterious effects if their availability is not appropriately matched with metabolic need. Patients with Addison’s disease may have low blood pressure, paleness, extreme weakness, fatigue, slow or sluggish movements, lightheadedness, and salt cravings due to the loss of sodium and high blood potassium levels (hyperkalemia). The loss of an electron, or oxidation, releases a small amount of energy; both the electron and the energy are then passed to another molecule in the process of reduction, or the gaining of an electron. Their respective reduced coenzymes are NADH and FADH2, which are energy-containing molecules used to transfer energy during the creation of ATP.
Errors in metabolism alter the processing of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and can result in a number of disease states.
While indigestible polysaccharides do not provide any nutritional value, they do provide dietary fiber, which helps propel food through the alimentary canal. Although the entire small intestine is involved in the absorption of water and lipids, most absorption of carbohydrates and proteins occurs in the jejunum.
Co-transport uses the movement of one molecule through the membrane from higher to lower concentration to power the movement of another from lower to higher. The monosaccharides leave these cells via facilitated diffusion and enter the capillaries through intercellular clefts. Short chains of two amino acids (dipeptides) or three amino acids (tripeptides) are also transported actively.
Too big to pass through the basement membranes of blood capillaries, chylomicrons instead enter the large pores of lacteals. Since women experience significant iron loss during menstruation, they have around four times as many iron transport proteins in their intestinal epithelial cells as do men. The fats are then reassembled into triglycerides and mixed with other lipids and proteins into chylomicrons that can pass into lacteals. ATP, the energy currency of cells, can be used immediately to power molecular machines that support cell, tissue, and organ function. ATP, ADP, and Pi are constantly being cycled through reactions that build ATP and store energy, and reactions that break down ATP and release energy. Excess glucose is either stored as an energy reserve in the liver and skeletal muscles as the complex polymer glycogen, or it is converted into fat (triglyceride) in adipose cells (adipocytes). Anabolic hormones are required for the synthesis of molecules and include growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, insulin, testosterone, and estrogen. For example, excessive production of the hormone cortisol (see [link]) gives rise to Cushing syndrome. Depending on the cause of the excess, treatment may be as simple as discontinuing the use of cortisol ointments. Victims also may suffer from loss of appetite, chronic diarrhea, vomiting, mouth lesions, and patchy skin color.
These two reactions always happen together in an oxidation-reduction reaction (also called a redox reaction)—when an electron is passed between molecules, the donor is oxidized and the recipient is reduced. Finally, endocytosis is a transportation process in which the cell membrane engulfs material. The monosaccharide fructose (which is in fruit) is absorbed and transported by facilitated diffusion alone. However, after they enter the absorptive epithelial cells, they are broken down into their amino acids before leaving the cell and entering the capillary blood via diffusion.
Intrinsic factor secreted in the stomach binds to vitamin B12, preventing its digestion and creating a complex that binds to mucosal receptors in the terminal ileum, where it is taken up by endocytosis. Other absorbed monomers travel from blood capillaries in the villus to the hepatic portal vein and then to the liver. Clinically, Cushing syndrome is characterized by rapid weight gain, especially in the trunk and face region, depression, and anxiety.
Diagnosis typically involves blood tests and imaging tests of the adrenal and pituitary glands.
Oxidation-reduction reactions often happen in a series, so that a molecule that is reduced is subsequently oxidized, passing on not only the electron it just received but also the energy it received. By the time chyme passes from the ileum into the large intestine, it is essentially indigestible food residue (mainly plant fibers like cellulose), some water, and millions of bacteria ([link]). The monosaccharides combine with the transport proteins immediately after the disaccharides are broken down.
The chylomicrons are transported in the lymphatic vessels and empty through the thoracic duct into the subclavian vein of the circulatory system. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Starches are acted on by the enzyme ptyalin (alpha-amylase) secreted in saliva, by hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach, and by pancreatic amylase and intestinal amylase in the small intestine, which split the starches into maltose and isomaltose. It is worth mentioning that tumors of the pituitary that produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which subsequently stimulates the adrenal cortex to release excessive cortisol, produce similar effects.
Where surgery is inappropriate, radiation therapy can be used to reduce the size of a tumor or ablate portions of the adrenal cortex. As the series of reactions progresses, energy accumulates that is used to combine Pi and ADP to form ATP, the high-energy molecule that the body uses for fuel. Once in the bloodstream, the enzyme lipoprotein lipase breaks down the triglycerides of the chylomicrons into free fatty acids and glycerol. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. These, in turn, are acted on by maltase and isomaltase and split into two molecules of glucose. The remaining 60 percent of the energy released from catabolic reactions is given off as heat, which tissues and body fluids absorb. These breakdown products then pass through capillary walls to be used for energy by cells or stored in adipose tissue as fat. Lactose is split by the enzyme lactase into a molecule of galactose and a molecule of glucose.
Liver cells combine the remaining chylomicron remnants with proteins, forming lipoproteins that transport cholesterol in the blood. The monosaccharides glucose, galactose, and fructose are absorbed from the small intestine into the blood. The emulsified fats are acted upon by pancreatic and enteric lipase to form fatty acids, glycerol, and monoglycerides, which are absorbed through the intestinal walls.
Proteins: acted on chiefly in the stomach by pepsin, which splits proteins into proteoses, peptones, and polypeptides. In the small intestine they are acted on by the pancreatic enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase to form polypeptides and amino acids. In the small intestine the peptidases complete the breakdown of the peptides into dipeptides and amino acids. Almost all proteins are eventually digested and absorbed either as amino acids or as dipeptides or tripeptides.See illustration. Digestion is accomplished by physically breaking down, churning, diluting, and dissolving the food substances, and also by splitting them chemically into simpler compounds. Cellulose is readily digested with the output of short-chain fatty acids being the chief energy source for the animal.



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