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Domestic animals, like humans, are subject to the damaging effects of cooked and processed foods, food additives, environmental pollution and the stress of modern day living. Join today and you can easily save your favourite articles, join in the conversation and comment, plus select which news your want direct to your inbox.
Melani the Sumatran tiger heaves herself painfully to her feet, walks to the fence and is hand-fed a few pieces of chicken cut into small chunks. Indonesia correspondent Michael Bachelard explores the overcrowded and rubbish-strewn Surabaya Zoo, and meets the keepers trying to improve its conditions.
She suffers from an unidentified wasting disease which means her food, even when it's minced, passes through her, almost entirely undigested.She's the latest casualty in a zoo that's become infamous for killing its occupants. Last year the world was alerted to the problems at the zoo in Indonesia's second-largest city when a giraffe died and was found to have a 20-kilogram ball of plastic in its stomach.Last month, Rezak, another Sumatran tiger, died. X-ray computed tomography, also computed tomography (CT scan), computed axial tomography or computer assisted tomography (CAT scan) is a medical imaging procedure that uses computer-processed X-rays to produce tomographic images or 'slices' of specific areas of the body.
CT produces a volume of data that can be manipulated in order to demonstrate various bodily structures based on their ability to block the X-ray beam. Since its introduction in the 1970s, CT has become an important tool in medical imaging to supplement X-rays and medical ultrasonography.
CT scanning of the head is typically used to detect infarction, tumors, calcifications, hemorrhage and bone trauma.
See this original article include the Lungs, Pulmonary angiogram, Cardiac, Abdominal and pelvic, and Extremities.
The radiation dose for a particular study depends on multiple factors: volume scanned, patient build, number and type of scan sequences, and desired resolution and image quality. The ionizing radiation in the form of x-rays used in CT scans are energetic enough to directly or indirectly damage DNA.
CT scans can be performed with different settings for lower exposure in children with most manufacturers of CT scans as of 2007 having this function built in.
In addition to the use of intravenous contrast, orally administered contrast agents are frequently used when examining the abdomen. The reports show average radiation exposures, however, there is a wide variation in radiation doses between similar scan types, where the highest dose could be as much as 22 times higher than the lowest dose. The radiation dose reported in the gray or mGy unit is proportional to the amount of energy that the irradiated body part is expected to absorb, and the physical effect (such as DNA double strand breaks) on the cells' chemical bonds by x-ray radiation is proportional to that energy. The equivalent dose is the effective dose of a case, in which the whole body would actually absorb the same radiation dose, and the sievert unit is used in its report.
In October, 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiated an investigation of brain perfusion CT (PCT) scans, based on overdoses of radiation caused by incorrect settings at one particular facility for this particular type of CT scan.
In response to increased concern by the public and the ongoing progress of best practices, The Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging was formed within the Society for Pediatric Radiology.
Following upon the success of the Image Gently campaign, the American College of Radiology, the Radiological Society of North America, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the American Society of Radiologic Technologists have launched a similar campaign to address this issue in the adult population called Image Wisely. The World Health Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) of the United Nations have also been working in this area and have ongoing projects designed to broaden best practices and lower patient radiation dose.
The increased use of CT scans has been the greatest in two fields: screening of adults (screening CT of the lung in smokers, virtual colonoscopy, CT cardiac screening, and whole-body CT in asymptomatic patients) and CT imaging of children.
X-ray slice data is generated using an X-ray source that rotates around the object; X-ray sensors are positioned on the opposite side of the circle from the X-ray source.
In conventional CT machines, an X-ray tube and detector are physically rotated behind a circular shroud (see the image above right). A visual representation of the raw data obtained is called a sinogram, yet it is not sufficient for interpretation. The technique of filtered back projection is one of the most established algorithmic techniques for this problem.
Pixels in an image obtained by CT scanning are displayed in terms of relative radiodensity.
Contrast mediums used for X-ray CT, as well as for plain film X-ray, are called radiocontrasts. Two-dimensional CT images are conventionally rendered so that the view is as though looking up at it from the patient's feet.
Because contemporary CT scanners offer isotropic or near isotropic, resolution, display of images does not need to be restricted to the conventional axial images. Modern software allows reconstruction in non-orthogonal (oblique) planes so that the optimal plane can be chosen to display an anatomical structure.
MIP reconstructions enhance areas of high radiodensity, and so are useful for angiographic studies.
Surface rendering is limited in that it will display only surfaces that meet a threshold density, and will display only the surface that is closest to the imaginary viewer. Where different structures have similar radiodensity, it can become impossible to separate them simply by adjusting volume rendering parameters. Although images produced by CT are generally faithful representations of the scanned volume, the technique is susceptible to a number of artifacts, such as the following: Chapters 3 and 5. Probably the most common mechanical artifact, the image of one or many "rings" appears within an image.
An important issue within radiology today is how to reduce the radiation dose during CT examinations without compromising the image quality. Individualize the examination and adjust the radiation dose to the body type and body organ examined. Prior to every CT examination, evaluate the appropriateness of the exam whether it is motivated or if another type of examination is more suitable. In the early 1900s, the Italian radiologist Alessandro Vallebona proposed a method to represent a single slice of the body on the radiographic film. The mathematical theory behind the tomographic reconstruction dates back to 1917 where the invention of Radon Transform by an Austrian mathematician Johann Radon.
Tomography has been one of the pillars of radiologic diagnostics until the late 1970s, when the availability of minicomputers and of the transverse axial scanning method gradually supplanted it as the modality of CT.
Although the term "computed tomography" could be used to describe positron emission tomography or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), in practice it usually refers to the computation of tomography from X-ray images, especially in older medical literature and smaller medical facilities.
In MeSH, "computed axial tomography" was used from 1977 to 1979, but the current indexing explicitly includes "X-ray" in the title. Spinning tube, commonly called spiral CT, or helical CT in which an entire X-ray tube is spun around the central axis of the area being scanned. Electron beam tomography (EBT) is a specific form of CT in which a large enough X-ray tube is constructed so that only the path of the electrons, travelling between the cathode and anode of the X-ray tube, are spun using deflection coils. Our holistic vet introduced me to Pain Plus when we took Rodrigo about his digestive issues.
You can give Pain Plus to your dog as a treat (this is what we do) or you can crumble it up and feed it to them in their food. I give Ace a generic of rimydal maybe one or two days a month on those days he over does it, like your dogs sometimes do. I’m trying to learn as much as I can about joint care and arthritis since Harley will be seven later this year. Before the dog treat obesity, it is first necessary to achieve a complete clinical examination, with blood and biochemical assessments appropriate to eliminate any medical cause. The ration is best suited for will therefore consist of one quarter lean meat, for another quarter of lean cottage cheese, and the remaining half of carrots and green vegetables, plus a supplement of essential fatty acids, minerals and vitamins, rate of 4% of body weight of the dog.Wamiz Tip: Your dog needs to lose weight? In fact, a dog will perform intermittently encouraged by longer and more intensely than an animal continually encouraged.
All of these factors can affect digestive functioning and lead to a range of digestive disorders. She's skin and bone, but she eats less than a child might before returning to chew, like a sick domestic cat, on the grass.There are less than 400 of Melani's kind still roaming the dwindling forests of Sumatra, and soon this zoo-bound specimen will also be dead, after spending most of her life in squalor in Surabaya Zoo.
International expert Ian Singleton believes it and almost all other zoos in Indonesia should be closed down ''or at very least forced to upgrade dramatically'' under strictly enforced deadlines.
These cross-sectional images are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines.
Although, historically, the images generated were in the axial or transverse plane, perpendicular to the long axis of the body, modern scanners allow this volume of data to be reformatted in various planes or even as volumetric (3D) representations of structures. It has more recently been used for preventive medicine or screening for disease, for example CT colonography for patients with a high risk of colon cancer, or full-motion heart scans for patients with high risk of heart disease. Of the above, hypodense (dark) structures can indicate infarction and edema, hyperdense (bright) structures indicate calcifications and haemorrhage and bone trauma can be seen as disjunction in bone windows. First, CT completely eliminates the superimposition of images of structures outside the area of interest.
The improved resolution of CT has permitted the development of new investigations, which may have advantages; compared to conventional radiography, for example, CT angiography avoids the invasive insertion of a catheter. In addition, two helical CT scanning parameters that can be adjusted easily and that have a profound effect on radiation dose are tube current and pitch.
This and other types of DNA damage are occasionally not corrected properly by cellular repair mechanisms.
The most common reactions from these agents are mild, including nausea, vomiting and an itching rash; however, more severe reactions may occur.
Death occurs in about two to 30 people per 1,000,000 administrations with newer agents being safer. This occurs in 2 to 7% of people who receive these agents, with greater risk in those who have preexisting renal insufficiency, preexisting diabetes, or reduced intravascular volume.
These are frequently the same as the intravenous contrast agents, merely diluted to approximately 10% of the concentration. While there is some variation, most people (99%) received less than 7 mSv per year as background radiation. The sievert unit in the context of CT scans, does not correspond to the actual radiation dose that the scanned body part absorbs, but rather to another radiation dose of another scenario, in which the whole body absorbs the other radiation dose, and where the other radiation dose is of a magnitude that is estimated to have the same probability to induce cancer as the CT scan. In the case of non-uniform radiation, or radiation given to only part of the body, which is common for CT examinations, using the local equivalent dose alone would overstate the biological risks to the entire organism.
Over 256 patients over an 18 month period were exposed, over 40% lost patches of hair, and prompted the editorial to call for increased CT quality assurance programs, while also noting that "while unnecessary radiation exposure should be avoided, a medically needed CT scan obtained with appropriate acquisition parameter has benefits that outweigh the radiation risks." Similar problems have been reported at other centers.
In concert with The American Society of Radiologic Technologists, The American College of Radiology and The American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the Society for Pediatric Radiology developed and launched the Image Gently Campaign which is designed to maintain high quality imaging studies while using the lowest doses and best radiation safety practices available on pediatric patients. Shortening of the scanning time to around 1 second, eliminating the strict need for the subject to remain still or be sedated, is one of the main reasons for the large increase in the pediatric population (especially for the diagnosis of appendicitis). The earliest sensors were scintillation detectors, with photomultiplier tubes excited by (typically) cesium iodide crystals.
Following a complete rotation, the object would be moved along its axis, and the next rotation started.
An alternative, short lived design, known as electron beam tomography (EBT), used electromagnetic deflection of an electron beam within a very large conical X-ray tube and a stationary array of detectors to achieve very high temporal resolution, for imaging of rapidly moving structures, for example the coronary arteries. Once the scan data has been acquired, the data must be processed using a form of tomographic reconstruction, which produces a series of cross-sectional images.
The pixel itself is displayed according to the mean attenuation of the tissue(s) that it corresponds to on a scale from +3071 (most attenuating) to −1024 (least attenuating) on the Hounsfield scale. Hence, the left side of the image is to the patient's right and vice versa, while anterior in the image also is the patient's anterior and vice versa.
This is typically done via a process of "windowing", which maps a range (the "window") of pixel values to a greyscale ramp. Instead, it is possible for a software program to build a volume by "stacking" the individual slices one on top of the other.


Axial images through the spine will only show one vertebral body at a time and cannot reliably show the intervertebral discs. This may be particularly useful for visualising the structure of the bronchi as these do not lie orthogonal to the direction of the scan. This allows bends in a vessel to be "straightened" so that the entire length can be visualised on one image, or a short series of images.
From this, a three-dimensional model can be constructed using edge detection image processing algorithms and displayed on screen. In volume rendering, transparency, colors and shading are used to allow a better representation of the volume to be shown in a single image. The solution is called segmentation, a manual or automatic procedure that can remove the unwanted structures from the image.
Numerous factors contribute to these streaks: undersampling, photon starvation, motion, beam hardening, and Compton scatter.
This is usually due to a detector fault, or miscalibration of an individual detector element. Motion blurring might be reduced using a new technique called IFT (incompressible flow tomography). It occurs when there is more attenuation along a path passing through the center of an object, than a path that grazes the edge. In general, higher radiation doses result in higher-resolution images, while lower doses lead to increased image noise and unsharp images. Higher resolution is not always suitable for any given scenario, such as detection of small pulmonary masses. He showed mathematically that a function could be reconstructed from an infinite set of its projections. Bracewell used a method similar to the Radon Transform to reconstruct a map of solar radiation from a set of solar radiation measurements.
Transverse axial scanning was due in large part to the work of Godfrey Hounsfield and South African-born Allan McLeod Cormack. Computed tomography was originally known as the "EMI scan" as it was developed in the early 1970s at a research branch of EMI, a company best known today for its music and recording business. These are the dominant type of scanners on the market because they have been manufactured longer and offer lower cost of production and purchase. This type had a major advantage since sweep speeds can be much faster, allowing for less blurry imaging of moving structures, such as the heart and arteries. Rodrigo has canine arthritis in his elbow joint and jammed his paw this past weekend (badly). The obese dog is suffering from slow transit, constipation, flatulence.The detoxifying function of the liver is reduced.
If possible, part of the normal ration of the animal can be used for this purpose, but if the rewards are not superimposed, they must not compromise the nutritional balance of the plan or increase caloric intake.
When the animal has acquired the desired behaviors, social reinforcements are usually sufficient to maintain them. The animal was hospitalized and, after ensuring the absence of metabolic or endocrine disorder, he removes all power. Many holistic vets also blame over-vaccination for the rise in chronic illness, including digestive complaints, in domestic pets. Digital geometry processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation.
Although most common in medicine, CT is also used in other fields, such as nondestructive materials testing. A number of institutions offer full-body scans for the general population although this practice goes against the advice and official position of many professional organizations in the field. Tumors can be detected by the swelling and anatomical distortion they cause, or by surrounding edema.
Second, because of the inherent high-contrast resolution of CT, differences between tissues that differ in physical density by less than 1% can be distinguished. CT Colonography (also known as Virtual Colonoscopy or VC for short) may be as useful as a barium enema for detection of tumors, but may use a lower radiation dose. Computed tomography (CT) scan has been shown to be more accurate than radiographs in evaluating anterior interbody fusion but may still over-read the extent of fusion.
This would be equivalent to one in 1000 to one in 2000 increased risk of developing a fatal cancer per 10mSv CT scan, or 29,000 new cancer cases in the United States due to the number of scans done in 2007 and 2100 new cancers in the United Kingdom.
The risk for someone who is 40 years old is half that of someone who is 20 years old with substantially less risk in the elderly.
Overall reactions occur in 1 to 3% with nonionic contrast and 4 to 12% of people with ionic contrast. When deaths do occur it is more typically in those who are female, elderly or in poor health and is secondary to either anaphylaxis or acute renal failure. People with mild kidney impairment are usually advised to ensure full hydration for several hours before and after the injection. Medical imaging as of 2007 accounted for half of the radiation exposure of those in the United States with CT scans making up two thirds of this amount. Thus, as is shown in the table above, the actual radiation that is absorbed by a scanned body part is often much larger than the effective dose suggests.
This initiative has been endorsed and applied by a growing list of various professional medical organizations around the world and has received support and assistance from companies that manufacture equipment used in Radiology. Of these, six to eleven percent are done in children, an increase of seven to eightfold from 1980.
Cesium iodide was replaced during the 1980s by ion chambers containing high-pressure Xenon gas.
Newer machines permitted continuous rotation with the object to be imaged slowly and smoothly slid through the X-ray ring.
Cone-beam CT functionality is also an increasingly common function found in medical fluoroscopy equipment; by rotating the fluoroscope around the patient, a geometry similar to CT can be obtained, and by treating the 2D X-ray detector in a manner similar to a CT detector with a massive number of rows, it is possible to reconstruct a 3D volume from a single rotation using suitable software. This is useful to highlight structures such as blood vessels that otherwise would be difficult to delineate from their surroundings.
In terms of mathematics, the raw data acquired by the scanner consists of multiple "projections" of the object being scanned.
It is also computationally undemanding, with modern scanners requiring only a few milliseconds per image. This left-right interchange corresponds to the view that physicians generally have in reality when positioned in front of patients.
For example, CT images of the brain are commonly viewed with a window extending from 0 HU to 80 HU. The software then cuts slices through the volume in a different plane (usually orthogonal). By reformatting the volume, it becomes much easier to visualise the position of one vertebral body in relation to the others.
Once a vessel has been "straightened" in this way, quantitative measurements of length and cross sectional area can be made, so that surgery or interventional treatment can be planned.
Multiple models can be constructed from various thresholds, allowing different colors to represent each anatomical component such as bone, muscle, and cartilage. For example, the bones of the pelvis could be displayed as semi-transparent, so that, even at an oblique angle, one part of the image does not conceal another.
This type of artifact commonly occurs in the posterior fossa of the brain, or if there are metal implants.
The reconstruction assumes that the X-ray attenuation within each voxel is homogenous; this may not be the case at sharp edges.
It can also occur when the power supplied to the X-ray tube is insufficient to penetrate the anatomy. However, increased dosage raises increase the adverse side effects, including the risk of radiation induced cancer – a four-phase abdominal CT gives the same radiation dose as 300 chest x-rays (See the Scan dose section).
In 1937, a Polish mathematician, named Stefan Kaczmarz, developed a method to find an approximate solution to a large system of linear algebraic equations. In 1959, William Oldendorf, a UCLA neurologist and senior medical investigator at the West Los Angeles Veterans Administration hospital, conceived an idea for "scanning a head through a transmitted beam of X-rays, and being able to reconstruct the radiodensity patterns of a plane through the head" after watching an automated apparatus built to reject frostbitten fruit by detecting dehydrated portions. The field of the mathematical methods of computerized tomography has seen a very active development since then, as is evident from overview literature by Frank Natterer and Gabor T.
It was later known as computed axial tomography (CAT or CT scan) and body section rontgenography. The main limitation of this type is the bulk and inertia of the equipment (X-ray tube assembly and detector array on the opposite side of the circle) which limits the speed at which the equipment can spin. Fewer scanners of this design have been produced when compared with spinning tube types, mainly due to the higher cost associated with building a much larger X-ray tube and detector array and limited anatomical coverage.
This used to only be at the end of the day, but now it occurs throughout the day when she lies down. This is something I will keep in mind for those days when he runs too hard at the beach or something like that.
I would like to find a more holistic way to help her…turmeric has been brought to my attention but I would like to know if you have any other thoughts for other supplements or methods to help her. The idea is, first, to cover not more than 60% of maintenance requirements of the dog if he had an ideal weight, and secondly, to divide the rations into two or three meals a day, both to reduce appetite unsatisfied, and to prevent postprandial hyperinsulinemia, which promotes saving energy.
Some people have a psychological tendency to share food with others or with their pets.These owners are hopelessly habituated to spoil their pets, must be taken into account in the weight loss program.
A reward can be very small, about the size of a raisin, and it is not necessary to provide each time the animal responds correctly. Water is available ad libitum.Once reached the desired weight, a food industry is gradually introduced. As pet owners, we try to do the best for our animals and to feed them healthy, nutritious food that will not harm them. Kidney problems following intravenous contrast agents may also be a concern in some types of studies. Ambulances equipped with small bore multi-sliced CT scanners respond to cases involving stroke or head trauma. Finally, data from a single CT imaging procedure consisting of either multiple contiguous or one helical scan can be viewed as images in the axial, coronal, or sagittal planes, depending on the diagnostic task. CT VC is increasingly being used in the UK as a diagnostic test for bowel cancer and can negate the need for a colonoscopy. The estimates of harm from CT are partly based on similar radiation exposures experienced by those present during the atomic bomb explosions in Japan during the second world war and those of nuclear industry workers. This additional risk is still low compared to the background risk of dying from cancer of ~20%. For moderate kidney failure, the use of iodinated contrast should be avoided; this may mean using an alternative technique instead of CT. Dilute barium sulfate has the advantage that it does not cause allergic-type reactions or kidney failure, but cannot be used in patients with suspected bowel perforation or suspected bowel injury, as leakage of barium sulfate from damaged bowel can cause fatal peritonitis. A specific measure, termed the computed tomography dose index (CTDI), is commonly used as an estimate of the radiation absorbed dose for tissue within the scan region, and is automatically computed by medical CT scanners. These systems were in turn replaced by scintillation systems based on photodiodes instead of photomultipliers and modern scintillation materials (for example rare earth garnet or rare earth oxide ceramics) with more desirable characteristics.
However, this is not the only technique available: the original EMI scanner solved the tomographic reconstruction problem by linear algebra, but this approach was limited by its high computational complexity, especially given the computer technology available at the time. When the CT slice thickness is also factored in, the unit is known as a Voxel, which is a three-dimensional unit.


CT images are called precontrast or native-phase images before any radiocontrast has been administrated, and postcontrast after radiocontrast administration. The streaks can be reduced using newer reconstruction techniques  or approaches such as metal artifact reduction (MAR).
This is most commonly seen in the z-direction, due to the conventional use of highly anisotropic voxels, which have a much lower out-of-plane resolution, than in-plane resolution.
This led the foundation to another powerful reconstruction method called "Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART)" which was later adapted by Sir Godfrey Hounsfield as the image reconstruction mechanism in his famous invention, the first commercial CT scanner.
In 1961, he built a prototype in which an X-ray source and a mechanically coupled detector rotated around the object to be imaged. But as Cormack remembered later, he had to find the solution himself since it was only in 1972 that he learned of the work of Radon, by chance. Some designs use two X-ray sources and detector arrays offset by an angle, as technique to improve temporal resolution. Only one manufacturer (Imatron, later acquired by General electric) ever produced scanners of this design.
The nature, volume and the total amount of food rewards and treats should be accurately assessed.
However, advertising and the claims of pet food manufacturers have contributed to the misinformation surrounding what is best for our pets.
Individuals responsible for performing CT exams are called Radiologic Technologists or Radiographers and are required to be licensed in most states.
The most common cancers caused by radiation exposure are thought to be lung cancer, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, stomach cancer and leukemia. A 2012 review did not find an association between medical radiation and cancer risk in children noting however the existence of limitations in the evidences over which the review is based. Those with severe renal failure requiring dialysis require less strict precautions, as their kidneys have so little function remaining that any further damage would not be noticeable and the dialysis will remove the contrast agent; it is normally recommended, however, to arrange dialysis as soon as possible following contrast administration to minimize any adverse effects of the contrast. The average radiation dose from medical sources is ~0.6 mSv per person globally as of 2007. In Calgary, Canada 12.1% of people who present to the emergency with an urgent complaint received a CT scan, most commonly either of the head or of the abdomen. There are a number of reasons for this including: legal concerns, financial incentives, and desire by the public. A subsequent development of helical CT was multi-slice (or multi-detector) CT; instead of a single row of detectors, multiple rows of detectors are used effectively capturing multiple cross-sections simultaneously. More recently, manufacturers have developed iterative physical model-based maximum likelihood expectation maximization techniques. The phenomenon that one part of the detector cannot differentiate between different tissues is called the "Partial Volume Effect". The window used for display must be matched to the X-ray density of the object of interest, in order to optimize the visible detail.
This can be partially overcome by scanning using thinner slices, or an isotropic acquisition on a modern scanner.
There are also more complex devices that can move in more than one plane and perform more effective blurring. By reconstructing the image, this instrument could get an X-ray picture of a nail surrounded by a circle of other nails, which made it impossible to X-ray from any single angle. According to the dietary restrictions that are needed, we must resort to unusual delicacies, it is surprising that many dogs like carrots, celery, lettuce or even popcorn! Commercial dried and tinned pet food is convenient and claims to be 'better' than any other form of food. Those in the nuclear industry in the United States are limited to doses of 50 mSv a year and 100 mSv every 5 years.
The percentage who received CT, however, varied markedly by the emergency physician who saw them from 1.8% to 25%. There is also otherwise healthy people receiving full body CT scans as screening for which there is no evidence to support. Systems with a very large number of detector rows, such that the z-axis coverage is comparable to the xy-axis coverage are often termed cone beam CT, due to the shape of the X-ray beam (strictly, the beam is pyramidal in shape, rather than conical).
These techniques are advantageous because they use an internal model of the scanner's physical properties and of the physical laws of X-ray interactions. That means that a big amount of cartilage and a thin layer of compact bone can cause the same attenuation in a voxel as hyperdense cartilage alone. In his landmark paper published in 1961, he described the basic concept which was later used by Allan McLeod Cormack to develop the mathematics behind computerized tomography. In addition, our pets learn to like the food that we eat and who can resist those soulful eyes when a packet of chips or a cookie is around! The cages, some built in the 1920s, were tiny and fraying, the animals so in-bred that deer had antlers growing out the front of their heads.
In the emergency department in the United States, CT or MRI imaging is done in 15% of people who present with injuries as of 2007 (up from 6% in 1998). Earlier methods, such as filtered back projection, assume a perfect scanner and highly simplified physics, which leads to a number of artifacts, high noise and impaired image resolution.
Water has an attenuation of 0 Hounsfield units (HU), while air is −1000 HU, cancellous bone is typically +400 HU, cranial bone can reach 2000 HU or more (os temporale) and can cause artifacts.
The result is that pets in today's world suffer from the same digestive complaints and disorders as their humans. The pelican cage is seriously over-crowded now, even after 70 birds were given to other zoos. Iterative techniques provide images with improved resolution, reduced noise and fewer artifacts, as well as the ability to greatly reduce the radiation dose in certain circumstances. The attenuation of metallic implants depends on atomic number of the element used: Titanium usually has an amount of +1000 HU, iron steel can completely extinguish the X-ray and is, therefore, responsible for well-known line-artifacts in computed tomograms.
It can be very distressing to watch your pet suffer from the pain and discomfort associated with chronic and acute digestive disorders, which are often very resistant to treatment. The disadvantage is a very high computational requirement, but advances in computer technology and high-performance computing techniques, such as use of highly parallel GPU algorithms, now allow practical use.
Artifacts are caused by abrupt transitions between low- and high-density materials, which results in data values that exceed the dynamic range of the processing electronics. Inactive Ingredients: Chicken liver flavor, Dicalcium Phosphate, Distilled Monoglycerides, Magnesium Stearate, Microcrystaline Cellulose, Silicon Dioxide, Sucrose.
Just as with people, cats have a very intricate and complex network of body mechanics that must keep running in tip-top shape if the cat is to be her best. Some of the barometers of good health are relatively easy to see: shiny hair and clear skin, bright eyes and good mobility. They bought it cheap (laced at the market with the illegal preservative formalin) then sold it at a big mark-up. Another very important barometer of good health, a healthy digestive system, is not easily seen, but is indeed critical to helping cats live a long and healthy life. In fact, digestion problems are among the most common reasons for visits to the veterinarian. The high level of concern about digestive health has led nutritionists and veterinarians to look more closely into ways to better understand the cat's complex digestive system. The entrance fee has more than tripled, the Komodos released from their tiny cage, the orang-utans and monkeys given redesigned shelters and the tigers new holding yards where they can move. The digestive tract is, essentially, a long, hollow tube that runs through the body, from the mouth to the anus. Rather than spending up to 10 days in tiny holding cells for every three days out on display, the tigers have more space, sunlight and exercise.In the face of strong local opposition, which views a large number of animals as a sign of success, the zoo is trying to swap out over-populated species and bring in fresh blood-lines. The tube has several main components, including mouth, stomach, small intestine and large intestine. This system is in constant motion, making sure cats get the nutrients from their diet that they need to stay healthy and look their best. The digestive tract is also the system that supplies essential nutrients to the rest of the body, which is why it is critical to keep this system in top condition.
The staff, many of whom have been there for 30 years, are still highly resistant to new ideas.
Keeping the grounds clean of rubbish seems to be an insurmountable challenge, and many displays need radical renovation or rebuilding.That takes big money, but it's in short supply and there's no ready source.
As clean as cats are, and as clean as we all think we are, many different types of bacteria share our world?vitally important protective bacteria even live on our skin! Many of these bacteria in and around our body work to keep things healthy in their own microscopic way.
As we learn more about the flourishing forms of life that kep everything running smoothly in our own intestinal tracts, we have been able to apply this knowledge to our cats' health, as well. The best way to understand how the digestive system works is to follow food as it progresses through the system.
All but a handful fail to meet international standards, he says.But Sumampau still thinks Surabaya should be given a chance to avoid having its prime city acreage turned into yet another shopping mall.
Zoos are massively popular in Indonesia, and one of the only sources of cheap entertainment for ordinary people. About 7000 people visit Surabaya each day of the weekend and, on big holidays, it's perhaps 40,000.''There are many animals and the trees are very fresh,'' says Rizal, a mechanic from nearby Madura, visiting last week with his brother and their families. Located mainly in the chest cavity, the esophagus is the part of the alimentary canal that connects the mouth to the stomach.
Food immediately moves from the esophagus into the stomach.The stomach, which is positioned in the abdominal cavity's left side behind the liver, is the body's adjustable reservoir for food and liquids. Glands secrete hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes, which initiate the food breakdown process; other glands secrete mucus that thinly coats the mucosa (the alimentary tract's lining), protecting it from damaging acid and enzymes. Once food has been mixed and treated with the acid and enzymes, it passes into the intestinal tract for final digestion and absorption.Investigations into the health of the digestive tract have led to the incorporation of ingredients in pet foods known as prebiotics. A prebiotic is a food ingredient that can beneficially affect the animal by encouraging or nourishing the activity of certain types of beneficial bacteria that live in the digestive tract. This nourishment promotes the type of bacteria that may improve a cat's health by enabling the digestive tract to works at its best, helping to deliver essential nutrients to the body. Whole natural chicory root is a prebiotic that has been proven to promote healthy digestion.
When added to pet food, it serves as food for the beneficial bacteria that are present in a cat's intestinal tract, helping the bacteria flourish. Research suggests that the benefits of feeding a cat food containing chicory root may include increased nutrient absorption, better digestion and support of the immune system. Chicory root is a natural fiber source from a plant that has been used in human foods as a salad ingredient. It is known to also aid digestion in humans, and is a safe and palatable ingredient for cats. This particular prebiotic fiber source is harvested, washed, sliced, then added to the food. There are no ingredients added to the chicory and extensive processing is not necessary -- unlike with synthetic prebiotics. Look for ingredients, such as whole chicory root, that can help bring your companion a lifetime of good health.



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Category: Best Probiotic Supplements



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