This is your brain on climate change,ways to make side money at home,21 interesting facts about the brain - Downloads 2016

Author: admin, 23.04.2014. Category: The Power Of Attraction

But it’s really important that you understand the difference between weather and climate, or folks are going to take advantage of your confusion.
Weather is day-to-day, climate is year-to-year, or decade-to-decade, or century-to-century. What if we (Minnesotans) got a couple solid weeks of rain right now, at the tail end of summer?
Maybe it seems obvious, but we still tend to use weather as a substitute for climate even when we think we understand it. People who fall into the extreme categories, the freaking-out “alarmed” and the denying “dismissive,” typically aren’t swayed by day-to-day weather—they might use it to further their own arguments, but they (rightly) don’t let it affect their perceptions of long-term climate behavior. Everyone else, the various shades of undecided, however, is influenced by the local weather, often subconsciously. Of course climate is made up of weather—lots and lots and lots of weather—but, as an author of a report on the subject puts it, making generalizations about climate based on weather “is like asserting how the economy is doing by looking at the change in your pocket. Or just because Hulk Hogan opened Pastamania in 1995, it would be a mistake to say that the nation was in a climate of true pasta-love, let alone pastamania. To say the climate is changing, or not changing, you have to look at the weather data over many years. I never used to have a fear of heights, either, like a lot of you, but I do now on some things. Subscribe Connect with Science Buzz on Facebook and Twitter.You can also subscribe to our RSS feed using any newsreader software. MIT researchers have developed synthetic biological circuits that combine both analog (continuous) and digital (discrete) computation — allowing living cells to carry out complex processing operations, such as releasing a drug in response to low glucose levels. The research is presented in an open-access paper published in the journal Nature Communications.
Digital systems are based on a simple binary output, such as 0 or 1, so performing complex computational operations requires the use of a large number of parts (such as AND and OR logic gates) to make the decision, which is difficult to achieve in synthetic biological systems. Using genes (instead of voltages), synthetic biologists design genetic circuits (arrangements of DNA components) that can perform new functions. The new synthetic circuits can measure the level of an analog input, such as a particular chemical relevant to a disease, and then make a binary decision — for example, turning on an output, such as a drug that treats the disease if the level is in the right range.
If the concentration of the chemical reaches a certain level, the threshold module expresses the recombinase gene, causing it to flip the DNA segment (which contains a gene or gene-regulatory element, which then alters the expression of a desired output). The team has also built an analog-to-digital converter circuit that implements ternary (three-valued) logic.
In the future, the circuit could be used to detect glucose levels in the blood and respond in one of three ways depending on the concentration, he says.
Similar analog-to-digital converter circuits could also be used to detect a variety of chemicals, simply by changing the sensor, Lu says. The researchers are investigating the idea of using analog-to-digital converters to detect levels of inflammation in the gut caused by inflammatory bowel disease, for example, and releasing different amounts of a drug in response. Immune cells used in cancer treatment could also be engineered to detect different environmental inputs, such as oxygen or tumor lysis (cell breakdown) levels, and vary the immune-call therapeutic activity in response. Other research groups are also interested in using the devices for environmental applications, such as engineering cells that detect concentrations of water pollutants, Lu says. The research team recently created a spinout company, called Synlogic, which is now attempting to use simple versions of the circuits to engineer probiotic bacteria that can treat diseases in the gut.
Living cells implement complex computations on the continuous environmental signals that they encounter.
The macaw has a brain the size of an unshelled walnut, compared to the macaque monkey’s lemon-sized brain.
The first study to systematically measure the number of neurons in the brains of more than two dozen species of birds has found that the birds that were studied consistently have more neurons packed into their small brains than those in mammalian or even primate brains of the same mass. The study results were published online in an open-access paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences early edition on the week of June 13. The study answers a puzzle that comparative neuroanatomists have been wrestling with for more than a decade: How can birds with their small brains perform complicated cognitive behaviors? The conundrum was created by a series of studies beginning in the previous decade that directly compared the cognitive abilities of parrots and crows with those of primates. That’s because the neurons in avian brains are much smaller and more densely packed than those in mammalian brains, the study found. Although she acknowledges that the relationship between intelligence and neuron count has not yet been firmly established, Herculano-Houzel and her colleagues argue that having the same or greater forebrain neuron counts than primates with much larger brains can potentially provide the birds with much higher “cognitive power” per pound than mammals. Does the surprisingly large number of neurons in bird brains comes at a correspondingly large energetic cost?
Are the small neurons in bird brains a response to selection for small body size due to flight, or possibly the ancestral way of adding neurons to the brain — from which mammals, not birds, may have diverged. Herculano-Houzel hopes that the results of the study and the questions it raises will stimulate other neuroscientists to begin exploring the mysteries of the avian brain, especially how their behavior compares to that of mammals of similar numbers of neurons or brain size. Researchers at Charles University in Prague and the University of Vienna were also involved in the study. Some birds achieve primate-like levels of cognition, even though their brains tend to be much smaller in absolute size.
A meta-analysis of 45 studies (64 publications) of consumption of whole grain by an international team of researchers, led by Dagfinn Aune, PhD, at Imperial College London, found lower risks of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease overall, as well as deaths from all causes and from specific diseases, including stroke, cancer, diabetes, infectious and respiratory diseases. The results have been published in an open-access paper in the British Medical Journal (BMJ). A large body of evidence has emerged on the health benefits of whole grain foods over the last 10–15 years. But recommendations on the daily amount and types of whole grain foods needed to reduce risk of chronic disease and mortality have often been unclear or inconsistent. Reductions in risks of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality were associated with intake of whole grain bread, whole grain breakfast cereals, and added bran, as well as total intake of bread and breakfast cereals. There was little evidence of an association with intake of refined grains, white rice, total rice or other grains. However, the researchers noted that systematic reviews and meta-analyses involving observational research cannot be used to draw conclusions about cause and effect. They call for more research to determine health benefits of different types of whole grain in different geographical regions, as most of the current evidence is from the U.S. Objective To quantify the dose-response relation between consumption of whole grain and specific types of grains and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality. Study selection Prospective studies reporting adjusted relative risk estimates for the association between intake of whole grains or specific types of grains and cardiovascular disease, total cancer, all cause or cause specific mortality. Data synthesis Summary relative risks and 95% confidence intervals calculated with a random effects model. Conclusions This meta-analysis provides further evidence that whole grain intake is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and total cancer, and mortality from all causes, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, diabetes, and all non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. The Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI) is one of the premier international conferences on research related to knowledge representation, learning, and reasoning in the presence of uncertainty. Workshops will include Causation: Foundation to Application, Bayesian Applications Workshop, and Machine Learning for Health. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy: Evolution with performance-only selection results in non-hierarchical and non-modular networks, which take longer to adapt to new environments.
New research suggests why the human brain and other biological networks exhibit a hierarchical structure, and the study may improve attempts to create artificial intelligence.
This study also supports Ray Kurzweil’s theory of the hierarchical structure of the neocortex, presented in his 2012 book, How to Create a Mind.
The human brain has separate areas for vision, motor control, and tactile processing, for example, and each of these areas consist of sub-regions that govern different parts of the body. The research findings suggest that hierarchy evolves not because it produces more efficient networks, but instead because hierarchically wired networks have fewer connections.
In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings may also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics. Aside from explaining why biological networks are hierarchical, the research might also explain why many man-made systems such as the Internet and road systems are also hierarchical.
Hierarchical organization—the recursive composition of sub-modules—is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet.
Boosting the transport of mitochondria (cell energy suppliers) along neuronal axons enhances the ability of mouse nerve cells to repair themselves and regrow after injury or disease, researchers at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke report in The Journal of Cell Biology. Neurons need large amounts of energy to extend their axons long distances through the body. During development, mitochondria are transported up and down growing axons to generate ATP wherever it is needed.
Zu-Hang Sheng and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke wondered whether this decrease in mitochondrial transport might explain why adult neurons are typically unable to regrow after injury.
They initially found that when mature mouse axons are severed, nearby mitochondria are damaged and become unable to provide sufficient ATP to support injured nerve regeneration.
The Syntaphilin-deficient mature neurons therefore regained the ability to regrow after injury, just like young neurons. Although neuronal regeneration is a highly energy-demanding process, axonal mitochondrial transport progressively declines with maturation.
In a lab experiment, the scientists exposed healing macrophages (white blood cells that eat things that don’t belong), taken from human blood, to electrical fields of strength similar to that generated in injured skin. The research extends previous research reported by KurzweilAI (New evidence that electrical stimulation accelerates wound healing). Macrophages are key cells in inflammation and repair, and their activity requires close regulation. With five full days of great content, WWDC is designed to help you collaborate, learn, and get inspired. We’ll be live streaming sessions daily and posting videos of all sessions throughout the week of the conference.
Finnish researchers have developed a method for building highly efficient miniaturized micro-supercapacitor energy storage directly inside a silicon microcircuit chip, making it possible to power autonomous sensor networks, wearable electronics, and mobile internet-of-things (IoT) devices. Supercapacitors function similar to standard batteries, but store electrostatic energy instead of chemical energy.
The researchers at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland have developed a hybrid nano-electrode that’s only a few nanometers thick. The micro-supercapacitor can store 0.2 joule (55 microwatts of power for one hour) on a one-square-centimeter silicon chip. Micro-supercapacitors can also be integrated directly with active microelectronic devices to store electrical energy generated by thermal, light, and vibration energy harvesters to supply electrical energy (see, for example, Wireless device converts ‘lost’ microwave energy into electric power). Today’s supercapacitor energy storages are typically discrete devices aimed for printed boards and power applications. This electron microscope image shows a hybrid nanoparticle consisting of a nanodiamond (roughly 50 nanometers wide) covered in smaller silver nanoparticles that enhance the diamond’s optical properties.
University of Maryland researchers have developed a method to quickly and inexpensively assemble diamond-based hybrid nanoparticles from the ground up in large quantities while avoiding many of the problems with current methods. These hybrid nanoparticles could speed the design of room-temperature qubits for quantum computers and create brighter dyes for biomedical imaging or highly sensitive magnetic and temperature sensors, for example.
Pure diamonds consist of an orderly lattice of carbon atoms and are completely transparent.
This altered bond is also the source of the optical, electromagnetic, and quantum physical properties that will make a nanodiamond useful when paired with other nanomaterials. As KurzweilAI has shown in several articles, a nitrogen vacancy in a diamond (or other crystalline materials) can lead to a variety of interesting new properties, such as a highly sensitive way to detect neural signals, an ultrasensitive real-time magnetic field detector, and importantly, making a nanodiamond behave as a quantum bit (qubit) for use in quantum computing and other applications.
Ougang’s and colleagues’ main breakthrough, though, is their method for constructing the hybrid nanoparticles. His team’s method also enables precise control of the hybrid particles’ properties, such as the composition and total number of non-diamond particles. In this artist’s conception, a carbon planet orbits a sunlike star in the early universe. New findings by scientists at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) suggest that planet formation in the early universe might have created carbon planets consisting of graphite, carbides, and diamond and that astronomers might find these diamond worlds by searching a rare class of stars. The primordial universe consisted mostly of hydrogen and helium, and lacked chemical elements like carbon and oxygen necessary for life as we know it. Mashian and her PhD thesis advisor Avi Loeb examined a particular class of old stars known as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. From a distance, these carbon planets would be difficult to tell apart from more Earth-like worlds.
When a planet crosses in front of its star as viewed by an observer, the event is called a transit. But a dedicated search for planets around CEMP stars can be done using the transit technique, the scientists suggest. Headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a joint collaboration between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory. We explore the possibility of planet formation in the carbon-rich protoplanetary disks of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, possible relics of the early Universe. Insilico Medicine and Life Extension announced today an exclusive collaboration to identify novel biomarkers of human aging through the use of big-data analytics and AI, with the ultimate goal of discovery and formulation of nutrients to support health and longevity.
Insilico Medicine* is a big-data analytics company specializing in applying advances in deep learning to discovery of biomarkers and drugs. Insilico Medicine will focus on applying advanced signaling pathway activation analysis techniques and deep-learning algorithms to find nutraceuticals that mimic the tissue-specific transcriptional response of many known interventions and pathways associated with health and longevity. Insilico Medicine scientists will present the results of this collaboration at RAADFest in San Diego in August, a longevity-focused conference. Triclosan, a common antibacterial ingredient found in many products such as toothpastes, soaps, and detergents to reduce or prevent bacterial infections, has been linked to making bacteria resistant to antibiotics, with adverse health effects. In contrast, current antibiotics only kill the bacteria but fail to destroy the cell membrane, allowing new antibiotic-resistant bacteria to grow. The Research Analyst will support the work of two teams in FrameWorks: the Research Unit and the Research Interpretation Unit. Review of applications will begin on June 16, 2016 and continue until the search process concludes.
The FrameWorks Institute conducts, publishes, and shares communications research to prepare nonprofit organizations to expand their constituency base, build public will, and further public understanding of specific social issues. The Researcher will collect, analyze, and synthesize multiple streams of data to produce framing recommendations for experts, scientists, and advocates working to engage the public. The Director of Strategic Partnerships will work to build relationships with, visibility in, and responsiveness to the fields of practice relevant to FrameWorks’ mission. Help to convey FrameWorks’ approach and advice to key partners, such as foundations or other sponsors, contributing writing and analysis for proposals, presentations, etc.
Funders for LGBTQ Issues is a network of foundations and corporations dedicated to increasing the scale and impact of philanthropic resources aimed at enhancing the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer communities, promoting equity, and advancing racial, economic, and gender justice. The Research and Communications Associate serves a crucial role in managing and maintaining Funders for LGBTQ Issues extensive database of LGBTQ grants.
Data Collection – reaching out to thousands of grantmakers to request grants level information, following up with said grantmakers, and supplementing grant information with 990s and annual reports as necessary. Data Coding and Management – coding thousands of individual grants across more than 25 different crosstabs and maintaining the database. Writing and editing – of various collateral pieces including reports, articles, and other documents that identify trends in LGBTQ grantmaking and promote the organization while also managing social media posts and e-communications. Oversee research and data collection related to the Annual Tracking Report of LGBTQ Grantmaking by U.S. Analyze individual grants and code each grant across more than 25 different crosstabs that include the issue addressed by the grant, the strategy employed, the sub-populations targeted, and more. Manage the database of LGBTQ grants, developing a familiarity with the Funders for LGBTQ Issues classification system and overall grantmaking trends, while also being able to quickly produce specific snapshots of funding around specific issues and sub-populations. Compile and format the monthly e-newsletter and assist with other electronic and print communications. Manage the organization’s social media presence across various channels including Facebook and Twitter, with a focus on not only growing the audience but also providing useful resources to members and philanthropic partners. Exceptional mastery of and experience with the management and analysis of large data sets, including a high aptitude for database and spreadsheet maintenance as well as a strong aptitude for data visualization. Extremely organized and detailed oriented, with the ability to prioritize and juggle multiple projects and deadlines while advancing long-term organizational goals. Excellent writing and editing skills, with the ability to synthesize ideas in a succinct and compelling manner. Broad understanding and commitment to LGBTQ issues, and, ideally, in-depth knowledge of at least one or two subject areas that affect LGBTQ communities, such as LGBTQ youth, marriage equality and family recognition, trans communities, and LGBTQ communities of color.
Self-starter with ability to work effectively as part of a small and highly motivated team.
Strong aptitude for adapting to new technology, with experience using constantcontact and FLUXX a plus. Due to the high volume of applications we receive for open positions, we are only able to respond to candidates selected for interviews. Funders for LGBTQ Issues is an Equal Opportunity Employer committed to building the leadership of people of color, women, transgender and gender non-conforming individuals.
Work for one of the world’s most innovative and creative multidisciplinary research institutions engaged in strategic science on behalf of national security. Reporting to the Communications and Public Affairs Division Leader the Communications Specialist will be responsible for a wide variety of strategic and tactical communications programs and roles with specific focus on promoting the Laboratory’s national security mission and multi-disciplinary scientific capabilities to priority external and internal audiences. Synthesizing complex scientific and technical issues and subjects for diverse stakeholders and translating them into understandable and effective written materials. Writing about potentially politically sensitive issues with judgement and skill, and successfully navigating the approval process in the same way. Devising and developing Laboratory-wide and Directorate-specific communication plans and strategies, particularly for media relations and the employee audience. Shaping and implementing external and internal communication strategies to foster a better understanding and appreciation of the Laboratory’s mission and capabilities. Engage in enterprise journalism within the Laboratory and across all Directorates to seek out and publicize newsworthy scientific research and technology developments for targeted internal and external audiences and media. Advising key leaders on strategic communications surrounding key initiatives, shaping communication strategies. Developing and leading initiatives to raise the Laboratory’s external profile and shape its reputation.
Bachelor’s Degree in journalism, communications, or related degree and at least twelve years of professional writing experience or the equivalent combination of education and experience. Expertise in professional writing for general, public and niche audiences, including ability to translate scientific, technical, national security and other complex concepts into compelling communication products. Expertise in developing communications strategy institution-wide as well as topic-specific, including the ability to successfully propose, develop, launch and maintain new products and initiatives in support of the strategy.
An in-depth understanding of the news media landscape, including national, national security and scientific print and broadcast outlets as well as the dynamics of working with individual editors, reporters to gain coverage.


Exceptional interpersonal and communication skills and the ability to effectively partner with executive management and staff.
Ability to translate an institution’s mission and strategic plan into communication strategies and written materials that successfully target, reach and impact priority audiences. Ability to write in the voice of senior management and senior research scientists in preparing a variety of externally published materials, including op-eds, science and technology columns for popular audiences, and blog posts on scientific and popular websites.
Ability to analyze external media to determine strategies for developing and promoting targeted media outreach regarding Laboratory science and technology. Ability to translate technical concepts and material into compelling and persuasive communications products. Ability to develop and execute communications strategies that are aligned with organizational goals and objectives. Political acumen, judgement and understanding of science, government and policy communications.
Ability, experience and interest in using metrics and other assessment systems and tools to measure effectiveness of communications initiatives and adjust programs. Los Alamos National Laboratory is an equal opportunity employer and supports a diverse and inclusive workforce. Works closely with managers within the Division and across the Laboratory in developing Lab-wide institutional communication strategies, plans and programs, and assumes responsibility for ensuring their execution. The Communications Manager is considered an expert with a proven track record in internal communications, particularly with regard to informing and engaging employees through publications and newsletters, web site and digital communications, email and social media, and in-person communications.  Some experience in media relations, issue management, and crisis communications is important. The successful candidate will exhibit exemplary management and leadership skills, providing and facilitating communications leadership for effective Laboratory management.  In this position, the manager also directly oversees individual contributors and working groups, serving as a coach and mentor to junior staff and driving timely, quality and effective performance by the entire team.
Bachelor’s degree (Masters Preferred) in Communication, Journalism, Public Relations, or relevant discipline or the equivalent combination of education and experience. Extensive experience as a communications manager or similar position leading and managing internal communications.
Relevant communications experience in corporate, government, university, or non-profit settings, particularly in internal communications. Expertise in strategic planning and strategic content planning, performance management, project management, vendor management and budget management. Event management experience with internal and external events on site and elsewhere, including institutional anniversaries and other occasions. Outstanding writing, editorial and editorial management skills to include an appreciation for capturing the right style, tone and voice. Strong ability to translate technical concepts and material, as well as sensitive internal issues, into compelling, on-message, informative and persuasive communications products. Experience with the monitoring and analysis of audience reach and engagement, including through the use of user surveys and metrics. Thorough knowledge of marketing communications practices, including branding and visual identity initiatives. Experience as an on-the-record media spokesperson and in providing media training to other would be spokespersons.
The Walton Family Foundation is seeking a skilled, experienced individual to join the communications team as a writer and editor for internal and external communications. The communications officer will write and edit both internal- and external-facing communications materials, including blog posts, social media content, speeches, op-eds, web content and presentations. Collaborate effectively with other staff members to develop ideas, create content and ensure the best product possible. Execute creative writing to craft messages that communicate consistent and relevant information to target audiences. Establish relationships with subject matter experts across the foundation to develop messaging. Outline, write and edit blog posts for directors and select program staff – often on tight deadlines.
Optimize content to be distributed across multiple channels, including social media, web, email or print.
Provide editorial support as needed, including proofreading, reviewing content for clarity, meaningfulness and relevance. Minimum of three years’ experience in journalism, corporate communication, public relations, content strategy or related field.
Excellent written and oral communication skills, including the ability to create compelling stories, both narratively and visually.
Ability to be a self-starter; experience and aptitude managing long-distance internal and external relationships. Attention to detail and problem solving, with a demonstrated capacity to meet deadlines and a commitment to customer service. A high level of discretion, judgment and confidentiality for both business and personal affairs.
The physical demands described here are representative of those that must be met by an employee to successfully perform the essential functions of this job.
Specific vision abilities required by this job include close vision, color, and the ability to adjust focus in order to handle extensive data collection, analysis and summary reporting. The foundation offers an excellent benefits package and a competitive salary that is commensurate with experience.
Please be sure to reference the job responsibilities and your relevant qualifications and experience in your cover letter, and explain clearly how your skills and experience would be a good fit. Sam and Helen Walton had an unshakeable belief in the power of people to transform their own lives.
Since 2000, the foundation’s grantmaking has grown from $50 million to an anticipated more than $400 million in 2015. In addition to these program areas, the foundation also supports grantmaking interests of individual and groups of Walton family members, as well as independent foundations created by family members. During 2016, the foundation plans to invest over $400 million in domestic and international projects that address significant social and environmental issues.
The Children’s Institute’s (CI) mission is to move research to action by promoting cost-effective public and private investments in our youngest children birth to third grade. CI is seeking the right seasoned professional to join our team as Director of Communications. The Director of Communications will work alongside the CEO and senior management team to articulate and drive CI’s advocacy agenda through a carefully crafted toolbox of strategic communications.
The Director of Communications is responsible for the development, integration, and implementation of a broad range of communications tools and products in an increasingly fast-paced multi-media environment, from traditional print products to creative and targeted social media approaches.
Work to quickly recognize internal and external communications opportunities, challenges, and solutions, and define and execute appropriate strategies to support them.
Passion for and commitment to equity and a path to success for Oregon’s most vulnerable young children. Expertise and a track record of success in developing and implementing integrated communications campaigns to support long- and short-term goals and outcomes. Experience with a wide range of communications practices, including publications, online communications, traditional and digital media, public relations, public affairs, marketing, and effective storytelling. Demonstrated flexibility, maturity, and ability to build strong relationships in a collaborative environment of staff, leadership and consultants with varying backgrounds and work styles. Must be able to guide the work of staff, vendors, and consultants in a fast-paced, entrepreneurial environment. Children’s Institute is an equal opportunity employer committed to an inclusive and multicultural work environment. The Senior Writer, Donor Relations is responsible translating CJP’s highest ambitions for the Greater Boston Jewish community into written materials that both inspire donors to contribute transformational gifts; as well as motivate donors to continue their support. Successful incumbent will attain a comprehensive and detailed understanding of CJP’s programmatic goals, as well as CJP’s fundraising strategy (both writ large, and goals for individual high-capacity donors) and will translate these strategies into external, donor-facing materials. Work with AVP to ensure that all reports, proposals, updates, broad donor communications are aligned with DRS voice.
Develop relationships within development and planning to understand fundraising and planning priorities. Partner with DRS admin and DRS senior associate director to execute gift acknowledgments “from” the CEO.
An understanding of the opportunities and challenges of donor communications within a development context. Solid conceptual and strategic thinking along with attention to detail are mandatory, as are superior organizational, project-management (including managing multiple projects on deadline), time-management, and written and oral communication skills.
Candidates must be highly self-motivated and flexible, and must have a good sense of humor. CJP brings together the people, partners and resources to fulfill the most important needs and aspirations of our community. CJP is an equal opportunity employer.  People with disabilities, women, veterans, people of color, and GLBT people are encouraged to apply. This position will contribute to the Foundation’s strategic communications program by supporting Casey units to develop and disseminate communications tools that deliver priority messages to external audiences.
Manage relationships with internal units of the Foundation to meet their communications and marketing needs, which will include developing ideas and messages for strategies, events and campaigns that advance their work on a local, state and national scale while maintaining consistency with the Foundation’s overarching frames. Function as a thought partner for Casey units, coordinating with directors and staff through all stages of projects, from conceptualization through message refinement, internal and external distribution, follow-up and evaluation.
Coordinate with the policy team to ensure that messages effectively target and inspire legislative, administrative and judicial leaders in a manner that helps create policies that improve outcomes for children and families. Provide oversight on work of outside vendors and contractors including mail house, graphic designers, photographers and freelance writers. Recommend strategies and goals to design, develop and implement web and social media tools that meet the Foundation’s overall communications needs. Work closely with communications staff and their consultants across the Foundation to identify opportunities and vehicles to deliver messages to media, policymakers, elected officials, grantees, staff and other key audiences.
Maintain awareness and understanding of the Foundation’s grant-making processes, Foundation-wide initiatives and program work. Exhibit sensitivity to and respect for diversity in personal, professional and business relationships on behalf of the Foundation. Demonstrate awareness and appreciation of the Foundation’s mission, values, standards, principles and programs, drawing on Casey’s Knowledge Management System, Intranet, website, staff development sessions and other learning opportunities to establish this competency. The duties listed above are intended only as illustrations of the various types of work that may be performed. Communications experience working in nonprofit organizations or government agencies in the areas of juvenile justice, child welfare, human services, advocacy or community development is preferred. Proficiency with WebEx Event Center is a plus, as is experience running an online project management system for publications. The work is done out of the Foundation’s Baltimore offices, with travel requiring up to 30 percent of time.
This is an exempt position, meaning pay is on a salaried rather than hourly or daily basis. American Jewish World Service (AJWS) seeks an outstanding Digital Content Officer to enhance the organization’s digital presence in pursuit of global justice.
American Jewish World Service (AJWS) is the leading Jewish organization working to promote human rights and end poverty in the developing world. AJWS’s digital department, housed within the communications division, is responsible for the organization’s entire digital presence—including AJWS’s website, social media presence, email marketing operation, and digital engagement efforts. The Digital Content Officer is responsible for developing and implementing creative content for all web properties, including AJWS’s website and our social media platforms, to raise the organization’s profile among key audiences and to support AJWS’s fundraising efforts. The Digital Content Officer will be a key member of AJWS’s digital team and will collaborate closely with colleagues across the organization. Conceptualize timely and emotionally resonant digital engagement efforts to grow our base of supporters. Represent AJWS in strategic social media spaces by engaging in digital conversations, answering questions, live tweeting during events, posting comments on relevant blogs, etc.
Work with AJWS’s digital team and external consultants to engage new supporters, including donors and activists, to achieve our fundraising goals and acquire new subscribers to our e-lists. Knowledge of politics, advocacy, human rights, international development and the American Jewish community a plus.
AJWS’s communications division is seeking a skilled writer and editor with experience in the field of international development and human rights to join our publications department as the Communications Officer for Human Rights and Story Development. The Communications Officer will write and manage production of key AJWS publications—including Country Profiles, blogs, articles and other content that introduces supporters to our human rights work, conveys AJWS’s impact and tells vivid stories about the activists and organizations funded by AJWS who are fighting poverty and injustice in the developing world. To do this job well, the Communications Officer must have an understanding of the human rights and international development field (including familiarity with one or more of the following issues: sexual health and rights, civil and political rights, and natural resource rights).
Manage a Story bank of content about AJWS’s grantees in the developing world and our national advocacy, to be used to support publications, press, fundraising, and other media.
Also, it is breakfast.Courtesy Lori GeigWell, no, I won’t literally shout it into your brain. They’ll do it with op-eds and obnoxious little bumper stickers instead of with a hammer, but it will still be unpleasant in the end. I’m smrt!” And you may very well be smert, but there’s a decent chance that you still let weather fool you into thinking it’s climate. But the Midwest and Russia have been having a hot hot summer, so we must be in the burning grip of global warming, right?
Clever people that we are, we still allow the wrong evidence to influence our opinions on huge, important issues?! Like, in Home Alone, just because Kevin Mcallister’s family called him “such a disease,” and left him home alone that one time, it didn’t mean that they didn’t really love him.
Just add the video URL to your textarea in the place where you would like the video to appear, i.e. Current synthetic biological systems, in contrast, have tended to focus on either analog or digital processing, limiting the range of uses.
Two environment-responsive gene promoters (a region of DNA that initiates transcription — that is, copying a particular segment of DNA into RNA), P1 and P2, act as the inputs to drive the transcriptions of hrpR and hrpS genes, and respond to small molecules. For example, a threshold module consists of a sensor that detects analog levels of a particular chemical, which controls the expression of the second digital component, a recombinase gene, which can then switch on or off a segment of DNA by converting it into a digital (on or off) output. The circuit, which is capable of producing two different outputs, will only switch on in response to either a high or low concentration range of an input.
The company hopes to begin clinical trials of these bacteria-based treatments within the next 12 months. These computations involve both analogue- and digital-like processing of signals to give rise to complex developmental programs, context-dependent behaviours and homeostatic activities. Now it turns out that it should be a compliment,” said Vanderbilt University neuroscientist Suzana Herculano-Houzel, senior author of the paper with Pavel Nemec at the Charles University in Prague.
The studies found that the birds could manufacture and use tools, use insight to solve problems, make inferences about cause-effect relationships, recognize themselves in a mirror, and plan for future needs, among other cognitive skills previously considered the exclusive domain of primates.
For each species, the total number of neurons (in millions) in each brain is shown in yellow, the number of neurons (in millions) in the forebrain (pallium) is shown in blue and the brain mass (in grams) is shown in red. Two years ago, even this hypothesis was knocked down by a detailed study of pigeon brains, which concluded that they are, in fact, organized along quite similar lines to those of primates. That explains why they exhibit levels of cognition at least as complex as primates,” said Herculano-Houzel.
Parrot and songbird brains, for example, contain about twice as many neurons as primate brains of the same mass and two to four times as many neurons as equivalent rodent brains.
Previously, neuroanatomists thought that as brains grew larger, neurons had to grow bigger as well because they had to connect over longer distances. This poses a fundamental problem in comparative and computational neuroscience, because small brains are expected to have a lower information-processing capacity.
Grains are one of the major staple foods worldwide and provide on average 56% of energy intake and 50% of protein intake.
These findings support dietary guidelines that recommend increased intake of whole grain to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and premature mortality. However, evolving networks with a connection cost creates hierarchical and functionally modular networks that can solve the overall problem by recursively solving its sub-problems.
To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. In adults, however, mitochondria become less mobile as mature neurons produce a protein called syntaphilin that anchors the mitochondria in place. However, when the researchers experimentally removed syntaphilin from the nerve cells (by using a genetically modified mouse), mitochondrial transport was enhanced, allowing the damaged mitochondria to be replaced by healthy mitochondria capable of producing ATP.
Such combined approaches may represent a valid therapeutic strategy to facilitate regeneration in the central and peripheral nervous systems after injury or disease,” Sheng says. Mature neurons typically fail to regenerate after injury, thus raising a fundamental question as to whether mitochondrial transport is necessary to meet enhanced metabolic requirements during regeneration. When the voltage was applied, the macrophages moved in a directed manner to Candida albicans fungus cells (representing damaged skin) to facilitate healing (engulfing and digesting extracellular particles). The characterization of cues coordinating macrophage function has focused on biologic and soluble mediators, with little known about their responses to physical stimuli, such as the electrical fields that are generated naturally in injured tissue and which accelerate wound healing. The Keynote and State of the Union promise exciting reveals, providing inspiration and new opportunities to continue creating the most innovative apps in the world. In addition to learning about the latest Apple technologies and getting one-on-one advice from Apple experts, you can gain insight from guest speakers and make valuable connections with fellow developers. It consists of porous silicon coated with a titanium nitride layer formed by atomic layer deposition. That combined with an ionic liquid (in a microchannel formed in between two electrodes), results in an extremely small form factor and efficient energy storage. This design also leaves the surface of the chip available for active integrated microcircuits and sensors. The development of autonomous sensor networks and wearable electronics and the miniaturization of mobile devices would benefit substantially from solutions in which the energy storage is integrated with the active device. It’s similar to doping silicon to give it special electronic properties (such as making it work as a transistor).
However, pure diamonds are quite rare in natural diamond deposits; most have defects resulting from non-carbon impurities such as nitrogen, boron and phosphorus. A qubit that works at room temperature would represent a significant step forward, helping use quantum circuits in industrial, commercial and consumer-level electronics. Other researchers have paired nanodiamonds with complementary nanoparticles using relatively imprecise methods, such as manually installing the diamonds and particles next to each other onto a larger surface one by one. However, existing methods typically employ top-down fabrication, which restrict scalable and feasible manipulation of nitrogen-vacancy centres. Young planetary systems lacking heavy chemical elements but relatively rich in carbon could form worlds made of graphite, carbides, and diamond rather than Earth-like silicate rocks. Only after the first stars exploded as supernovae and seeded the second generation did planet formation and life become possible.
This relative abundance would influence planet formation as fluffy carbon dust grains (from supernovae) clump together to form tar-black worlds.


CfA scientists, organized into six research divisions, study the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the universe. Life Extension**, a Florida-based organization established in the early 1980s, is a dietary-supplement innovator dedicated to extending healthy human longevity. Computational chemistry studies supported our experimental findings that the chain-like compound works by attacking the cell membrane. The successful candidate will support FrameWorks’ senior staff to help conduct research and share it with advocates, experts, and scientists. A key responsibility of this position is to help with internal communication and project management across these units. We are seeking individuals who are excited about engaging in a multidisciplinary approach to solving applied communications issues.
At every level within the organization’s personnel structure, FrameWorks’ salaries are competitive with similar nonprofits of our size.
Applications from people of color, women, persons with disabilities, and people who identify as LGBT are warmly encouraged. Since 1999, FrameWorks has combined theories and research methods from the cognitive and social sciences to investigate how Americans view a variety of social issues: children’s issues, education, public health and health access, food quality and safety, oceans and climate change, racial disparities, immigration, the role of government, and more.
The successful candidate will join FrameWorks’ research team in data collection, analysis, interpretation, and reporting. Other responsibilities include advancing the theory and methods used in Strategic Frame Analysis®, presenting FrameWorks research, and contributing to the organization’s efforts to engage communicators across multiple nonprofit sectors. The successful candidate will become part of FrameWorks’ senior management team, helping to guide a mission-driven organization and to represent it externally. A key responsibility of this position is project development: conceptualizing the scope and contours of potential new work and cultivating cultivating opportunities to position the organization for greater impact. We host working groups and initiatives on specific topics to help funders shape funding strategies and leverage opportunities for new philanthropic partnerships.
We connect with allies in foundations not yet funding LGBTQ issues and work with them to build institutions that are more inclusive and responsive to LGBTQ communities.
Our reports on domestic and global LGBTQ funding are considered the field’s most reliable and useful source of data on resource flows to LGBTQ communities. The Research and Communications Associate uses data to help articulate the ways in which LGBTQ communities are affected by a range of grantmaking priorities. Excellent benefits, including full medical, retirement plan contributions, and generous holidays and vacation schedule. Funders for LGBTQ Issues does not discriminate on the basis of race, creed, color, gender, age, ethnicity, national origin, sexual orientation, religion, HIV serostatus, disability, or marital status.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is looking for an experienced Senior Communications Specialist. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is looking for an experienced Internal Communications Manager. Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions. This position may be based in either the foundation’s Bentonville, Arkansas, Denver, or Washington, D.C. As Sam said, there is no limit to what individuals can accomplish if “given the opportunity, the encouragement and the incentive to do their best.” Today that “no limits” philosophy is carried forward by their descendants through the Walton Family Foundation. With grantmaking projected to exceed $2 billion over the next five years, the foundation continues to move forward with increasing intensity, focus and commitment to sustaining the Walton’s timeless entrepreneurial values and their deep dedication to making life better for individuals and communities alike. The foundation continues to implement and expand grantmaking to fund a positive difference in many diverse communities – and in the lives of the people who call these communities their home.
CI works to bridge the education, health, and equity divide in Oregon and ensure that the path to success, especially for our most vulnerable children, starts at birth.
As an advocacy and systems change organization, CI must have a vibrant communications presence at all levels throughout the state, particularly with policy makers and the media.
The successful candidate should have a proven track record of developing and executing an effective messaging framework that can ensure the story of CI, its partners, stakeholders—and the young children we champion—is communicated with clarity, consistency, and impact.
Capacity to work well with competing priorities and tight deadlines that require a high degree of independent action with minimal supervision. People of color, women, people with disabilities, and LGBTQ candidates are encouraged to apply. The successful candidate will want, above all, to be an indispensable part of an organization that makes a tangible difference in the lives of our community.
Along with a comprehensive benefits package, this position provides a dedicated team environment while being a part of one of Boston’s premier philanthropic organizations.
Casey Foundation is a private philanthropy that creates a brighter future for the nation’s children by developing solutions to strengthen families, build paths to economic opportunity and transform struggling communities into safer and healthier places to live, work and grow.
Work closely with online communications staff and consultants to keep main site content (aecf.org) current, accurate and in sync with priority messages.
Seek to utilize the Foundation’s resources equitably with regard to race, ethnicity and gender. The omission of specific statements of duties does not exclude them from the position if the work is similar, related or a logical assignment to the position.
This is a dynamic opportunity for someone to blend their digital creativity with a desire to improve the lives of millions of people around the world. We also encourage applications from people of diverse religious, spiritual and cultural backgrounds. Applications submitted without a resume and personalized cover letter will not be considered. To ensure that AJWS has a stream of compelling, fresh content to be used on all of our communications platforms, the Communications Officer will work closely with our programs staff in the U.S. He or she must be adept at translating human rights jargon into engaging, clear and emotionally resonant copy that will inspire our supporters to learn, donate to AJWS and take action on human rights issues occurring around the world. The Program Officer will interview subjects during the shoots and, upon return, will create stories, blogs and photo captions and will advise the video editors on developing accurate, compelling videos from the footage. We will be adopting new software to house our story bank this year and the Communications Officer will oversee the implementation of the new system and will manage any interns or support staff hired to get it up and running. First of all, I’m writing this in the near past, and it’s difficult to shout in this medium anyhow.
As this article in the NY Times points out, plenty of samart people still confuse the two concepts, or at least use one (weather) to make points about the other (climate).
But it isn’t climate, which is so long-term that even very smar people tend to miss the point. I was a jawa, or something, and I trick-or-treated my way through about two and a half feet of snow.
To actually switch to a climate of non-love, the Mcallisters would have to call Kevin a disease every day for years and years, and maybe even stop feeding him. An OR gate fires if either (or both) of the inputs is true (for example, the top input has a 1 volt signal and the bottom input has zero. Transcription of the output promoter gfp is turned on only when both proteins HrpR and HrpS are present. In contrast to natural biological systems, synthetic biological systems have largely focused on either digital or analogue computation separately.
Using the isotropic fractionator to determine numbers of neurons in specific brain regions, here we show that the brains of parrots and songbirds contain on average twice as many neurons as primate brains of the same mass, indicating that avian brains have higher neuron packing densities than mammalian brains. The researchers also simulated the evolution of computational brain models, known as artificial neural networks, both with and without a cost for network connections. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. Here, we reveal that reduced mitochondrial motility and energy deficits in injured axons are intrinsic mechanisms controlling regrowth in mature neurons.
To address this gap in understanding, we tested how properties of human monocyte-derived macrophages are regulated by applied electrical fields, similar in strengths to those established naturally. End the day by honoring the most remarkable developers of the year at the Apple Design Awards. Nanostructures based on porous silicon (PS) provide a route towards integration due to the very high inherent surface area to volume ratio and compatibility with microelectronics fabrication processes. Here, we develop a general bottom-up approach to fabricate an emerging class of freestanding nanodiamond-based hybrid nanostructures with external functional units of either plasmonic nanoparticles or excitonic quantum dots. Blue patches show where water has pooled on the planet’s surface, forming potential habitats for alien life. It utilizes advances in genomics, big-data analysis, and deep learning for in silico drug discovery and drug repurposing for aging and age-related diseases.
The company’s products are developed based on the latest scientific studies from peer-reviewed medical journals and are continually updated as new information occurs. This material is also safe for use because it carries a positive charge that targets the more negatively charged bacteria, without destroying red blood cells,” said Zhang. This is an outstanding opportunity for an early-career professional with a background in a social science field. Other responsibilities include collection, entry, and analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data, and assisting with drafts of reports, presentations, or other ways of sharing findings. This involves understanding a wide range of existing theory and methods, designing innovative approaches to the study of how Americans think about social issues, and working to support scientists, policy experts and advocates in engaging the public in solutions. This work has now expanded to influence NGOs working on these issues in Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, South Africa, and the U.K.
This is an outstanding opportunity for an early or mid-career professional with experience in social science research. This involves understanding a wide range of existing theory and methods, designing innovative approaches to the study of how members of the public think about social issues, and working to support scientists, policy experts and advocates in engaging the public in solutions. Review of all applications will begin on June 16, 2016 and continue until the search process concludes. This is an outstanding opportunity for an experienced professional with a strong track record of project development, nonprofit leadership, and strategic outreach and engagement.
Other responsibilities include partner support, participation in the general management of the organization, and contributing to organizational planning and strategy. Through participation in other philanthropic conferences and partnerships with other funder networks, we also broaden our reach and ensure LGBTQ voices are present in vital funding conversations. Many of our reports have been cited by academic journals, think tanks, non-governmental organizations, government agencies, newspapers, blogs, and other media. The Research & Communications Associate plays an instrumental role in maintaining this reputation. Flexible work hours, including the ability to work from home occasionally, are friendly to balancing work and personal obligations.
Communications Officer – Digital Content, and work closely with the communications team and consultants, as well as with program and administrative staff from across the foundation. Please note: This is not a position for a career-changer or someone new to digital and editorial content creation. Closing the opportunity gap for low-income children and children of color is at the heart of CI’s values and mission.
The ideal candidate will be an entrepreneurial and strategic thinker who can design and implement effective communications strategies that successfully advance CI’s mission. The Foundation’s Strategic Communications staff of 10 provides comprehensive support for this mission through four strategies: creating strategic products and tools to support units, engaging decision makers and opinion leaders, cultivating strategic media partnerships and engaging audiences through digital communications. Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions.
We pursue lasting change by granting approximately $40 million annually to more than 500 grassroots and global human rights organizations in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean and by mobilizing our community in the U.S. Also, even if we were right next to each other at the same time, I’d really be shouting into one of your ears, or possibly into your face.
So whenever your jerky aunt or your shrill uncle are trying to tell you that the Christmas heat wave or the frosty July mornings are evidence for or against global warming, run the information through your own brain, and when your brain tells you that you need to consider years and years worth of information before you can make that call, you can tell them to shove it. Here we integrate analogue and digital computation to implement complex hybrid synthetic genetic programs in living cells. Additionally, corvids and parrots have much higher proportions of brain neurons located in the pallial telencephalon compared with primates or other mammals and birds. They found that hierarchical structures emerge much more frequently when a cost for connections is present.
It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections.
Unfortunately, pristine PS has limited wettability and poor chemical stability in electrolytes and the high resistance of the PS matrix severely limits the power efficiency.
Precise control of the structural parameters (including size, composition, coverage and spacing of the external functional units) is achieved, representing a pre-requisite for exploring the underlying physics. Candidates should be intellectually curious, informed about social issues, and have strong conceptual and analytic skills. In recent years, FrameWorks has developed an ever more sophisticated curriculum, including new online interactive courses, to help policy experts and advocates, scientists and community educators use this research to improve public understanding of complex social issues. Candidates should be intellectually curious, engaged on social issues, and have strong conceptual and analytic skills.
Candidates should be intellectually curious, engaged on social issues, and highly motivated to drive social change through the power of communications. The communications officer may be based in either the foundation’s Bentonville, Denver or Washington, D.C. The Communications Director will join the senior management team and play an integral role in CI’s success. Those are just three of the reasons to consider a career at CJP, one of Boston’s oldest and most respected philanthropic organizations. He or she will also manage and curate the AJWS Story bank, building a robust archive of content about the inspirational work of the activists and communities we support.
To shout into your brain, I’d need some sort of saw, or a hammer, and I’d definitely need your cooperation. But does that crazy Halloween blizzard mean that October is a very snowy month in Minnesota?
We present a framework for building comparator gene circuits to digitize analogue inputs based on different thresholds. Thus, large-brained parrots and corvids have forebrain neuron counts equal to or greater than primates with much larger brains. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. Thus, mature neuron-associated increases in mitochondria-anchoring protein syntaphilin (SNPH) and decreases in mitochondrial transport cause local energy deficits. In this work, we demonstrate that excellent wettability and electro-chemical properties in aqueous and organic electrolytes can be obtained by coating the PS matrix with an ultra-thin layer of titanium nitride by atomic layer deposition. Fine tuning of the emission characteristics through structural regulation is demonstrated by performing single-particle optical studies. Given that the related transits are detectable with current and upcoming space-based transit surveys, we suggest initiating an observational program to search for carbon planets around CEMP stars in hopes of shedding light on the question of how early planetary systems may have formed after the Big Bang. Through its Pharma.AI division, the company provides advanced machine-learning services to biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and skin-care companies. Over this period, we have built an institution that is highly regarded in the nonprofit and philanthropic sectors and have contributed to the development of a community of active framers who access and use our research to build public will and redirect public thinking. Climate is weather (temperature, wind, humidity, atmospheric pressure, precipitation, etc) averaged out over years and years. We then demonstrate that comparators can be predictably composed together to build band-pass filters, ternary logic systems and multi-level analogue-to-digital converters. We suggest that the large numbers of neurons concentrated in high densities in the telencephalon substantially contribute to the neural basis of avian intelligence. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. Strikingly, enhancing mitochondrial transport via genetic manipulation facilitates regenerative capacity by replenishing healthy mitochondria in injured axons, thereby rescuing energy deficits.
Strikingly, we show for the first time that electrical fields significantly enhance macrophage phagocytic uptake of a variety of targets, including carboxylate beads, apoptotic neutrophils, and the nominal opportunist pathogen Candida albicans, which engage different classes of surface receptors. This study opens a rich toolbox to tailor properties of quantum emitters, which can facilitate design guidelines for devices based on nitrogen-vacancy centres that use these freestanding hybrid nanostructures as building blocks. In 2015, FrameWorks received the MacArthur Award for Creative and Effective Institutions, also known as the “organizational genius grant,” from the John D. I’m sorry if your birthday was ruined by a freak firestorm, but that doesn’t have a thing to do with climate, so stop making that demonstration sign with a picture of your cake melting.
In addition, we interface these analogue-to-digital circuits with other digital gene circuits to enable concentration-dependent logic. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. An in vivo sciatic nerve crush study further shows that enhanced mitochondrial transport in snph knockout mice accelerates axon regeneration.
These electrical field-induced functional changes are accompanied by clustering of phagocytic receptors, enhanced PI3K and ERK activation, mobilization of intracellular calcium, and actin polarization.
Furthermore, we show that the PS–TiN nanomaterial can be integrated inside a silicon chip monolithically by combining MEMS and nanofabrication techniques. We expect that this hybrid computational paradigm will enable new industrial, diagnostic and therapeutic applications with engineered cells. Understanding deficits in mitochondrial trafficking and energy supply in injured axons of mature neurons benefits development of new strategies to stimulate axon regeneration.
Electrical fields also modulate cytokine production selectively and can augment some effects of conventional polarizing stimuli on cytokine secretion.
Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity.
Taken together, electrical signals have been identified as major contributors to the coordination and regulation of important human macrophage functions, including those essential for microbial clearance and healing. Overall, our results suggest that the same force–the cost of connections–promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability.
Our results open up a new area of research into effects of naturally occurring and clinically applied electrical fields in conditions where macrophage activity is critical. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.



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