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Author: admin, 16.03.2014. Category: The Power Of Thinking

At the age of 20, a man has around 176,000 km and a woman, about 149,000 km of myelinated axons in their brain.
The brain performs an incredible number of tasks:It controls body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate and breathing. Your brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves make up a complex, integrated information-processing and control system. The parietal lobe, which sits behind the frontal lobe, deals with the perception and integration of stimuli from the senses. The temporal lobe, which runs along the side of the brain under the frontal and parietal lobes, deals with the senses of smell, taste, and sound, and the formation and storage of memories.
Several other essential parts of the brain lie deep inside the cerebral hemispheres in a network of structures called the limbic system. The amygdala, an almond-shaped structure involved in processing and remembering strong emotions such as fear.
The hippocampus, which is buried in the temporal lobe, is important for learning and short-term memory.
The thalamus, located at the top of the brain stem, receives sensory and limbic information, processes it, and then sends it to the cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus, a structure under the thalamus, monitors activities such as body temperature and food intake. The Central Nervous System is composed of the brain and spinal cord, along with their nerves and end organs (the end of nerves) that control voluntary and involuntary acts.
The brain is a large soft mass of nerve tissue that is contained inside a vault of bone called the cranium. The central nervous system, gives rise to the peripheral nervous system (the nerves on the periphery of the body). The spinal cord is an ovoid column of nervous tissue that averages about 44 cm in length when it is flattened out. The "H" shape from the gray matter inside the white matter in the brain is carried through the spinal cord as well because they are attached to one another.
Some people say that reading "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" taught them the importance of friends, or that easy decisions are seldom right. Researchers from CMU's Machine Learning Department performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of eight people as they read a chapter of that Potter book.
Wehbe and Mitchell said the model is still inexact, but might someday be useful in studying and diagnosing reading disorders, such as dyslexia, or to track the recovery of patients whose speech was impacted by a stroke. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon and elsewhere have used fMRI scans to identify activation patterns associated with particular words or phrases or even emotions.
Wehbe nevertheless was convinced that multiple cognitive subprocesses could be studied simultaneously while people read a compelling story in a near-normal manner.
They devised a technique in which people see one word of a passage every half seconda€”or four words for every two-second fMRI scan.

Bit by bit, the algorithm was able to associate certain features with certain regions of the brain, Wehbe said. Exactly how the brain creates these neural encodings is still a mystery, they said, but it is the beginning of understanding what the brain is doing when a person reads. A complementary study by Wehbe and Mitchell, presented earlier this fall at the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record brain activity in subjects reading Harry Potter. Dyslexia, the most commonly diagnosed learning disability in the United States, is a neurological reading disability that occurs when the regions of the brain that process written language don't function normally. Speaking more than one language is good for the brain, according to new research that indicates bilingual speakers process information more efficiently and more easily than those who know a single language.
A new study by a Florida State University researcher shows that both a lack of stimulation in the workplace and a dirty working environment can have a long-term cognitive effect on employees. A new study suggests an intriguing strategy to boost memory for what you've just learned: hit the gym four hours later. Pleasant and unpleasant odors are a part of everyone's life, but how do our reactions to smells change when other odors are present? The ability to understand and empathize with others' pain is grounded in cognitive neural processes rather than sensory ones, according to the results of a new study led by University of Colorado Boulder researchers. It is, nevertheless, one of the body's biggest organs, consisting of some 100 billion nerve cells that not only put together thoughts and highly coordinated physical actions but regulate our unconscious body processes, such as digestion and breathing. It accepts a flood of information about the world around you from your various senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, etc). The billions of neurons in the two hemispheres are connected by thick bundles of nerve cell fibers called the cerebral hemispheres. The limbic system links the brain stem with the higher reasoning elements of the cerebral cortex. This part of the brain is thought to be the site where short-term memories are converted into long-term memories for storage in other brain areas. Carnegie Mellon University scientists used a chapter of that book to learn a different lesson: identifying what different regions of the brain are doing when people read. They then analyzed the scans, cubic millimeter by cubic millimeter, for every four-word segment of that chapter.
It also might be used by educators to identify what might be giving a student trouble when learning a foreign language.
But these have always been tightly controlled experiments, with only one variable analyzed at a time.
She believed that using a real text passage as an experimental stimulus would provide a rich sample of the different word properties, which could help to reveal which brain regions are associated with these different properties.
For each word, they identified 195 detailed featuresa€”everything from the number of letters in the word to its part of speech. MEG can record activity every millisecond, rather than every two seconds as in fMRI scanning, but can't localize activity with the precision of fMRI.

First, you have to know how to read the words on a page and understand thema€”but there's a higher-level step to reading comprehension.
Similarly, the reading skills of adult readers also have been assessed by having them read words aloud.
It continuously receives sensory information, and rapidly analyzes this data and then responds, controlling bodily actions and functions.
Even though it is the smallest of the three main players, its functions are crucial to survival.
It plays a key role in developing and carrying out instinctive behaviors and emotions and also is important in perceiving smells and linking them with memory, emotion, and instinctive behaviors.
The result was the first integrated computational model of reading, identifying which parts of the brain are responsible for such subprocesses as parsing sentences, determining the meaning of words and understanding relationships between characters. The experiments were unnatural, usually involving only single words or phrases, but the slow pace of fMRIa€”one scan every two secondsa€”made other approaches seem unfeasible. They then used a machine learning algorithm to analyze the activation of each cubic centimeter of the brain for each four-word segment. Those findings suggest how words are integrated into memorya€”how the brain first visually perceives a word and then begins accessing the properties of the word, and fitting it into the story context. The left hemisphere appears to focus on details (such as recognizing a particular face in a crowd).
The cerebellum has two hemispheres, which receive information from the eyes, ears, and muscles and joints about the body’s movements and position.
The brain stem controls the functions that happen automatically to keep us alive—our heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing.
The right hemisphere focuses on broad background (such as understanding the relative position of objects in a space). Once the cerebellum processes that information, it sends instructions to the body through the rest of the brain and spinal cord. It also relays information between the brain and the spinal cord, which then sends out messages to the muscles, skin, and other organs.
The cerebellum’s work allows us to move smoothly, maintain our balance, and turn around without even thinking about it. It also is involved with motor learning and remembering how to do things like drive a car or write your name.

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