Water on the brain meaning,how to get a will from probate court sc,inspirational quotes for nurse practitioners,impact of having a positive attitude - PDF 2016

Author: admin, 25.02.2016. Category: Positive Affirmations Quotes

At every moment an animal's body is a beautifully choreographed performance of cells working together. Think of it like it like a theater production with trillions of cast members all on the stage at the same time. In order to maintain organization, all of the cells have standard biological conditions under which they can function. There are baseline levels for salt concentration, pH, nutrients, fluids, and body temperature. The reason that solutes, pH, and temperature need to be at such specific levels is because of enzymes. Enzymes are the keys that catalyze chemical reactions in the cells and allow them to take place.
As shown in the graphs below, enzyme activity levels can vary greatly depending on temperature and pH levels. If the proper levels of everything are not maintained in the cell, the consequences can be deadly. For example, an imbalance of potassium and sodium can cause the heart muscle to fail.The graph on the left shows the % of activity (vertical y-axis) that an enzyme has over a range of temperatures (horizontal x-axis). The graph on the right shows the % activity (y-axis) for three different enzymes (blue, yellow, and green) over a range oh pHs (x-axis).
Notice that each enzyme works best at only a single pH.The process of regulating and maintaining the internal environment is called homeostasis.


The sensing stage is completed by thousands of internal receptors that detect the levels of a variety of things in the body.
If necessary, the brain will start orchestrating an appropriate response to fix the disruption of homeostasis.Think of it like a thermometer, a thermostat, and a furnace. The nervous system communicates via electrical signals, and the endocrine system communicates via biological signals. The endocrine system is a system of glands that secrete chemical messengers throughout the body. Just like the circulatory system, which has different names for the blood vessels to and from the heart, there are different names for the neural pathways leading to and from the brain. The neuron signaling pathway leading towards the brain is the afferent pathway, and the pathway traveling away from the brain is the efferent pathway.
Electrical signals of the nervous system are often translated into the biological signals of the endocrine system. Diagram of the afferent and efferent nerves which lead towards and away from the brain.Most processes are regulated by negative feedback loops.
Negative feedback means that a sensor somewhere in the body has reported a level occurring outside the tolerated limits. They are constantly sending the brain reports of the carbon dioxide in the blood by measuring carbon dioxide and blood pH. If the brain receives a report that carbon dioxide levels are too high and pH levels are too low, it sends out the proper signals to increase respiration and circulation to bring in more oxygen.Solute RegulationSolutes are substances which are dissolved in water.


If you put water in a tube and let it evaporate, the residue leftover would be the solutes that had been dissolved in the water. If you have ever taken a swim in the ocean then you have likely seen the white salt residue that is left on your skin afterwards. Sodium chloride, or salt, is a common solute found in the blood, and the levels of sodium ions and chloride ions are among many solutes that are regulated. Solutes are important for chemical reactions to occur, but only in the proper concentrations.
Iron deficiency, copper deficiency, and iodine deficiency are just a few examples that can cause serious problems in your body.
Apart from specifics, overall ion levels control the pH inside the body, which is important for all biological processes. It is the kidneys that remove excess solutes from the blood so that they may be excreted as urine.OsmoregulationAnother form of regulation is called osmoregulation. This is the control of the levels of water in the body, and the consequent control of the solutes dissolved within it.



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