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Biodiesel from vegetable oils or animal fats is becoming an important renewable alternative to diesel fuel. The most common way to produce biodiesel is by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, which contain triglycerides. The choice of technology for the separation of glycerol and water from the biodiesel is crucial for the success of the process.
Traditionally, gravitational and centrifugal technology has been widely used for separation of glycerol from biodiesel after the reaction and separation of wash water, after the washing step. Advantages of centrifuges include providing an efficient separation in short residence times in batch or continuous operation. Advantages of coalescers include low capital and operational costs, minimal maintenance and low energy consumption. The diagram shows a relative comparison summary of the separation technologies discussed for use in biodiesel separation applications. In all cases the coalescer was able to remove additional glycerol or water when placed in parallel or after the existing centrifuge. The results show that the PhaseSep AS coalescing system can provide a much higher efficiency of separation than the centrifuge when used in place of the centrifuge or used as a polisher step after the centrifuge.
The importance of liquid-liquid separations to the success of the biodiesel process is widely known. Daimler’s Thomas Built Buses is celebrating the sale – and start of deliveries – of 110 of its new Saf-T-Liner C2 CNG school buses to the North Kansas City School District. The North Kansas City School District is taking 110 of Thomas Built’s Saf-T-Liner C2 buses, as well as 14 Type A Minotour vehicles (right), also CNG-fueled. The Missouri organization is the largest launch customer for the vehicle (F&F, June 3), which is the first OEM-built, CNG-fueled Type C school bus on the market. In addition to the new Type C buses, North Kansas City purchased 14 Thomas Built Minotour Type A buses, also CNG-fueled. According to Thomas Built, North Kansas City is the nation’s largest school district to convert its buses to CNG. The Saf-T-Liner C2 CNG is powered by the Cummins Westport ISB6.7G engine with Allison 2000 series transmission. Thomas Built says that the North Kansas City district worked closely with Midwest Bus Sales GM Scott Kincaid on the latest bus buy. The overall purchase of the CNG buses, including the capital costs for the vehicles themselves, infrastructure and shop improvements, is being financed through Daimler Truck Financial.
Posted in CNG, Fleet Order, milestones, NGVs, school buses and tagged Cummins Westport ISB6.7 G, North Kansas City School District, Thomas Built Buses, Thomas Built Minotour, Thomas Built Saf-T-Liner C2 CNG.
This weekend, Scotland generated more than 100% of its electrical  needs from wind turbines.
If only the US Congress was invested in promoting such forward looking policies instead of slavishly parroting the messages they are paid to say by their fossil fuel industry paymasters. Gas 2 is a Technorati Top 10 blog, and part of the Important Media network of blogs working to make the world a better, greener place.
If you know the designs of Citroen, you also know how they create stunning cars that stand out of the crowd. This new C5 Airscape model is no exception to that rule as you might see from the pictures below. The Airscape is a new Concept car from Citroen, but it is a car that really holds up to its expectation, just look at thos great lines of the body work.
Looking at some pictures you can also see that the car was build for High Performance and the specs alto tell you that it is enviroment frendly.
Black would have made it a better design for me, than agian, design is an art and a personal view..
Read more:Maserati QuattroporteThe Maserati Quattroporte is one off my all time favorites from the Italian Super car builder. Our glycerine is distilled from Soy products and is a minimum specification of 99.7% purity. There is no difference between the two types of glycerine if they are pure and do not container any of the original feedstock. Blue Bird is talking up its “Vision Gen 4 Propane” as the latest version of its popular Type C school bus.

Posted in Propane, propane autogas, school buses and tagged Blue Bird Gen 4 Vision Propane, Roush CleanTech. The triglycerides are converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), or biodiesel and glycerol in the presence of methanol and a basic catalyst. Inefficient separation of the glycerol can cause the biodiesel to be off-spec, increasing the production costs and delaying the production time. This choice is determined by considering factors such as quality needed, flow rate, solid contamination and economics. High viscosities, low difference in densities and high temperatures can also adversely affect the ease of separation. As the inner axis of a centrifuge spins, the denser materials will move towards the outside, leaving the less dense materials closer to the center.
Also, they can separate fluids with moderately high viscosities and can handle a moderately high solid loading. Typical applications include oil from water, water from hydrogen peroxide working solutions, oil from ammonia, etc. When the coalescer was placed after the existing centrifuge separating glycerol from biodiesel, the coalescer was able to remove an additional 1,757 parts per million (ppm) of glycerol. Highly efficient separation of glycerol and wash water will decrease the inputs to the downstream purification steps which directly improves the production time and economics. Highly efficient separations upstream will lead to a more economical purification downstream. The district expects to see a reduction of more than 5,000 metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions with this conversion, and an increase of fuel economy from 5.6 mpg with its diesel buses to 8 mpg with the new CNG engines. Over the weekend, Scotland experienced a spate of severe weather that caused travel disruptions, with bridges closed and ferries and trains canceled.
It would be the time to start increasing the tax on gasoline and diesel each year until it is no longer used. But the market is very strong for the petro cars and trucks and the electric car market is not very large yet.
Opinions and comments published on this site may not be sanctioned by, and do not necessarily represent the views of Sustainable Enterprises Media, Inc., its owners, sponsors, affiliates, or subsidiaries. The 0.3% remainder is usually water as glycerine readily absorbs moisture from the air and is difficult to completely remove during the distillation process. Glycerine has a chemical formula of C3H8O3 and regardless of where it comes from, it is exactly the same in every way. The vehicle has a Roush CleanTech fuel system, with a new “EconoShift” engine calibration for maximum fuel efficiency.
After the reaction is complete, the major process steps that follow consist of separating the biodiesel from glycerol and unused reactants such as methanol and catalyst, and any solids that may have formed. Too much glycerol in the final product has been known to cause injector coking, filter plugging, and sediment formation, and shorten the biodiesel shelf life.iv Once the glycerol is separated, a water wash is typically used to remove any remaining water-soluble components such as residual methanol, glycerol and soaps.
The initial capital, operating, waste disposal and maintenance costs must all be considered. Limitations of the centrifuge include high capital and operational costs as they are energy-intensive. Solids can increase the stability of an emulsion and can plug the coalescer, reducing its efficiency. In the cases where the coalescer was placed in parallel to the wash water centrifuge, the coalescer was able to remove 230 and 1,100 ppm of additional water.
With specific inputs of energy and maintenance costs, the calculator provides return on investment and payback for new and retrofit opportunities, looks at both the glycerol and water from biodiesel applications, and creates a range of savings and payback period based on estimated reduction in energy and operational costs. Centrifugal technology is typically used for liquid-liquid separations in the biodiesel process. Congratulations to Scotland for showing the rest of the world that renewable energy is the way of the future. Today, I use my trusty Miata for TSD rallies and occasional track days at Lime Rock and Watkins Glen. This product is used in a wide range of applications such as soaps, food, pharmaceutical, personal care, science, antifreeze, chemical processing and fuel. There is no residue of the original feedstock in the glycerine for those who are concerned about possible allergens.

The only difference between the two is that traditionally glycerine comes from animal fats and vegetable glycerine comes from plants.
Two of these major unit operations involve liquid-liquid separations, highlighting the importance of efficient phase separation throughout the process. The wash water must then be efficiently removed before the biodiesel is further dried to meet the required specifications. The clarified liquid moves up the disks through small holes present around the circumference of each disk.
In addition, the maintenance costs and number of incidents are higher than with static separators due to the moving parts. Limitations of coalescers are in separating fluids with a very high viscosity and a high solids loading. In the cases where the coalescer was placed after the wash water centrifuge, it was able to remove a range of 500 to 5,550 ppm of additional water.
However, it was shown that PhaseSep AS coalescers provide a robust, low-cost, low-energy consuming and more efficient option. The cost of wind power is now equivalent to the cost of making electricity from natural gas. The chemical is exactly the same regardless of what it is derived from, which is why we use the word Glycerine and Vegetable Glycerine interchangably on our labeling and descriptions.
Another limitation is the narrow range for optimum performance with variable conditions; therefore, a much more extensive design and optimization program is required than with the static separators.
Then the droplets to be separated from the bulk fluid are captured by the coalescer medium. In addition, the separation was improved by the coalescer regardless of feedstock used, which demonstrates the robustness of the technology.
Still, an entire nation meeting all its power needs from renewable sources is news, whatever the weather. Our glycerine is derived from Soy and so it is considered vegetable glycerine, or glycerine of vegetables. To correctly design and optimize a disk centrifuge, several factors are considered.vii These include, but are not limited to, number of disks and disk angle, feed acceleration, positioning of the interface and solid discharge method.
The captured droplets move through the coalescer media (with progressively larger pores), are coalesced to form larger droplets and are released.
Increasing the operating temperature to reduce viscosity can help in overcoming this limitation.
In addition, sealing materials, especially the dynamic sealing materials, must be carefully chosen to be chemically and thermally resistant.
Last, the phases can be easily separated in a separator (vertical units) or by gravity in the settling zone (horizontal units). The prefilter used to protect the coalescer from solid contaminants provides only a polishing filtration step, therefore, bulk solids should be separated upstream of the coalescer unit. Electricity that generates no carbon emissions or electricity that costs the same but spews billions of tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere? El polvo de la hojas de moringa ayuda a curar ulceras de la piel: una cucharadita de polvo de hoja de moringa previene enfermedades e infecciones y estimula el desarrollo intelectual. Las semillas de moringa pueden utilizarse para purificar el agua en las zonas rurales, donde es dificil encontrar reservas potable: son eficaces en la reduccion del 98% de las impurezas y los microbios del agua contaminada. A prefilter cartridge is placed upstream of the coalescer to remove the solid contaminants.
No es invasivo, necesita poca agua y crece rapidamente, llegando a tres metros de alto en un ano. Puede sobrevivir en condiciones relativamente desfavorables y no requiere metodos agricolas sofisticados o caros.

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