@# Find Out Who Owns Any Cell Phone Number &$

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03 Feb. 2015

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A growing number of Americans rely solely on a cell phone for their telephone service, and many more are considering giving up their landline phones. This research effort was undertaken by the Pew Research Center, in conjunction with the Associated Press and AOL, to assess the challenge posed by cell phones to random digit dial surveys.
The number of people who have given up their landline telephones and rely solely on a cell phone has been increasing, both in the U.S. The National Health Interview Survey estimated that, in the second half of 2005, 7.8% of adults lived in households with only a cell phone.
The landline sample includes a higher proportion of college graduates than does the cell phone-only group (36% vs.
Young people who rely exclusively on cell phones also are very different — in their lifestyles and family circumstances — from their landline counterparts of similar age. Among dual phone users, there are clear differences between those reached on a cell phone and those contacted on a landline. Politically, the landline-only and cell-only groups stand out as more Democratic — both in their congressional vote intention and party affiliation — than do those who have both types of phone service. As might be expected, a solid majority of respondents in the cell phone sample who also have a landline (62%) say that they make more calls on their cell; nearly half (47%) say they make a lot more phone calls on their cell phone. Consequently, heavy users of cell phones are more easily reached and interviewed on their cell phones than are lighter users, resulting in a potential bias on some types of measures.
People in the cell sample use more cell phone features and options than do cell owners from the landline sample. Most people in both samples use only one cell phone, and most do not share their cell phone with others.
About a quarter of landline users (23%) say they are very (8%) or somewhat likely (15%) to stop using their landline and switch instead to using only a cell phone. Asked about their general opinion of computers and technology, cell-only respondents are much more positive toward computers and technology than are landline-only respondents, and somewhat more positive than other cell phone users who are accessible on a landline. But there is little difference between the cell-only respondents and cell phone users reached on a landline in their use of the internet and their access to broadband.
In addition to providing a look at the cell-only population, this study was designed to assess the feasibility of conducting a telephone survey in a cell phone sampling frame. Because most cell phone users have to pay for incoming calls (or use pre-paid minutes for them), a $10 incentive was offered only to respondents in the cell phone sample.
Aside from difficulties in gaining cooperation, the process of sampling cell phone numbers proved to be reasonably efficient. Interviewing people on cell phones presents several challenges that require new procedures and have implications for overall costs.
Results from the study suggest that interviews on a cell phone take about the same amount of time to complete as interviews on a landline phone. Cell phones tend to be personal devices, and many adolescents and younger children have their own phone.
Because people may not be accustomed to speaking with an unknown caller on their cell phone, two other modifications in Pew’s regular protocol were used.
Data collection costs (apart from overall study design, programming, and analysis costs) were slightly more than twice as high for the cell phone sample as for the landline sample.
According to the interviewers working on the survey, the cell phone respondents were as focused and cooperative as those reached on a landline telephone.
In addition to being cooperative, the cell phone respondents were also relatively focused on the survey task. Although the survey was conducted only in English, fully 11% of the cell phone sample was Hispanic compared to just 6% of the landline frame sample.


In addition, fewer of the landline sample respondents were parents of children under 18 — a finding that likely reflects the presence of more young adults in the cell phone sample. The Pew Research Center has been tracking and studying the cell phone challenge for several years, and reported its latest research on the issue at the annual meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR), held in New Orleans May 15-18. Researchers for the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press found that dual users reached by cell phone are demographically and behaviorally similar to those reached by landline on most questions.
An additional finding on the dual users was that a majority of dual users reached in each sampling frame said that they could have been reached at that moment on their other telephone. Another important conclusion of the People-Press paper was that the cost of conducting cell phone interviews is now lower than it was in previous years, making it more feasible to include cell phones on a regular basis. A paper by researchers at Princeton Survey Research Associates International and the Pew Internet & American Life Project found that younger cell phone respondents were significantly more likely to say that they got news online than were landline respondents, even when comparing those who were internet users in both samples. Cell phone ownership among teens has been stable since 2011, but smartphone ownership has grown considerably.
Teens with highly educated parents or with parents in the highest income bracket are also more likely to have cell phones. While many teens have a variety of internet-connected devices in their lives, the cell phone has become the primary means by which 25% of those ages 12-17 access the internet. A 2010 Pew Internet Project report on teens’ mobile phone use found that among teen cell phone owners, 21% of those who did not go online or use email through a conventional computer instead used their phone handset to go online. These findings are similar to trends we have observed with adults: Those adults with an annual household income of less than $50,000 per year and those who have not graduated college are more likely than those with higher levels of income and education to use their phones for most of their online browsing. The relatively small size of the cell-only group, along with the demographic weighting performed when it is combined with the landline sample, accounts for the minimal change in the overall findings. And in the 2004 exit poll by the National Election Pool, 7.1% of voters said they relied solely on cell phones. About half of the cell-only population (51%) favors allowing gay marriage, compared with 39% of the dual phone users and just a third of those who have only a landline phone (33%). Dual phone owners from the landline sample use landlines only somewhat more frequently than their cell phones; about half (48%) report making more of their calls on their landline while 42% say they make more calls on their cell phone. About one-in-five (19%) of those reached in the cell sample say they regularly use more than one cell phone; the comparable number in the landline sample was 14%.
A narrow majority (55%) says they are not likely at all to give up their landline in favor of a cell phone. Despite this inducement, gaining cooperation from people on cell phones was notably more difficult than for those on a landline phone. It was actually easier to make contact with a respondent through the cell phone frame (the contact rate was 76% in the cell frame vs. More of the cell phone numbers (59%) were connected to eligible respondents than were numbers in the landline sample (43%). Among the most important of these is the fact that federal law prohibits the use of automated dialing devices when calling cell phones; thus each number in the cell phone sample had to be dialed manually. An overwhelming majority of cell phone respondents who completed the interview (86%) accepted this offer and provided a mailing address to which the incentive was sent. The survey introduction included the acknowledgement that the respondent had been reached on a cell phone, and an immediate question as to whether it was safe to do an interview at that time. Adding in the costs of administering and paying the $10 incentive, the total costs of interviewing the cell phone sample were approximately 2.4 times the cost of the landline sample. The vast majority (93%) of those surveyed on their cell phone demonstrated good or very good cooperation. Over seven-in-ten (71%) of those interviewed from the landline sample report being a homeowner compared with closer to half (57%) of those reached on a cell phone.


The growing number of wireless-only households poses a serious challenge to survey research, much of which relies upon landline surveys to reach respondents. Even among cell phone respondents who said they get most of their calls by cell phone, nearly half said they could have been reached right then on their landline. Pew now estimates that the cost of adding a cell phone component to a survey is roughly twice the cost of the landline component on a per-interview basis, rather than three times as much in previous dual frame surveys.
As in dual frame general public surveys, researchers from ICR and Pew reported that blended samples combining landline and cell phone respondents produce nearly identical results to those obtained solely from landline samples.
When the cell phone and landline cases were combined and weighted to match demographic parameters for age, sex, race, education and region, the overall estimates for each of these religious measures were unchanged from what would be obtained using a landline sample alone.
Adults under the age of 50, on the other hand, are just as likely as teens to be mobile internet users; 74% of adults ages 18-49 access the internet on a cell phone, tablet, or other mobile device. Some 78% of teens now have a cell phone, and almost half (47%) of those say they have smartphones. Although teen girls and boys are equally likely to have smartphones and are equally likely to use some kind of mobile access to the internet, girls are significantly more likely than boys to say they access the internet mostly using their cell phone (29% vs. However, those who fall into lower socioeconomic groups are just as likely and in some cases more likely than those living in higher income and more highly educated households to use their cell phone as a primary point of access. Of people contacted in the cell phone frame, 45 cases were dropped from the study because the respondent was under 18. If the interviewer reached voice mail, a message was left explaining the purpose of the survey along with a toll-free number for the respondent to call and complete the interview at their convenience.
Another paper focused on the 2007 National Survey of Latinos, which included landline and cell phone interviews.
24%); this may reflect the heavy reliance on cell phones among those currently attending college. Approximately 20 of the 751 respondents in the cell phone survey completed the interview in this way.
Teens are just as likely to have a cell phone as they are to have a desktop or laptop computer.
Older teen girls represent the leading edge of cell-mostly internet use; 34% of them say that most of their internet use happens on their cell phone. Among those interviewed on their cell phones, 200 (27%) said that their cell phone was their only phone.
Half of the people reached in the landline sample (50%) cooperated with the interview, compared with roughly a quarter (28%) of those reached in the cell phone sample.
About one-in-five of those from the cell phone sample (20%) and the landline sample (17%) were preparing a meal, watching television, shopping, exchanging comments with another person, or engaged in another activity. Older teens are more likely than younger teens to have cell phones and those phones are more likely to be smartphones. Among older teen girls who are smartphone owners, 55% say they use the internet mostly from their phone. Three-quarters of those in the cell sample (75%) have personalized their cell phone by changing the wallpaper or ring tone, compared with 59% of cell owners in the landline sample.



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