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Biodiesel Production Processing Flow Chart - Biodiesel Solutions – Biodiesel Machinery Equipment Projects.
Before we go into the details of producing small amounts of Biodiesel at home we must first stress the importance of safety. If you are using waste oil (WVO), take one litre and heat to at least 120 deg c to remove all water. If you are using new vegetable oil it should not contain any water so just heat to 55deg c when you are ready. When the Oil’s temperature has dropped to 60 deg c or less, using your funnel, pour the litre of oil into you dry plastic container.
Remove top and using your thumb as a stopper, turn bottle upsidedown and drain the water using your thumb as a valve.
Again pour in another 500ml water and GENTLY GENTLY GENTLY shake bottle for a minute or so. Your washed biodiesel will be VERY CLOUDY and much lighter in colour than the unwashed biodiesel a. You must remove all that water from your biodiesel before using it in a diesel engine or risk damaging the engine. In this method the water settles to the bottom of the tank or container over time and can be sucked out using a small pump or syphon. Over time the water will evaporate out of the biodiesel however if let in a muggy or wet environment this may not be suitable. Novozymes has been the enzyme supplier and partner, and the accomplishment of full-scale production is the result of lengthy, dedicated research and development work. In 2008, the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation supported a large research effort involving universities and a biodiesel producer. The final enzymatic biodiesel process consists of an enzyme reaction step followed by polishing as shown in Figure 1. The operating principle of the enzyme reactor is the creation of an emulsion with a small amount of water (1 to 2 percent), as the enzyme works specifically at the interface between oil and water. Figure 1 shows the reactor in connection with centrifuges to separate the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and glycerin after the reaction. Use of the liquid lipases was a breakthrough, as they are much cheaper to produce and provide technological as well as cost benefits.
By using the lipase Novozymes Callera Trans, it is possible to produce biodiesel from a large variety of oil qualities. The FAME phase from the enzyme reaction typically consists of a composition with bound glycerin less than 0.22 percent and FFA 2 percent. The polishing step is required mainly owing to the FFA content which has to be reduced to less than 0.25 percent according to ASTM specification. Distillation of the final product is an option to secure against any carryover from low -quality oils, for example, to ensure that waxes or metal ions are not found in the final biodiesel. Novozymes is currently finalizing the development work of the enzymatic biodiesel application and is ready to officially launch the concept later this year. European Bioenergy Research Institute, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK. First published on the web 24th June 2014Concern over the economics of accessing fossil fuel reserves, and widespread acceptance of the anthropogenic origin of rising CO2 emissions and associated climate change from combusting such carbon sources, is driving academic and commercial research into new routes to sustainable fuels to meet the demands of a rapidly rising global population. Adam Lee is Professor of Sustainable Chemistry and an EPSRC Leadership Fellow in the European Bioenergy Research Institute, Aston University.
Dr James Andrew Bennett obtained his Master and PhD at the University of Leicester, where he investigated the use of perfluoroalkyl moieties to allow heterogenisation of homogeneous catalysts over zirconium phosphonate supports. Dr Jinesh Manayil obtained his MSc in Chemistry from Mahatma Gandhi University in 2004, prior to a MTech in Industrial Catalysis from Cochin University of Science and Technology in 2007. Karen Wilson is Professor of Catalysis and Research Director of the European Bioenergy Research Institute at Aston University, where she holds a Royal Society Industry Fellowship. Sustainability, in essence the development of methodologies to meet the needs of the present without compromising those of future generations, has become a watchword for modern society, with developed and developing nations and multinational corporations promoting international research programmes into sustainable food, energy, materials, and even city planning. Scheme 1 Current and future roles for heterogeneous catalysis in the production of sustainable chemicals and fuels.
Scheme 2 Biorefinery routes for the co-production of chemicals and transportation fuels from biomass. Scheme 3 Biodiesel production cycle from renewable bio-oils via catalytic transesterification and esterification.
The feedstock sources employed for biodiesel synthesis have remained little changed since the first engine tests with vegetable oils in the late 1800s,43 and are normally classified as either first or second generation,44,45 the latter oft referred to as a source of ‘advanced biofuels’.
Interest in biodiesel production soared following the global oil crisis of the 1970s, resulting in the United States, European Union, Brazil, China, India, and South Africa convening a UN International Biodiesel Forum for biodiesel development. The choice of oil feedstock in turn influences the biodiesel composition and hence fuel properties,43,68 notably acid value, oxidation stability, cloud point, cetane number and cold filter plugging point. Table 1 Common feedstocks for biodiesel production, free fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties.
Oxidation stability also depends upon the degree of unsaturation of fatty acid chains within the oil feedstock, since double bonds are prone to oxidation. Base catalysts are generally more active than acids in transesterification, and hence are particularly suitable for high purity oils with low FFA content.
Basicity in alkaline earth oxides is believed to arise from M2+–O2? ion pairs present in different coordination environments.77 The strongest base sites occur at low coordination defect, corner and edge sites, or on high Miller index surfaces. Alkali-doped CaO and MgO have also been investigated for TAG transesterification,84–86 with their enhanced basicity attributed to the genesis of O? centres following the replacement of M+ for M2+ and associated charge imbalance and concomitant defect generation. Alkaline earth metal oxides may be incorporated into metal oxides to form composite oxides93 which are also suitable as solid base catalysts for biodiesel production. Alkaline earth oxides may be used to support acidic or amphoteric materials to form materials with mixed acid–base character. Sodium silicate, Na2SiO3, is also active for biodiesel production from rapeseed and jatropha oils under both conventional98 and microwave assisted conditions,99 with a 98% FAME yield after one hour reaction under mild conditions. Despite its importance in the context of second generation biofuels, waste biomass has been less extensively investigated in catalyst preparation. Solid bases usually afford higher rates of transesterification than solid acids, hence a range of transition metal oxides of varying Lewis base character have been explored in biodiesel production. Porosity was introduced to a titania-based catalyst through the construction of sodium titanate nanotubes as solid base catalysts for soybean oil transesterification with methanol.115 The catalyst exhibited a range of active sites of varying basicity, however the high sodium content (10 wt%) is a cause for concern due to the high probability of leaching in situ and associated homogeneous chemistry.
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RBF produces ASTM D6751 biodiesel and EN 14214 biodiesel and is proud to be a BQ-9000 accredited producer. In the fundamental biodiesel production process, vegetable based oils and animal fats are converted into biodiesel using a process called transesterification. The pretreated oils and fats are then mixed with an alcohol (methanol or ethanol) and a strong alkali catalyst (sodium or potassium hydroxide).
Biofuels are considered to be the best way to reduce green house gas emissions and alternate to the pollutant fossil fuels. According to my point of view biodiesel and bio ethanol from rapeseed and corn is not only adding to global warming but economically it cannot be sustainable because its one of the main sources of edible oil. The chemicals used in the process of making Biodiesel are dangerous and if used without taking the correct measures to protect yourself can cause serious injury or even death.


Please do not violently shake your unwashed Biodiesel as it will form an emulsion that may take days or evn weeks to fully seperate. Be aware that in your later washes you should be able to shake mre violently although it will take considerably longer to seperate because the water forms tiny bubles in the biodiesel that take time to settle out. The new lipase technology enables the processing of oil feedstocks with any concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) and with lower energy costs than with a standard chemical catalyst. The first trials using liquid formulated lipases instead of immobilized ones took place at Novozymes’ laboratories in 2006 and resulted in the first patent filings. Alternatively, gravity settling in the reactor can be used, but it requires a relatively long time to produce clear glycerin.
The ability to produce biodiesel from feedstock regardless of its free fatty acid (FFA) content ultimately makes the process a more cost-efficient way to produce biodiesel.
The reaction time of 20 to 24 hours is dependent on a certain concentration of enzyme, for example, 0.7 percent of the oil.
Together with our partners who are using the lipase Callera Trans in full-scale production, we have shown that biodiesel can be produced from oils having different low qualities independent of FFA content and having a low cost for methanol recovery.
Here we discuss catalytic esterification and transesterification solutions to the clean synthesis of biodiesel, the most readily implemented and low cost, alternative source of transportation fuels to meet future societal demands. He then worked at the University of Birmingham, researching biogenic heterogeneous catalysts composed of transition metal nanoparticles supported on bacterial biomass, using waste sources of metals and biomass to produce "green" catalyst materials. He subsequently undertook postgraduate research in catalytic and ion-exchange applications of layered double hydroxides, receiving his PhD in 2012 from the Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (CSIR-CSMCRI), India under the supervision of Dr Kannan Srinivasan. Her research interests lie in the design of heterogeneous catalysts for clean chemical synthesis, particularly the design of tunable porous materials for sustainable biofuels and chemicals production from renewable resources.
In the context of energy, despite significant growth in proven and predicted fossil fuel reserves over the next two decades, notably heavy crude oil, tar sands, deepwater wells, and shale oil and gas, there are great uncertainties in the economics of their exploitation via current extraction methodologies, and crucially, an increasing proportion of such carbon resources (estimates vary between 65–80%1–3) cannot be burned without breaching the UNFCC targets for a 2 °C increase in mean global temperature relative to the pre-industrial level.4,5 There is clearly a tightrope to walk between meeting rising energy demands, predicted to climb 50% globally by 20406 and the requirement to mitigate current CO2 emissions and hence climate change. C4) alcohols is also possible,28 and advantageous in respect of producing a less polar and corrosive FAME29 with reduced cloud and pour points,30 the current high cost of longer chain alcohols, and difficulties associated with separating the heavier FAME product from unreacted alcohol and glycerol, remain problematic. First generation biodiesel is derived from edible vegetable oils such as soya, palm,46 oil seed rape47 and sunflower,48 however the attendant poor yields (typically 3000–5000 L hectare?1 year?1) and socio-political concern over the diversion of such food crops for fuels has led to their fall from favour within Europe and North America. Today, the United States, European Union and Brazil, alongside Malaysia, remain leading forces in the biodiesel market. Biodiesel produced from feedstocks containing linoleic (C18, two CC double bonds) and linolenic acid (C18, three CC double bonds), with one or two bis-allylic positions, are highly susceptible to oxidation. Biodiesel synthesis using a solid base catalyst in continuous flow, packed bed arrangement would facilitate both catalyst separation and co-production of high purity glycerol, thereby reducing production costs and enabling catalyst re-use.
In the case of Li-doped CaO, the electronic structure of surface lithium ions (as probed by XPS) evolves discontinuously as a function of concentration and phase. For example, Parvulescu and Richards demonstrated the impact of the different MgO crystal facets upon the transesterification of sunflower oil by comparing nanoparticles88versus (111) terminated nanosheets.89 Chemical titration revealed that both morphologies possess two types of base sites, with the nanosheets exhibiting well-defined, medium-strong basicity consistent with their uniform exposed facets and which confer higher FAME yields during sunflower oil transesterification (albeit scale-up of the nanosheet catalyst synthesis may be costly and non-trivial).
1 Relationship between surface polarisability of MgO nanocrystals and their turnover frequency towards tributyrin transesterifcation.
The activity of such composites is similar to that of the parent alkaline earth (typically CaO), but they exhibit greater stability and are less prone to dissolution, facilitating separation from the reaction media. 3 Demonstration of the structural stability and catalytic activity of sodium silicate as a solid base for biodiesel production. Kraft lignin is a low cost, renewable by-product of the Kraft wood pulping process, and possesses high carbon and low ash content and is therefore a popular precursor for activated carbons. Most such studies have focused on the synthesis of carbonaceous solid acid catalysts2,106–109 as discussed later. MnO and TiO are mild bases with good activity for biodiesel production,111 and have been applied for the simultaneous transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of FFAs under continuous flow conditions using low grade feedstocks with high fatty acid contents (up to 15%).
The pore distribution was bimodal, consisting of 3 nm wide tubular mesopores and ?40 nm voids between the aggregated nanotubes.
Vegetable oils and animal fats are primarily composed of triglycerides  , which are a combination of fatty acid esters and glycerin. Its production is low cost and high yield, almost 30 times more energy production per acre as compared to the land required by other conventional feedstock to produce biofuels. But recently, according to Nobel Laureate Paul Cortzen findings, some of the most commonly used biofuels Bioethanol from corn and bio diesel from rapeseed releases Nitrous Oxide (N2O) is contributing much more to the global warming than the fossil fuels are contributing right now. Please, please be careful and make sure you are in a well ventilated area with access to running clean water. For this reason, the safety of the design of equipment and workspace should be carefully considered before use, and protective clothing and a respirator should be worn during handling. The objectives of both projects were to find a lipase with a selling price low enough to compete in the chemical biodiesel market and to demonstrate the enzymatic biodiesel process in pilot or production scale. One crucial specification for the oil feedstock was discovered; it must not contain acidity from mineral acids added upstream.
The caustic wash is based on the refining concept that eliminates FFA by a NaOH wash of virgin oil.
Resin technology is used today to eliminate FFA from oil as a pretreatment to biodiesel production with Na-methoxide catalyst.
The sulfuric acid esterification is well established as a pretreatment for high-FFA feedstocks, for example, animal fat. The process has been installed at two full-scale plants, one as a retrofitted process to a traditional plant and the other as a greenfield plant.
Nielsen, Exploring a new, soluble lipase for FAMEs production in water-containing systems using crude soybean oil as a feedstock, Process Biochem. Norddahl, A review of the current state of biodiesel production using enzymatic transesterification, Biotechnol. His research addresses the rational design of nanoengineered materials for clean catalytic technologies, with particular focus on sustainable chemical processes and energy production, and the development of in situ methods to provide molecular insight into surface reactions, for which he was awarded the 2012 Beilby Medal and Prize by the Royal Society of Chemistry. He is currently working with Professors Karen Wilson and Adam Lee at the European Bioenergy Research Institute at Aston University, developing environmentally sustainable catalysts derived from industrial waste for pyrolysis oil upgrading.
He is currently a Research Associate with Professors Karen Wilson and Adam Lee at the European Bioenergy Research Institute at Aston University, where he is developing solid acid-base catalysts for biomass mass conversion. She was educated at the Universities of Cambridge and Liverpool, and following postdoctoral research at Cambridge and the University of York, was appointed a Lecturer and subsequently Senior Lecturer at York, prior to appointment as a Reader in Physical Chemistry at Cardiff University.
Alternative non-food crops such as switchgrass or Jatropha curcas,19 which require minimal cultivation and do not compete with traditional arable land or drive deforestation, are other potential candidate biofuel feedstocks. Unfortunately, homogeneous acid and base catalysts can corrode reactors and engine manifolds, and their removal from the resulting biofuel is particularly problematic and energy intensive, requiring aqueous quench and neutralisation steps which result in the formation of stable emulsions and soaps.12,31,32 Such homogeneous approaches also yield the glycerine by-product, of significant potential value to the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, in a dilute aqueous phase contaminated by inorganic salts. Second generation biodiesel is normally considered to be that obtained from non-edible oils such as castor,49 Jatropha50 and neem,51 microalgae,44,52 animal fats (e.g. Table 1 illustrates their distribution and associated physicochemical properties for some common feedstocks. The relative rates of oxidation for linoleates and linolenates are respectively 41 and 98 times higher than that of the monounsaturated oleate.71 The viscosity of biodiesel also increases with chain length and saturation of fatty acids within the feedstock,72 influencing the fuel lubricity and flow properties. Calcination temperature strongly influences the resulting catalytic activity towards transesterification. Calcination above 350 °C was required to initiate decomposition of the Ca precursor, with temperatures >650 °C driving complete conversion to Ca oxides. Soap formation, caused by leaching of metal from the catalyst surface under high FFA concentrations, was an order of magnitude less than that observed with conventional homogeneous base catalysts.
Glycerin (used in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, among other markets) is produced as a co-product.


At present researches are being conducted by Alga culture (farming Algae) to produce different fuels to harvest for making vegetable oil, biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethanol, biobutanol and other biofuels and it seems if the methodology is sustainable than other available biofuels then using algae to produce biodiesel would be the only viable method to replace the need of gasoline used for automotive today.
Processing of biofuel form algae has been tested that it captures large amounts of CO2 and N2O available in the atmosphere( 40% in a course of full day and 80% in sunny days) and an acre of algae can produce enough oil to make 5,000 gallons of biodiesel in a year. A recent study conducted by Center for Agricultural and Rural Development at Iowa State University reveled that considering the high-price crude oil scenario, U.S. Neutralization of such acids can be ensured by, for instance, 50 ppm NaOH added as a 10 percent solution. During additional batches the water from the reused heavy phase and the wet methanol is normally sufficient. A low FFA content after the reaction can be achieved by controlling the water and methanol contents, taking the water formed by the FFA esterification also into consideration.
The residual FFA content in the FAME phase is relatively low and the formation of soap is limited.
There are limitations to the level of FFA that can be esterified, and the equipment has to be glass lined to prevent excessive corrosion. Aside from the FFA esterification, it also ensures the transesterification of the remaining glycerides.
This is the first step into the biodiesel industry, but future perspectives for enzymatic processes are already foreseen, such as combined degumming and transesterification and sterylglycoside acylation. The utility of solid base and acid catalysts for biodiesel production has been widely reported,15,25,33–41 wherein they offer improved process efficiency by eliminating the need for quenching steps, allowing continuous operation,42 and enhancing the purity of the glycerol by-product.
The primary cost of biodiesel lies in the raw material, and since the market is dominated by food grade oils,59 which are significantly more expensive than petroleum-derived diesel, economic viability remains to be proven.
Low viscosity biodiesel can be obtained from low molecular weight triglycerides, however such biodiesel cannot be used directly as a fuel due to its poor cold temperature flow properties. A direct correlation was therefore observed between the surface electronic structure and associated catalytic activity, revealing a pronounced structural preference for (110) and (111) facets (Fig. Optimal performance was obtained for high calcination temperatures, which maximised the CaO content. The superior stability of the Li4SiO4 catalyst was further demonstrated by its water and carbon dioxide tolerance, both of which poison conventional alkaline earth catalysts. Higher powers heated the reaction mixture (to ?175 C for 400 W) in turn boosting FAME yields from both oils to ?90%, highlighting the use of microwave heating to accelerate biodiesel production. Unfortunately, this study did not characterise the Mn or Ti oxidation state in either fresh or spent materials to confirm the nature of any catalytic centre.
However, a large excess of methanol to oil was required (40:1 molar ratio), and while this material could be re-used several times, it was less active than that of CaO and MgO lacking such a nanoporous architecture. If free fatty acids are present, they are removed or transformed into biodiesel using special pretreatment  technologies.
You will need to ensure all the NaOH is disolved in the Methanol, this could take over ten minutes. Experience can ensure that the overall enzyme activity loss is limited to less than 15 percent per batch. The glycerin phase after separation is very different from the glycerin obtained from an alkaline-catalyzed process, as it is almost free from salt. As the BioFAME reaction delivers FFA at a typical 2 percent, the sulfuric acid process might be able to reach in-specification FFA levels in one step. Technical advances in catalyst and reactor design remain essential to utilise non-food based feedstocks, and thereby ensure that biodiesel remains a key player in the renewable energy sector for the 21st century.
Use of the surplus from edible oil production may assist countries to meet the demands for biodiesel production without negatively impacting upon food requirements.60 Feedstock selection is a strong function of local availability. While oil conversions fell noticeably with repeated re-use, there was no evidence of alkaline earth dissolution, and the resulting biodiesel fuel met ASTM and EN standards.
Recycle studies again showed slow in situ deactivation due to particle agglomeration, water adsorption of water, and associated loss of basicity due to sodium leaching into methanol during both transesterification and washing procedures between recycles.
In this review, we highlight the contributions of tailored solid acid and base catalysts to catalytic biodiesel synthesis via TAG transesterification to FAMEs and free fatty acid (FFA) esterification. Soybean oil, which is widely used in the United States and South America, is the third largest feedstock for biodiesel after rapeseed oil in Europe and palm oil in Asian countries, such as Malaysia and Indonesia, which also use sunflower and coconut oil, with Jatropha curcas oil widespread across South East Asia.61 Soybean and rapeseed oils account for about 85% of global biodiesel production,62 with 75% of total biodiesel produced in Europe. Esters of palmitic and stearic acid possess CNs higher than 80, while that of oleate is 55–58, with CN generally decreasing with increasing unsaturation (e.g. The lubricity of biodiesel increases with chain length, and the presence of double bonds and alcohol groups. Synergy between these two phases greatly improved the transesterification activity, however calcination at temperatures significantly above 600 °C induced crystallite sintering and concomitant loss of surface area and activity. Despite some recent successes in the scale-up of microwave-assisted (homogeneously catalysed) biodiesel production (see Section 6),28,100 it remains unlikely that such heating solutions can deliver the high throughput demanded for commercial processes. Taking in review the sustainability and economic factor biofuel from Alga culture seems to be most promising fuel for future. Competition for land to produce biodiesel feedstocks is problematic, hence maximising the yield of oil from a given feedstock is critical.
CN = 40 for linoleic and 25 for linolenic acid), falling to 48-5 for soybean- and 52–55 for rapeseed-derived biodiesel.69 Fatty acid chain composition also influences NOx emissions, with biodiesel containing esters of saturated fatty acids emitting less NOx than petroleum diesel, and emissions increasing with the degree of unsaturation but decreasing with fatty acid chain length.
Unfortunately the catalyst synthesis employed sodium precursors, hence alkali contamination of these catalysts cannot be discounted, and which in any event were employed at high loadings (6 wt%) and without recycle tests. The CuO could also undergo chemical reduction during transesterification to form an active catalyst for the selective hydrogenation of polyunsaturated hydrocarbons for further biodiesel upgrading. However, the transesterification activity remained dependent upon the Ca content, decreasing at lower CaO loadings.112 Sodium zirconate, a potential CO2 adsorbent,84,114 has shown promise in biodiesel production,113 with 98% conversion of soybean oil to FAME after 3 h at 65 °C. Edible soybean seed consists of 20% oil versus rapeseed at 40%, whereas non-edible Jatropha and Karanja seeds contain around 40% and 33% oil respectively.60 Adoption of soybean (as in the US) as a global biodiesel feedstock would be problematic, not only due to competition for its use as a food crop, but also the high quantities of waste, associated with its low oil yield, although this could be mitigated by the introduction of the oil seed cake as a major animal feed. The high lubricity of biodiesel can be utilised through blending with conventional, low-sulfur diesel to improve overall fuel lubricity.73 Cold point (CP) and pour point (PP) determine the flow properties of biodiesel, and also depend on the fatty acid composition of the feedstock. It should be noted that the catalyst loadings employed in this study of 4–12 wt% would likely prove prohibitive in any commercial process, and that small but significant (29 ppm) quantities of leached Ca may have contributed to the observed performance.
Deactivation observed upon repeated decanting and recycling was attributed to surface poisoning, with methanol washing between cycles facilitating 84% conversion after five recycles. CP is the temperature at which a fuel begins to solidify, and PP is the temperature at which the fuel can no longer flow.
This catalyst was recycled five times with only a 6% drop in conversion, but the filtered catalyst required regenerative washing with a methanol–n-hexane mixture and re-calcination to avoid a significant drop in FAME yield to 47% after the fifth recycle. The high oil content of different microalgae favours their commercialisation as a promising feedstock: one acre of microalgae can produce 5000 gallons of biodiesel annually compared to only 70 gallons from an equivalent area of soybean,52 and algae can flourish on land unusable for plant cultivation and without fresh water.
These values are very high in comparison to conventional diesel, rendering biodiesel ill-suited for cold countries.70 Other common feedstocks, such as palm oil, jatropha oil, animal fat and waste cooking oil have even higher CP values of around 15 °C. In contrast, biodiesel derived from cuphea oil enriched with saturated, medium-chain C8–C14 fatty acids exhibits improved properties including a lower CP of ?9 to ?10 °C,74 comparable to conventional diesel.
Covalent linking of the tetraalkylammonium hydroxide to the silica surface prevented in situ leaching, resulting in only a 1% fall in FAME yield after five recycles and appears a promising methodology for biodiesel production at mild-moderate temperatures under which the covalently linked propyl backbone is thermally stable. Optimal conversions were obtained for catalysts calcined at 600 °C, possibly due to tartrate decomposition at higher temperatures, although this catalyst was recyclable via filtration and re-calcination.



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Comments to “Biodiesel production europe 2015”

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