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The flow diagram below shows the connections between the equipment and how it is tied to the IWESS system. Biorefineries are integrated processing factories that use biomass to produce multiple products such as fuels and chemicals.
Basic characterization includes the measurement of particle size distribution, proximate (including moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon) and ultimate analyses (C, H, N, S, O), chemical composition (elemental analysis), cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, extractives, and higher heating value. Thermal characterizations of biomass include thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimeter.
In our work with microalgae, we have capability to measure chlorophyll content using spectroscopy, and lipid content using gravimetric analysis (ANKOM method). A significant focus of our efforts is the detailed characterization of intermediates and products of conversion processes used in a biorefinery.
Biooil characterization includes gas chromatograph mass spectroscopy, elemental analysis, viscosity, higher heating value, FTIR, etc.
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Neste Oil has started production at its biodiesel plant in Singapore, the world’s largest with an annual capacity of 800,000 tons. The biodiesel from the plant can be either blended with the conventional diesel or used directly.
The plant uses either vegetable oil or a mixture of oils and residual animal fats from the food industry. The basic principle used in producing biodiesel is esterification (or transesterification). It is clear that a greater concentration of fatty acids in any raw material would increase the output of biodiesel.
The process is thus very simple and generates useful by-products such are glycerol which has wide applications in several industries like soap manufacturing. Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter. Mridul Chadha currently works as Head-News & Data at Climate Connect Limited, a market research and analytics firm in the renewable energy and carbon markets domain.
Hey, good article, but one thing: Rotterdam is a major city in The Netherlands, not in Denmark.
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Microalgae occur widely in a variety of natural and man-made environments, including fresh, brackish, sea and waste water, as well as in soil and on other organisms. Based on the large amount of research, the potential of microalgae’s application to the biofuel industry has increased in recent years. Molecular DNA-based techniques are becoming increasingly popular in phycological classification studies (Tang et al., 2011).
In a future scenario, it might be possible to use microalgae as feedstock for oil extraction for biodiesel, while the remaining biomass can be used as animal feed. A total of 13 samples were collected in October 2012 from the surface and bottom ground of freshwater dams, streams, and ponds in the Northern Territory, Australia. After obtaining pure cultures, all isolated strains were grown on BBM medium following a standardized cultivation protocol that used bubbling for aeration and mixing. Samples for fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analyses were collected when lipid accumulation reached its peak, normally after 3–4 days of nutrient starvation. The spectrophotometric absorbance was converted to protein concentrations using a calibration curve established with a bovine serum albumin (BSA) standard (2 mg mL−1). A total of 36 algal strains were isolated from 13 samples that were collected at different cattle stations in the Northern Territory, Australia. Microalgae from the Northern Territory that grew well in BBM medium were further characterized and six different strains were chosen for inclusion in the standard protocol (Figure 3).
For a microalgae-based nutrient or oil industry, selection of strains that have high content of protein and lipid is a high priority to achieve commercial production (Lim et al., 2012). The results show that freshwater microalgae that belong to Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae were found in almost all Northern Territory samples.
The protein contents measured in the current study were within the range (11–46% DW) for freshwater algae reported by Boyd (1973). Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. A Study of Polystyrene Solubility in BiodieselKoji Yamane1 and Kiyoshi Kawasaki1[1] Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hassaka Hikone Shiga, Japan1. Belmares M, Blanco M, Goddard-III WA, Ross RB, Caldwell G, Chou SH, Pham J, Olofson PM, Thomas C. The project is a great way to attract attention to India’s Nano, which has been largely ignored in the wake of smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles like the Elio trike. Jo Borras I've been involved in motorsports and tuning since 1997, and write for a number of blogs in the Important Media network. Gas 2 is a Technorati Top 10 blog, and part of the Important Media network of blogs working to make the world a better, greener place.
This flow diagram was provided to Astorino Engineers for detailed engineering and to the equipment supplier, Kraft, to select the proper equipment. In order for a Biorefinery to reach its maximum potential, it has to have the capability of using multiple types of input biomass.
In the case of liquid biomass, (including biomass hydrolysates produced for fermentation and anaerobic digestion substrates,) compositional analysis includes liquid and gas chromatography for sugars, ethanol, specialty chemicals, and fatty acid composition. Thermogravimetric analysis is used to determine temperature points and ranges where devolatilization of biomass occurs. In the pyrolysis pathway, biooil (the hydrocarbon rich liquid condensate) and Char (the high carbon solid residue product) are characterized using various methods.
Char is characterized using proximate and ultimate analyses, FTIR, Boehm titration (for estimating surface functional groups), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
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The plant will produce the NExBTL diesel which, according to the company reduces the carbon emissions by 40 to 80 percent depending on the percentage blending with the conventional diesel.
The company claims that the biodiesel is compatible with the all the diesel engines currently in use. Neste Oil is building a similar plant in Rotterdam, The Netherlands which should be ready by Q2 2011. The plant uses a new production technique, the NExBTL technology, which is slightly different from the usual production technique of biodiesel.
In commercial production of biodiesel, fatty acids (found in plant-derived oils, animals fats and greases) are made to react with an alcohol (usually methanol) with potassium hydroxide (or other hydroxide) as catalyst. Plant-derived oils like rapeseed oil are rich in fatty acids and can be directly used for producing biodiesel through transesterification. Unchecked exploitation of plants and plant products, which may be used as food in some part of the world, for biofuel production could not only lead to environmental disasters but social and economic problems as well. He earned his Master’s in Technology degree from The Energy & Resources Institute in Renewable Energy Engineering and Management. Additionally, even if the process is different the raw material is still biological in origin.
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This page doesn't support Internet Explorer 6, 7 and 8.Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. Most microalgae can be found in freshwater and marine habitats such as lakes, rivers, streams, pond, estuary, and coastal areas. Using local strains has been demonstrated to ensure dominance and high adaptability to local environmental and climatic conditions and should be the preferred option to prevent the invasion of non-indigenous species in the environment.
Comparisons of morphological similarities between microalgal species have been used frequently but the results sometimes generate mistakes in taxonomy because of the apparent morphological similarities to other organisms (Hu et al., 2008). The purpose of this study was to collect, identify, and characterize local microalgal strains from outback Australia that have the ability to accumulate high amounts of valuable products such as protein for feed production and fatty acids for biofuel industry. A total of 4 mL of microalgal culture was collected and centrifuged at 8,000 × g for 5 min.
Selected microalgae isolated from the Northern Territory, Australia, observed under a microscope.
Growth values of isolated microalgae from the Northern Territory selected for further experimentation.
Protein contents (% DW) in five rapidly growing microalgal strains from the Northern Territory, Australia.

Fatty acids composition in percentage of total FAME components from Northern Territory microalgae.
Energy recovery using biodiesel fuel (FAME) derived from waste cooking oil selective-dissolved waste polystyrene (PS).2. Relationship between kinematic viscosity and mass concentration of the polystyrene dissolved in FAME. Changes of ignition delay and cetane number (CNFIA) against the dissolved polystyrene (EPS) concentration.
IntroductionWaste plastics, such as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE), are usually disposed together and so require time for sorting.
Measurement of the solubility and fuel propertiesExpanded polystyrene (EPS) and food trays (PSP), cut to pieces, were stirred slowly into FAME and dissolved at room temperature.
Characteristics of FAME-dissolved polystyreneTo examine solubility, both the food trays (polystyrene paper; PSP) and the expanded polystyrene(EPS) were completely dissolved in FAME, which was completely transparent after the dissolution, as shown in Figure 6. Potential of existing emission control technologies for diesel engines fuelled with biodiesel.
Oxidation stability of biodiesel and its effects on diesel combustion and emission characteristics.
Solubility of polystyrene in certain vegetable oils, essential oils and their constituents.
Study of the solubility and stability of polystyrene wastes in a dissolution recycling process. Energy recovery from waste plastics by using blends of biodiesel and polystyrene in diesel engines. The use of soy methyl ester-polystyrene sealants and internal curing to enhance concrete durability.
Fatty acid esters to dissolved polystyrene for production of commodity material useful for production of polymers. Hildebrand and Hansen solubility parameters from Molecular Dynamics with applications to electronic nose polymer sensors. The determination of solubility parameters of solvents and polymers by means of correlations with other physical quantities.
Hansen solubility parameters for selected cellulose ether derivatives and their use in the pharmaceutical industry. Hansen solubility parameters in practice(HSPiP)-complete software, data and examples, 3rd ed. Regression equation for predicting the cetane number of biodiesel fuel based on fuel composition and properties. Opinions and comments published on this site may not be sanctioned by, and do not necessarily represent the views of Sustainable Enterprises Media, Inc., its owners, sponsors, affiliates, or subsidiaries.
For detailed flow diagrams and mass and energy balances click on the links below the flow diagram.
This poses a fundamental problem because different biomasses have different physical and chemical properties, and these impact their effectiveness in individual downstream processes. This information is used to measure thermal conversion kinetics and allows the rapid screening of different biomass types before detailed (larger scale) conversion testing, which allows process and product characterization. Our advanced characterization capability includes the use of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in solid, liquid, and gas phases. The animal fats, however, have lower fatty acid content and thus they are first treated with alcohol to generate an ester and then the resulting ester is treated with another ester in a replacement reaction to get biodiesel.
Hydrogenation under the influence of catalyst removes oxygen from the fatty acids and reduces them into alkanes which closely resemble conventional diesel oil.
Biodiesel production from algae has also been proposed and research work on the same is underway in many parts of the world. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. Richmond (2004) reported that there could be about 50,000 species, although at present about 30,000 species have been identified and analyzed.
Australia also has a high demand for protein-rich feed for livestock, in particular, for cattle in the Northern Territory where no local protein-rich feeding crops are available during the dry season.
Protein and fatty acids methyl esters profiles were also determined and evaluated for their suitability as biodiesel feedstock.
Microalgal cells were extracted by using an DNeasy Plant Kit (Qiagen) following the manufacturer’s instructions.
Shown are genus, species (if applicable), and strain names, as well as Genbank entry accession numbers. In addition, potential strains should be amenable for easy extraction of the biochemical compounds and should be easy to grow in the local environment. No reports of protein contents in Tetraedron and Grasiella strains have been published so far. Comparison of density, kinematic viscosity, higher heating value, cetane number(CNFIA), carbon residue. FAME was prepared by the batch-type production equipment using an alkaline catalyst method [3]. Figure 7 shows the relation between kinematic viscosity and mass concentration of PS dissolved in FAME. When this was used as diesel fuel, the amount of carbon deposit in the combustion chamber increased.
ConclusionsThe potential for dissolution of polystyrene in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was estimated using Hansen solubility parameters. In current approaches, a downstream process is optimized for a specific biomass input by matching processing conditions to biomass properties. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to identify exothermic and endothermic reactions, their occurrence points, and magnitude of heat fluxes. Mridul has a keen interest in renewable energy sector in India and emerging carbon markets like China and Australia. For instance, the green alga Botryococcus braunii can produce hydrocarbons up to 75% of their DW. An alternative source of protein-rich feed can potentially be provided from on-farm microalgae cultivation. Thus, indigenous strains are preferred in terms of expected stable growth, high adaptability for survival and productivity. Commercial soybean cooking oil was used as the raw material to produce biodiesel, soybean oil methylester (SME).To determine the dissolved molecular weight of the polystyrene, polystyrene standards with an average molecular weight (MW) of 4000 and 50,000 were also dissolved in FAME.
The figure also shows results obtained by another researcher [8] and the dissolved polystyrene standards (average molecular weight of 4000 and 50,000). This deposit may affect the fuel injection system and fuel spray atomization.Figures 12 and 13 show the effect of fatty acid components of FAME on kinematic viscosity and carbon residue. Results indicated that FAME provides selective solubility for polystyrene.Results of experiments that examined solubility properties revealed that the kinematic viscosity increased with polystyrene (EPS) concentration in FAME.
The goal of this focus area in our program is to measure and document properties of various types of biomass (with focus on those found in Georgia and the Southeastern United States) how these properties impact downstream processes, and how they can be modified. This species is being considered as a possible source for future biodiesel production (Chisti, 2007), but its growth rates are considered not competitive compared to many other microalgae.
Prior to the reaction, 50 μg of heneicosanoic acid provided by Sigma, USA was added as internal standard. The mixture was then used for measurement of protein concentration following the protocol described in the CB-X Protein Assay Kit (G Biosciences).
Among these strains, Desmodesmus sp., Scenedesmus dimorphus, and Scenedesmus communis were the most abundant species in the samples.
NT8a, (C) Tetraedron caudatum NT5, (D) Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8c, (E) Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e, (F) Graesiella emersonii NT1e.
The log phase of this strain lasted 3 days and was followed by an exponential phase until day 5 after which the cell density was maintained and slightly decreased. In addition, subjecting waste plastics to pyrolysis, which involves conversion of plastic to oil requires energy and is expensive.
The polystyrene molecular weight distribution in FAME was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC).To clarify the fuel characteristics as diesel fuel, kinematic viscosity was measured according to JIS K2283, the ignition quality as diesel fuel was analyzed by fuel ignition analyzer (FIA) through constant-volume combustion (Fueltech, FIA-100 ver3). As shown in Figure 12, the kinematic viscosity increases with an increase in concentration of EPS, and the fatty acid methyl ester with higher carbon number shows higher kinematic viscosity. This program focus area interfaces closely with all downstream processing areas, and to preprocessing options to enhance properties of biomass. The wide distribution of the strains reflects the wide adaptation ability in the tropical fresh waters of the Northern Territory.
The percentage of replicate trees in which the associated taxa clustered together in the bootstrap test (200 replicates) is shown next to the branches.
Nitrogen intake slightly decreased until day 3 and rapidly decreased below measurable levels after day 5. It would be useful to reduce waste plastic volume and to recover the energy of waste polystyrene recycling by a simple process. Also, the carbon residue at methyl oleate shows higher value than methyl palmitate and methyl laurate at all concentrations of EPS. Therefore, the use of FAME-dissolved polystyrene as diesel fuel requires attention to tribology.5.

In this chapter, a simple process is proposed to obtain liquid fuel dissolved polystyrene in biodiesel at lower energy costs.As shown in Figure 1, waste polystyrene such as expanded polystyrene is selectively dissolved in biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil, and biodiesel-dissolved polystyrene is utilized as diesel fuel for a cogeneration system.
In contrast, the kinematic viscosity of the PS standard in FAME was less than those of EPS and PSP. From the results, fuel properties of FAME dissolved EPS may be improved by changing fatty acid composition in FAME.
A total of 1 μL of the hexane layer was injected into an Agilent 6890 gas chromatograph coupled to a 5975 MSD mass spectrometer. Following 18S rRNA gene sequencing, the evolutionary relationship of 11 genetically distinct microalgal strains was inferred using the maximum parsimony method (Figure 2). This chapter describes the potential for selective dissolution of polystyrene in biodiesel, which consists of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), by using Hansen solubility parameters and for properties and combustion characteristics as diesel fuel by using fuel ignition analyzer.The results obtained by Hansen solubility parameters indicated that methyl oleate, the main component of biodiesel, provides selective solubility for polystyrene. In the experiments, conducted under constant pressure of 2.0MPa and initial temperatures of 450oC, the fuel was injected and the ignition delay was measured.
These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed.
Results of experiments that examined solubility properties revealed that the kinematic viscosity increased with polystyrene concentration in FAME derived from soybean cooking oil. Diesel engine performanceThis section describes the engine performance and problem of diesel generator fuelled with FAME dissolved EPS.
The DNA sequencing data were then analyzed by MEGA 5.2 and the results were compared by BLAST searches with Genbank entries for classification. In this study, the CN value of FAME-dissolved polystyrene was estimated by calibration of the CN obtained from a mixture hexadecane (CN=100) and heptamethylnonane (CN=15). The molecular weight peak was similar to that of the polystyrene standard; however, the EPS molecular weights in FAME were distributed across a wide range compared to the range of the PS standard, and indicated a compound with a molecular weight greater than 107. Polystyrene dissolved in FAME crystallized and precipitated in the gel upon addition of hydrocarbons such as engine lubricant oil.
These results suggest that the existence of a very large polymer causes an increase in kinematic viscosity.Next, the rate of volume reduction of polystyrene and PSP caused by dissolution in FAME was investigated.
For sequences with >99% identity match, the species name was adopted, otherwise the genus name to the closest match was used. The CR is a characteristic value related to the amount of carbon deposits stored inside the engine, carbon deposits for petroleum-based fuels in general are measured using a sample condensed to 10% in volume. The maximum parsimony tree was obtained using the Subtree-Pruning-Regrafting algorithm with search level 1 in which the initial trees were obtained by the random addition of sequences (10 replicates).
For FAME, the high-temperature heating process under condensation results in thermal decomposition of FAME components. The tree was drawn to scale with branch lengths calculated using the average pathway method and are in the units of the number of changes over the whole sequence. Many research projects have been carried out and have been published in books and journals [1-3].
Most of all are concerning to fuel quality, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics, which regards the utilization with the diesel engines.Effective use of waste plastics is important in establishing a recycling-oriented society.
For this reason, the CR value for FAME was measured using a sample without condensation in this study.The heating value of fuel is related to fuel economy and engine power. From Figure 14, the thermal efficiency at the FAME dissolved EPS-5% shows higher value than that at neat FAME at rated engine output.
FAME can dissolve plastics and rubbers, which are used as fuel system parts of diesel engines, resulting in the need to replace these parts.
If a method to utilize FAME as a solvent to dissolve plastics can be developed, waste plastics could be recovered and could be utilized as liquid fuel.Several studies on solubility report that n-alkenes and di-n-alkyl are better solvents for the low and medium molecular weight samples of polystyrene than the corresponding n-alkanes [4].
Fuel characteristicsFigure 9 shows a series of combustion pressures obtained by the FIA fuel ignitability tester.
Figure 15 shows the photos of mixture with regular diesel lubricant hydrocarbon and with lubricant oil derived from castor oil. Also, it is shown that certain food items have been shown to be incompatible with the expanded polystyrene (EPS) used for the manufacture of food containers. Solubility of polymersFigure 4 represents data of the polymers as mesh spheres, and the solvents as dots. The cycle-to-cycle fluctuation in combustion pressure for EPS dissolved in FAME is less than that for neat FAME.Figure 10 shows the changes in ignition delay and cetane number (CNFIA) against the dissolved EPS concentration. These photos show that, immediately after mixing, the dissolved EPS crystallizes in the gel and precipitates for both cases.
Citronella, limonene and terpinene, which are constituents of many flavor oils, are excellent solvents for polystyrene [5].Studies of solubility for volume reduction and waste management of polystyrene recycling have been conducted earlier [6,7]. Thus, the use of FAME- dissolved polystyrene as diesel fuel requires the prevention of precipitation and deposition of polystyrene. Solubility values of extrude poly-styrene(XPS) in several solvents such as benzene, toluene, xylene, tetrahydrofuran, chloroform, 1,3-butanediol, 2-butanol, linalool, geranoil, d-limonene, p-cymene, terpinene, phellandrene, terpineol, methanol, eucalyptus, cinnamaldehyde, nitrobenzene, N,N-dimethylformamide, and water have been determined. The solubility of the polymer in the mentioned solvents at different temperatures has been investigated. This is caused by the increased kinematic viscosity and the suppression of fuel spray atomization upon dissolution of EPS. The solvent can be easily recycled by distillation.Polystyrene dissolved in FAME has a greater heating value as fuel than that of FAME alone, so that a reduction of the fuel consumption per output and the increase in the use of diesel and boiler cogeneration can be expected. From RED value in Table 3, the combination of PS and methyl oleate had a RED value less than 1.0.
Furthermore, generally the petroleum-based fuels are known to possess poor ignitability at higher concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons. The diesel combustion characteristics of soybean oil FAME-dissolved packing peanuts has been investigated by Kuzhiyil et al. The PP and polyethylene (PE) combinations with methyl oleate had RED values slightly higher than 1.0. The raw material for styrene monomers is represented by the aromatic chemical formula of C8H8. The results showed that engine power increased initially with the polystyrene concentration and then decreased at concentrations greater than 5%.
Initially, the dissolution of EPS in FAME was expected to result in a sufficiently high heating value.
The decline in engine power at high polystyrene concentrations could be caused by the poor spray atomization and deteriorated combustion efficiency due to the high viscosity of polystyrene mixtures.Studies on the use of soy methyl ester-polystyrene (SME-PS) blends to increase durability of concrete have been conducted [9,10]. Therefore, only polystyrene can be considered to be sufficiently dissolved in methyl oleate. Experimental results show that SME-PS reduces water absorption of concrete (by up to 75%), protects from damage caused by freezing and thawing (reduces damage by 66%, reduces chloride ingress depth by up to 50%, and slows the rate of the alkali-silica reaction by 50%.The method for solubilizing polystyrene in a fatty acid ester has been granted as a US patent [11]. The results also show that FAME will selectively dissolve the polystyrene in the form of mixed waste plastic. The purpose of the invention is to produce commodity material useful for the production of polymers from polystyrene dissolved in fatty acid esters. This patent also provides the method for disposing of polystyrene solubilized in a fatty acid ester. A fatty acid ester composed of a variety of alkyl and alkene esters is used and heated to temperatures between 100°C and 180°C.Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is used for packaging material to cushion appliances and containers of seafood and agricultural products.
Presently, various EPS organizations from more than 25 countries around the world have subscribed to the international agreement on recycling of EPS. EPS and XPS are low density, high volume materials, which consume a significant amount of space in a landfill. The transport efficiency of waste polystyrene is poor because its volume-to-mass ratio is large. Reducing the volume of waste EPS and XPS will reduce CO2 emissions and decrease the cost of energy per volume due to the transportation of waste plastic.2. Solubility parameter determinationSolubility parameters can be used to easily identify solvents for polymers.
The theory relates the energy of mixing to the energy of vaporization of the pure component. Hansen divided the polar portion into a dipole-dipole contribution and hydrogen-bonding contribution, both of which could be determined through solubility experiments with polymers [16]. The HSP concept can be described as "like vectors dissolve like vectors." For the vector "likeness," the HSP distance (Ra), which is the distance between the solvent and center of the polymer solubility sphere, was used. When the scale for dispersion (?D) parameter is doubled, in comparison with other two parameters essentially spherical, rather than spheroidal, regions of solubility are found [16].To determine if the parameters for the solvent and polymer are within an acceptable range, a value called the interaction radius (R0) of the polymer is applied to the substance being dissolved. Poor solvents will have increasingly higher RED values.In this study, the solubility of polymer in methyl ester, methanol, and fatty acid was determined by HSPiP (Hansen solubility parameters in practice) software [17]. Oleic acid methyl ester (methyl oleate) is a main component of FAME derived from waste cooking oil, because a typical raw material for cooking oil is the rapeseed oil and soybean oil. Tables 1 and 2 show the HSP from the dataset in HSPiP for methyl oleate, methanol, and oleic acid as solvents, and polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) as polymers.

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