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Author: admin, 05.03.2016. Category: Positive Affirmations Quotes

If someone handed you a magic wand and said, a€?We have really failed in the way the government of the United States of America operates and we are now empowering you to make any changes you desire to make this government operate more efficiently and better,a€? what major changes, if any, would you make?
Historically people who climbed to the top have chosen two ways, basically, to govern others -- with some form of absolutism or constitutionalism.
However, the individual, although created to live individually and freely, is always subject to law, and true freedom is always exercised only as one lives obediently under law. In the 17th century crisis and the need for rebuilding after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War led to the push for absolutism. And so, after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) religious identity and commitment led to a new sense of nationalism based upon a nationa€™s major religious beliefs. This was the case also in Germany, even though the Treaty of Westphalia had set back the formation of a unified state in Germany. Monarchies developed throughout Europe, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, over vast empires. Obstacles to Nation Building: Building a centralized government in most a€?nationsa€? (the word was not yet coined nor widely comprehended) was faced with numerous obstacles, not the least of which was the fact that in most countries people spoke numerous dialects, making nation-wide communication very difficult.
Absolute rulers overcame these obstacles by building armies, bureaucracies, and using the force of the army to mold the people into one body. Frequent wars and the cost of maintaining large armies: Large armies were needed to impose the monarcha€™s will and to expand the borders. Popular Uprisings: As food shortages and taxes increased, and frequent wars created havoc, poverty, and death, people began to revolt. In attempting to deal with these problems, monarchs turned to either absolutism or constitutionalism to form effective governments. Government functions are guided by the dictates of the ruler and his or her lieutenants and not by established law.
The rules or laws are applied arbitrarily and seldom apply to those at the top, especially the monarch or emperor. Problem solving is by issuing edicts and pronouncements, by creating more administrators, creating a larger bureaucracy, and levying heavier taxes on the people to pay for the expenses of the absolute ruler(s). Those governed have little participation in government, little input into law-making (unless through protests and demonstrations), and have to simply yield and be satisfied with what is handed to them from the absolute ruler and the top. Constitutionalism or Peoplea€™s Law is a form of government that acknowledges that certain inalienable rights are possessed by both those who govern and by those who are governed. Peoplea€™s Law was introduced into England by Alfred the Great in the late 9th century A.D. In Peoplea€™s Law or Constitutionalism all power is contained within the Constitution, a written contract that all people agree to embrace and to live cooperatively under, either in a monarchy or in a republic. All functions of government are from the people upward through their elected representatives. Government control is exercised through written laws which have their basis in the written constitution. Government functions as a process guided by established law, which reflects the will of the people and applies to everyone, even to those who govern. Transferring power is carried out by either heredity (in a monarchy or empire) or by popular vote (in a republic), with a peaceful transition from one ruler or set of elected representatives to another. The people are viewed as the foundation of the government, those with the power to elect to office the representatives of their choosing and if in a monarchy the ruler remains enthroned at the will of the people.
All citizens have the right to participate in voting, no matter their social and economic class (although admittedly it took some nations a long time to grant suffrage to all adults, whether male or female, and whether property owners or not!). The land is viewed as the property of the people collectively, who exercise their inalienable right to own personal property and to use their personal property as they see fit.
The processes of government are for the most part carried out by the representatives who have been chosen by the people to represent their best interests and to preserve and uphold the Constitution. Problem solving is carried out by elected representatives and officials appointed by those elected representatives. When a problem occurs or a major issue must be decided, the will of the people is protected by a Constitution and requires that they be allowed to express that will through special votes or referendums.
Those governed are given every opportunity for upward mobility through personal initiative and hard work. Another major issue that separates absolutism from constitutionalism is this: are individual rights a€?awardeda€? by a ruler or are they possessed innately as a person created in Goda€™s image? Under Absolutism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as a€?rewardsa€? that the ruler gives out to whomever he or she arbitrarily selects. Under Constitutionalism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as innate possessions of all people.
After the religious wars in France, which pitted Catholics against Huguenots, Henry IV (1553-1610) took the French throne after the death of Henry III, and demonstrated to the French that a strong central government offered many advantages. In 1572, as Duke of Navarre, Henry married a Catholic princess, Margaret of Valois, daughter of King Francis I and Catherine de Medici. When Margareta€™s brother, King Henry III, was assassinated in 1589, Henry, now king of Navarre, was by heredity next in line to become king of France. Henry IV was the first in the line of the Bourbon kings of France, which included Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, Louis XVIII (wea€™ll find out in a later unit what happened to Louis XVII), and Charles X. With the ascension to the throne of Louis XIII upon the death of Henry IV in 1610, the Bourbon kings practiced an absolutism balanced with a precarious arrangement with the French nobility. Now as king of France, Henry IV, with strong Calvinist ties through his mother, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, took the important step of proclaiming the Edict of Nantes in 1598, almost as a statement, a€?Ia€™ve become a Catholic in order to rule as king but Ia€™ll grant freedom to my Huguenot friends, now that I have the power to do so.a€? The Edict of Nantes granted religious liberty to the Huguenots.
Richelieu championed the concept of absolutism in government and is known as the Father of Absolutism. Using new and expanded powers under the regency of Richelieu the central government took the eyes of the people off of problems at home (hunger, inflation, an unresponsive and a€?distanta€? government) by expanding war against the Habsburgs in Austria and Germany, foes who Cardinal Richelieu hated.
Later, when Louis XIV attempted to bypass the unwritten agreement and impose taxes on the nobility to support his many war efforts, the nobility rose up in protest, maintained their traditional right to not be taxed, and forced the king to back down.
Louis XIV held firm to a belief in the doctrine of the divine rights of kings, as did his father, Louis XIII. He also ended religious toleration and in 1685 revoked his grandfather Henrya€™s Edict of Nantes. His rationale for revoking the Edict was the earlier agreement reached at the Peace of Augsburg in 1530 which established that the religion of the ruler would be the religion of the state.
The wars of Louis XIV were based upon his belief that in order to increase Francea€™s sovereignty he needed to expand its borders, especially in areas where the people were French by language and culture. Wars were fought by the French with other European nations for more than 50% of Louis XIVa€™s reign. Louis XIV was also known as a€?the Sun Kinga€? because during his reign French culture, French dress, French architecture, and the French language enjoyed a hegemony in Europe. Colbert (1619-1683) was the Controller General of Finance under Louis XIV and believed strongly that the wealth of the state should fund the central government.
Colbert believed this was crucially important to financially maintain Francea€™s military power and its European hegemony (the dominance of French language and culture throughout Europe).
In French mercantilism, the principle was also established that through a controlled economy the nation would base its financial stability on the accumulation of gold. Under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Spain developed an absolute monarchy after the struggle to expel the Muslim Moors from Spain was completed in 1492. Furthermore, a strong military was necessary to preserve Spaina€™s presence in the New World, opened initially by the Spanish-sponsored journey of Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The development of their colonies and the new wealth in gold and silver in the New World further aided the absolutism in Spain. By the beginning of the 18th century Spain was a weakened nation and never recovered to its 16th century glory. England traditionally attempted to maintain a between the power of government and the rights and participation of the people. Against this notion was the long tradition introduced by Alfred the Great at the end of the 9th century which continued to loom in the thinking of the nobility and later the House of Commons. Hence, the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism in England began after the conquest by William of Normandy, continued during the reign of his descendants, and erupted in armed conflict at a confrontation at Runnymede in 1215 when the English nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. Elizabeth also was able to use her commitment to the Protestant faith as a national rallying point against the Catholic mainland (France, Spain, the Habsburgs). Conrad Russell points out that on several occasions the House of Commons used petitions of grace to express their ideas about very important matters. James was angered by the petition, accusing the House of Commons of getting involved in matters than were reserved only for the king -- foreign policy and marriage of the king.
Finally, Jamesa€™ response, due to the inability to reach an agreement, was to dismiss Parliament.
Each of his three Stuart successors used the same tactic -- if Parliament digs in their heels on an important matter, just dismiss Parliament! These incidents are cited here simply to show how Parliament and the English monarchy interrelated.
The Stuart line created great furor in England because of their 1) increased commitment to the divine rights of kings, and 2) insistence upon absolutism. Henry maneuvered Parliament to declare the English Church free from Rome through the Act of Supremacy of 1534. Son of Henrya€™s third wife, Jane Seymour, raised a Calvinist, aided the reformation in England, and maintained order during his brief reign. With the coronation of James I, the Tudor line of monarchs ended and the Stuart line began. James was totally committed to the idea of the divine right of kings and to the system of absolute rule.
When James was crowned King of England, the Puritan Reformers in England thought that at last they would be given new credibility and freedom in England.
Charles succeeded his father, James, as king in 1625 and soon after married Princess Henrietta Maria, a daughter of King Henry IV of France and his wife Maria de Medici. After Parliament was called again into session in 1640, Charles was so angered on one occasion that he stormed into Parliament and attempted to arrest five members (they escaped out a back door!).
By 1646 Charles knew that he would lose the war, and, rather than submitting to the English Parliament, fled to Scotland where he hoped they would provide him safety since he was the son of the former king of Scotland. In 1648 he was tried for treason by a High Court of Justice composed of 135 judges, with a quorum for any meeting set at 20 because of the difficulty of travel. A main charge that was after a lull in the civil war and a prospect for peace, Charles renewed the conflict which ultimately, per Geoffrey Robertson, resulted in the death of one out of every ten English citizens.
In the final address given by the lead prosecutor, it was emphasized that no king is above the law, that English law proceeds from Parliament and not the king, and that he had broken the covenant with the people he governed by declaring traitorous war on them.
With that act, Parliament abolished the British monarchy and under Oliver Cromwella€™s leadership, created a republic, the Commonwealth of England. Cromwella€™s contributions during his ten years of leadership in Englanda€™s only experiment with a republic, the Commonwealth, also known as the Interregnum, were (1) by military action to wrap Ireland into a three kingdom Britain, together with Scotland and England, (2) impose (unsuccessfully) the Puritan and Presbyterian ethic, held by Cromwell and the majority of Parliament, on all England (try that one in your community and see what happens!), which included, among other things, banning gambling and bawdy theater performances, (3) granting religious freedom to a new Jewish population that had entered England, and (4) raising the level of creative arts, especially opera, to new heights.
After the death of Oliver Cromwell and the disintegration of the Commonwealth, Parliament restored the monarchy in 1660 and, because they were still locked into the pattern of hereditary succession, placed the son of Charles I on the throne, the dissolute and perhaps least capable and worthy man in England to serve as king, Charles II. After the death of his father and loss of a battle against Cromwell, Charles II fled to France and remained in Europe for 9 years until the death of Cromwell. He also proclaimed a Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 granting religious freedom to Catholics and to Protestant dissenters (English Presbyterians, Baptists, and Independents who refused to practice Anglican worship). His short four-year reign was filled with struggle and conflict with Parliament, who, looking with great anxiety at the other absolute monarchies being established in Europe, determined that such would not be the case in England. Their fears also led to the passing of the Test Act of 1673 in which all military and government officials were required to take an oath in which they renounced the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation (see Unit 17), use of relics, and to participate in the Lorda€™s Supper conducted by Anglican clergy. When James refused to take the vow, it became publicly known that while in France during the Interregnum he and his first wife had converted to Catholicism.
He further angered Parliament when he created a professional standing army, against English tradition to not maintain an army except in wartime, and when he exempted the soldiers from taking the vow of the Test Act. James opened many leadership positions to Catholics in government, issued an edict condemning Presbyterians to death in Scotland, and generally favoring Catholics in England. When Parliament opposed him in 1685, like his Stuart predecessors, he simply dissolved Parliament.
With that, a group of English nobles approached William III of Orange in 1688 to invade England and overthrow James. The Revolution was complete, no blood was shed, absolutism was at last defeated, and the last Catholic monarch of England was banished to France. Within the next year, William III and his wife Mary II, eldest daughter of James, were crowned as co-monarchs of Britain. William III outlived his wife, Mary II, and after her death in 1692 ruled alone as king until his death in 1702.
The House of Hanover (cousins of the Stuarts in Germany) succeeded the Stuarts on the throne. In addition to abolishing absolute rule in England, the most important document that came out of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the English Bill of Rights. This was a revolutionary concept following centuries of feudalism and absolute rule, not only in Europe, but virtually everywhere on earth. The king could not suspend laws nor levy new or additional taxes without the consent of the Parliament. Parliament was to convene regularly (it had not met for eleven years under Charles I had been and dissolved by all of the Stuarts through James II).
The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for many of the principles that were included in the American Bill of Rights that were amended to the U.S. The struggle between Absolutism and Constitutionalism was at the heart of the American War for Independence, the French Revolution, the overthrow of Communism in Eastern Europe and Russia, and continues to rage today in Yemen, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Syria. The biblical concept views man as having been created in the image of God and has a right, therefore, to certain freedoms that no other person has a right to quench, whether a king or queen or any other authority. These God-given freedoms according to the American Bill of Rights include the freedom of speech, freedom to own property, the right to earn a living in whatever way a person deems best under law, and the right to spend that money in whatever way the individual chooses, under law; the right to vote, the right to a fair trial by a jury of onea€™s peers, the right to own and bear arms, the right to be eligible to be elected to office, the freedom to believe and worship as one chooses, the freedom of speech and assembly, and the freedom to petition. What does it mean for a person to live out freely their God-given rights, but always under Goda€™s law?
How could the concept of the divine rights of kings be interpreted and practiced in such a way as to lead to guaranteed personal freedoms? What basic biblical doctrine about who and what a king or queen is in their nature that would tend to lead to constitutionalism? What were several items that are missing from the English Bill of Rights that you would have thought would have been included? Why does the English Bill of Rights seem to have been slanted so heavily in favor of Protestants?
What caution does this raise for us as we (1) interpret what has happened in history, (2) how we should interpret the actions of current governments, and (3) how this should influence how we behave individually today? What is the English tradition that resulted in New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island refusing to ratify the newly proposed U.
Prior to 1549 each of the seventeen states had their own sets of law, their own judicial system, and otherwise made it difficult to administer them piecemeal.
This, and other administrative decisions made by the emperor, led to the Dutch revolt in 1568 against what they perceived to be political and religious tyranny. In 1571 the seventeen states formed the Union of Utrecht and in 1589 declared themselves to be independent of Spain. After several other attempts to move under the oversight of other European monarchs, including for a brief time, Elizabeth I of England, the Dutch proclaimed the independent Dutch Republic.
The Republic endured until 1795 when the Netherlands was overrun by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Republic provided the groundwork for the Golden Age of the Netherlands in the 16th century, when free enterprise enabled the Dutch to become the leading merchant fleet in Europe, to found and oversea a vast colonial network in North America, the Dutch West Indies, and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). Absolutism is grasping all power within a nation -- politically, economically, militarily, religiously -- and placing it totally in the hands of a ruler or group of rulers. Constitutionalism is placing all power within a nation under a written constitution that sets limits and boundaries on the exercise of power. In a Constitutional Monarchy power is shared by the democratically elected parliament either with or without a monarch, with the greater power lying with the parliament.
Mercantilism is a form of economics wherein the central government controls the national economy through regulating the rate and type of production, the price of goods, tariffs, and seeks to have exports always outperform imports.
Empires developed as monarchs sought to control overseas colonies in order to (1) gain natural resources demanded by society and needed for industrialization, (2) gain greater agricultural areas to feed their populations, (3) obtain new areas to export a growing population of farmers, managers, and military to protect them, and (4) to bolster national prestige and pride. The diagram below attempts to depict the differences between the two major forms of government that arose, ABSOLUTISM and CONSTITUTIONALISM, the two contrasting methods of governing. The Ottoman Empire is discussed more fully in Unit 8, a€?Islam.a€? The Ottomans were ruled by an absolute ruler, the Sultan or Caliph. At various times there were several caliphs in existence at the same time, causing great rivalries to exist.
The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) devastated so much of Germany, Hungary, and Poland, so depleted the economies of most nations in both West and East, and resulted in the loss of so many people, that central, authoritarian governments seemed to be the only hope for survival. Serfdom: The existence of serfdom in Eastern Europe, as a remnant of centuries of feudalism, enabled the nobility to gain almost total control over the common people. Results of the Thirty Years War: The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 brought an end to religious wars in Europe. Rise of Austria and Prussia: Absolutism took different forms in Austria and Prussia, but the existence of almost continual warfare in their territories enabled leaders in both countries to increase their power. Austrian Habsburgs in German territories: The Habsburg emperors worked hard to keep their multi-ethnic empire together, with preference and priority always given to those who were German speakers. Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary and Bohemia: The Habsburgs fought and defeated the Ottoman Turks for control of Hungary and by 1648 controlled most of Hungary.
Prussia: Prior to the Thirty Years War the noble land owners gained the dominant power in Prussia, but as a result of the war they lost holdings, wealth, and power. Prussia, the Sparta of Europe: Frederick William built the most professional army in Europe, introduced a military mentality throughout the three provinces, created a strong central bureaucracy, and controlled the nation by military might -- creating the Sparta of Europe. Russia: The Huns ran roughshod over Russia for several hundred years, leaving behind not only fear and disruption but many descendants. Peter Romanov (Peter the Great) opened the window and doors of Russia to the rest of Europe. The Ottoman Empire: By the middle of the 16th century the Ottomans controlled the worlda€™s largest empire in total geographic territory.
By 1529 the Ottomans had conquered most of Hungary and viewed the Austrian Empire as a threat to their new territories in Eastern Europe. In 1683 the Ottomans laid siege a second time to Vienna, cutting off all supplies into the city for two months. After the defeat in 1683, the Ottomans began a long process of withdrawal from Eastern Europe because of inefficiency in government, and because of the frequent rebellions within its occupied countries. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: In spite of the heavy taxation of Christians and Jews, the Ottomans allowed local leaders to govern their own locales. 1542 King James V of Scotland dies, 9 mos old daughter, Mary, becomes Queen Regnant, married to future king of France, Dauphin Francis, in 1558. 1588 -- Spanish Armada -- Philip determined to make Elizabeth and England pay for Henrya€™s offense against Catharine of Aragon, for treatment when husband of deceased Mary I, for Elizabetha€™s spurning of his marriage offer, and for her aiding the rebels in the Netherlands. 1685-1688 -- James II of England and VII of Scotland (1685-1688) (continued to claim the English and Scottish thrones after his deposition in 1688 until his death in 1701). The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Protestant Reformation led to a deepened sense of nation and nationhood, often based upon religious commitment. The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) tore Europe apart, but it solidified the sense of nationhood and religious identity. Monarchies developed in most European regions, replacing feudal lords, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, and the Spanish crown over vast empires. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 greatly hindered the rise of nationalism in Germany, resulting in a sectionalism containing up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler. Due to the expanding size and complications that developed in managing their territories, most of the new rulers turned to absolutism as a means of governing. Cardinal Richelieu, regent for the young Louis XIII of France, is known as the Father of Absolutism.
Absolutism led to heightened nationalism and this, in turn, to a quest to expand borders, usually into areas where the people spoke the same language and were members of the same culture. France, Spain, Russia, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire developed absolute monarchies in the 16th and 17th centuries. In Great Britain the reign of the Tudors and Stuarts illustrate clearly the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism, beginning with the Magna Carta of 1215, the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the English Bill of Rights of 1688. The coronation of William of the Netherlands and his wife, Mary, as co-monarchs of England in 1689, England established a Parliamentary government that limited the powers of the monarchy in government.
The Fathers of the new United States of America rejected a limited monarchy when framing the new Constitution and established a constitutional republic. List from memory the list of the Tudor and the Stuart kings and queens of England and identify (1) their governing philosophy, whether absolute or constitutional, and (2) their religious loyalty, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic. List from memory the list of the Bourbon line of kings and queens of France from Henry IV to Louis XVI and identify their unique contributions to the development of France. Describe the causes and outcomes of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the decisions of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and its impact on shaping Europe.
Compare and contrast the two styles of governing used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries -- absolutism and constitutional republicanism. Discuss in a written essay the history of individual freedom in England from Queen Elizabeth I to William and Mary. Discuss in a written essay how the United States of America would be greatly different today if France had gained victory in Seven Yearsa€™ War between France and England in North America, based upon what you know about conditions in France and England in the 16th and 17th centuries. There is to be a thesis statement which you will a€?provea€? or a€?establisha€? in your essay. Since its establishment in 1991, the Xi'an High-tech Industrial Development Zone, one of China's top national-level industrial zones, has helped transform a sleepy suburb into the most developed area in Xi'an, the capital of China's northwestern Shaanxi province. Residents in the high-tech zone, which is celebrating its 25th anniversary, have the highest average income in the city. In 2015, the zone was named a national proprietary innovation demonstration area, which is expected to accelerate its industrial restructuring and innovation-driven growth, local officials said. The zone has been charged with maintaining an annual economic growth rate of 13 percent during the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-20), higher than the estimated national level in the following five years.
Companies registered in the zone are projected to generate 2.5 trillion yuan ($380 billion) in annual revenue by 2020, with yearly growth of 15 percent.
The zone's GDP growth is expected to amount to around 13 percent by then, The budgetary financial revenue of the zone is forecast to reach 20 billion yuan by 2020 at an annual increase of 15 percent, according to the plan.
By 2020, research and development investment is projected to account for 6 percent of the zone's overall investment. Workers operate machines to assemble new-energy vehicles at BYD's plant in the Xi'an High-tech Industrial Development Zone. In 2015, there were 372,000 people working in the zone, of whom 78 percent held bachelor's degrees.
The zone has attracted high-end professionals with 40 working stations for postdoctoral research, ranking first in central and western China. The zone authority said it is working on building 50 national-level engineering centers and technology development centers and labs by 2020 as innovation ability grows in the area.
During the 12th Five-Year Plan period, the industrial structure improved greatly in the zone thanks to its rich human resources and supportive policies. The proportion of the service industry surpassed that of secondary industry in the zone in 2015, accounting for 54 percent of the total.
In particular, the revenue of the modern service sector in the zone was 380 billion yuan last year, accounting for 43 percent of the four major industries. The modern service industry covers various sectors including technology, finance and innovative design.
The zone is an important industrial base for semiconductors in China and a manufacturing center of the world's smartphones, Zhao said. Xi'an has thousands of enterprises engaged in the IT industry, which has attracted many leading IT enterprises, such as Applied Materials, Qualcomm, GE, Ericsson, Micron, Walsin, Simmtech Electronics, NEC, ZTE and Huawei.
In 2015, revenue from the electronic information industry in the high-tech zone reached 199 billion yuan.
In the coming years, the zone will continue to improve its internationalization level, according to its development plan. By the end of 2020, its import and export volume is expected to reach $45 billion with annual growth of 15 percent. The government has been working on improving the living conditions and natural environment in the zone, aiming to provide an ecofriendly residential environment for people working there. The local government said it would further improve the zone's public infrastructure in the following years.
More than half of the zone's residents would choose public transportation by 2020, due to improved public services, local officials predicted. In addition, the public library plan to own an average of 2.3 books for each resident and hospitals will provide no less than eight sickbeds for each 1,000 residents in the zone. Located in the Xi'an High-tech Industrial Development Zone, the Xi'an Software Park is home to 1,880 software and information technology companies, which account for more than 90 percent of such enterprises in the city. The company developed the first programmable chip with proprietary intellectual property rights in China. This fast-growing company focuses on providing file management and file wireless transfer solutions for both Android and iOS smartphone platforms. After 25 years of development, the Xi'an High-tech Industrial Development Zone has become the most popular cradle of startups in western China, attracting attention from both domestic and foreign investors. The Chinese government has been encouraging entrepreneurship and innovation in recent years, which gives the high-tech zone opportunities to become a world-class scientific technology park in the future, local officials said.
The local government aims to build the zone into an innovation hub with strong international competitiveness in the next 10 years. The authority of the high-tech zone has announced a plan that focuses on developing the zone into a national-level self-innovation demonstration locale from 2016 to 2025.
The zone is expected to realize annual revenue of 5 trillion yuan ($759 billion) by the end of 2025, according to the plan. By then, the zone hopes to have a complete industrial chain for startups with a full range of services and rich human resources, capital and markets. In terms of industrial structure, emerging industries such as information technology and advanced manufacturing will become major contributors in the zone. The Belt and Road Initiative has helped the zone participate increasingly in the global economy, which will lead to growth in international trading between the zone and foreign markets in the next 10 years, a representative of the zone said. By the end of 2025, the zone is expected to realize $100 billion in annual foreign trade, more than quadrupling $22 billion in 2015.
Currently, the zone is home to more than 40,000 enterprises and more than 80 percent of them are high-tech companies. Investment in research and development is expected to average more than 8 percent of companies' total investment by that time.
To realize the goals above, the zone has introduced policies to attract domestic and foreign personnel. The local government has provided preferential policies to encourage scientific research professionals to start up businesses.
The zone would continue to improve living conditions for personnel in both infrastructure and services, and aims to become a talents center in western China, local officials said. In the financial sector, the zone would improve the investment environment by giving more choices and services for angel investors, officials said. The zone also plans to become a financial center for technology companies based on the country's Belt and Road Initiative. In addition to the 10-year plan, the zone authority has a further goal to cultivate industries that can be at the top of the world's high-end value chain by creating an advanced development mode, system and culture, which will help the zone become an influential global innovation center.
The China (Fujian) Pilot Free Trade Zone, composed of Fuzhou, Xiamen and Pingtan, is a pilot area for deepening reform and opening-up, promoting cross-Straits communication and spurring cooperation with countries and regions along the maritime Silk Road. Since its establishment on April 21, 2015, it has become a strong engine for the development of East China's Fujian province. Despite an unfavorable global economy, Fujian performed well in foreign trade in 2015 with a 0.7 percent increase in exports year-on-year. According to official documents, the Fujian FTZ has developed a batch of innovative measures in commerce, investment, trade and other fields, which could be promoted throughout the country. During the past year, 146 key pilot tasks have begun in the zone that covers an area of 118.04 square kilometers. The Fujian FTZ has also carried out a series of measures in trade, entry-exit procedures, finance and medical factors to promote cross-Straits communication. It has taken the lead in the easier and faster movement of 120 kinds of commodities from Taiwan. The mode is recognized by the research institute of the Ministry of Commerce as the most convenient product customs clearance one for commodities from Taiwan. Taiwan college graduates and entrepreneurs are encouraged to set up their own businesses in Fujian. Three Taiwan-funded joint venture travel agencies have been approved to organize group visits by Fujian residents to Taiwan.
Lion Travel (Fujian) Co Ltd, the first Taiwan-funded joint venture travel agency in Fujian, has more than 70 outlets in Taiwan, providing 24-hour travel services. In early April, the China (Fujian) Free Trade Zone Regulations were published and implemented. Fujian has been an important maritime Silk Road hub for many centuries and plays an important role in the construction of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. Fujian is connected to Europe, Southeast Asia, Australia and the Middle East countries by various shipping routes. Many enterprises from countries and regions along the maritime Silk Road have established businesses in Fujian. Fujian's enterprises also continue to invest in countries and regions along the maritime Silk Road. Since the establishment of the Fujian FTZ, the cooperation between Fujian and countries along the maritime Silk Road, including Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia continues to increase. In 2015, the total trade volume of imports and exports between Fujian and ASEAN members was $24.72 billion. By the end of 2015, there are 3,927 companies in Fujian with investment from ASEAN members, with contract investment of $12.61 billion.
Official statistics show 223 companies in the ASEAN economies have set up their branches in Fujian capital, and total foreign investment reached $2 billion.
Chinese top political advisor Yu Zhengsheng said the mainland has paid great importance to proposals from Taiwan residents for easier travel on the mainland, and will put forward measures soon. Yu also said the importance of trade, commercial and non-governmental exchanges would be positive for peaceful cross-Straits relations, especially during sensitive political moments.


Taiwan's newly elected leader Tsai Ing-wen has not yet explicitly recognized the 1992 Consensus.
Ma Xiaoguang, the office's spokesman, said Tsai offered no concrete proposal to ensure the peaceful and stable growth of cross-Straits relations. The cross-Straits cooperation process will only continue when the island's new leader fully endorses the one China principle, Ma said.
At the eighth Straits Forum, more than 1,700 guests from the mainland and Taiwan exchanged their thoughts.
Yu met mainland-based young Taiwan entrepreneurs on Saturday afternoon and wished them success in business on the Chinese mainland.
He urged the creation of more opportunities for the young generation on both sides of the Straits to communicate and exchange so they could become good friends, which would be significant for the long term development of cross-Straits ties. The province will enhance trade ties with Taiwan by boosting the service and financial sectors, and facilitating the exchange of human resources.
He expects Fujian and Taiwan to enhance cooperation on the green energy, environmental protection and modern service sectors as well as accelerate folk culture exchanges. A grand performance is staged during the opening ceremony of the eighth Straits Forum in Xiamen. The eighth Straits Forum opened in Xiamen, Fujian province, on Saturday and will run through Friday, according to an official from the State Council's Taiwan Affairs Office. The one-week event has the theme of "More Exchanges, More Cross-Straits Cooperation and Joint Development", said An Fengshan, spokesman with the State Council's Taiwan Affairs Office.
The main venue is in Xiamen and 19 related activities in four parts - conferences, youth, grassroots and trading - are being held in cities and districts of Fujian province, the organizers said.
Activities aimed at promoting exchanges between youth and grassroots residents from both sides will be held. The organizers said such activities could provide platforms for Taiwan's young people to start new businesses in Fujian province, and also provide an opportunity for young people to demonstrate their talents.
Young people from diverse fields are invited to take part in skills competitions and share their experiences in technology innovation and starting businesses. Conferences and forums in fields such as think tanks, finance, startups and investment are being held in the cities of Fuzhou, Xiamen and Pingtan. People can share their ideas on topics such as constructing the Fujian free trade pilot zone and maritime silk road.
The two sides aim to strengthen city or county-level cooperation, and the organizers are expected to present new policies that will benefit the people of Taiwan. In addition to businesspeople, guests such as employees, female college students, farmers and villagers from different fields across the Straits are welcome.
Other activities include a micro film completion, which will demonstrate very short film works directed and produced by young people across the straits. China's eastern coastal province of Fujian has introduced a range of measures aimed at improving the local environment, and has plans to implement more policies to improve conditions across the board. Unlike many northern cities that are frequently blanketed by heavy smog, Xiamen and Fuzhou, Fujian's two major cities, have already an increasing number of clear days, and in the 2015 edition of the annual air quality report released by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, they ranked second and sixth respectively in terms of air quality among China's 74 major cities.
Under the terms of the 13th provincial Five-Year Plan (2016-20), by 2020, at least 90 percent of days in Fujian's nine cities will register above "Good" on the national Air Quality Index, and water quality is expected to improve in the province's 12 major rivers.
In addition, the plan states that over 72 percent of offshore marine regions will reach the second grade of seawater quality, meaning that they are suitable for swimming. The city and provincial governments have also introduced a number of strict controls and measures, targeting both companies and officials, to push forward their green agenda. For example, the city of Nanping, which is home to China's stone industry, has rejected more than 100 projects that were deemed to have a high pollution risk, and shut down around 700 companies for pollution offences in the past three years.
As a result, the city has seen dramatic improvements, including clearer skies and cleaner rivers. At provincial level, Fujian has set up a monitoring and auditing system that will gauge the performance of leading officials with regard to environmental protection, and their results will form a major part of their annual assessment. Chancellor Angela Merkel visits China for the ninth time this month, bringing with her the German cabinet for the fourth round of the German-Chinese government consultations.
In consultations with the top political leadership with China, Germany wants to consult on a wide range of political, economic and societal issues. After a spate of forceful statements on the future course of economic reform in China last May, it seems that economic development has climbed firmly to the top of China's agenda.
When you look at trade in 2015, a difficult year for China, one is struck by the remarkable resilience of the Germany-China economic relationship. Resilient trade figures in a challenging environment and growing investment in both directions, especially in areas which are crucial to China's plans to upgrading its industries through a digital revolution: Could anyone wish for more? Our high trade volume can only be maintained because a decrease in German exports was offset by a steep increase in imports from China. China will again put the issue of its market economy status and implementation of commitments in its WTO accession protocol high on the agenda. Bilateral trade has nearly tripled in the past decade, up to a volume of 163 billion euros ($182.7 billion) in 2015, a year in which China held its position as the top foreign investor in Germany in terms of the number of projects.
We have been able to do so throughout China's transition from an economy based on production and exports to one that is innovation- and consumption-led. Nowhere is this more apparent than in what we in Germany call Industrie 4.0, or the industries related to the fourth industrial revolution. The pre-conditions for synergy between the two countries in this regard could not be more complementary. This development has been built on the good foundations laid by the strategic partnership in innovation between China and Germany in 2014, a partnership that led to the creation of the German-Chinese Innovation Platform. The similarities between 'Made in China 2025' and Germany's 'High-Tech Strategy 2020' create just as many opportunities for competition as they do for synergy. We welcome our special relationship with China not only because it enhances both our economies, but also because it will enable us to use the knowledge, technologies and techniques we gain from each other to compete more effectively, both with our global rivals and each other. In Germany, we have tried to build an ideal platform for this coopetition, by building an industrial landscape which researches, innovates and creates value. Furthermore, we in Germany are proud of the quality of our workforce; our dual education system values role-specific apprenticeships just as much as academic study.
For all of these reasons, Germany is the perfect location to begin this process of coopetition. Christian Roedl, partner of Germany-based management consulting firm Roedl & Partner, gives his thoughts on how Chinese and German companies can more effectively do business in each other's domestic markets. Actually, I am advising our Chinese clients in exactly the same way as our German clients: "Be cautious, but don't be anxious!" Foreign investors have to understand the mentality of the people and the way business is conducted.
In general Chinese investors should not expect that decisions will be taken as quickly as they may be used to. If you are planning for a market like China, you must hone not only your products, but also your organization to the particular needs in this special market.
How can German or Chinese companies overcome cultural differences in their cooperation or business-related cases?
In our daily experience, quite often we notice that not only German, but also Chinese companies have an idealized understanding of the other's culture and business environment. Please give an example of a successful merger and acquisition case between Chinese and German companies in which your company participated. In early 2015 Chinese electronics group Skyworth acquired the television production and distribution units of the German TV manufacturer METZ. Klaus Deller, chairman of the executive board at Knorr-Bremse AG, talked with China Daily on the company's development in China as well as the rest of the world. How has the global development of your company's rail vehicle and commercial vehicle division progressed in recent years? Thanks to our innovative capabilities and a clear focus on creating genuine added value for vehicle manufacturers and operators, we have again extended our lead in the global rail and commercial vehicle industries, attaining new record levels in all the relevant indicators, including quality, on-time delivery, and customer satisfaction.
Knorr-Bremse also benefited from the expansion of the local mass transit infrastructure, where the company was able to secure new orders to supply equipment for metro cars and light rail vehicles.
Knorr-Bremse has been proactively implementing its localization policy ranging from personnel training to a wide degree of local production. There is no doubt that Knorr-Bremse has a very strong position in the sector of onboard systems for rolling stock.
Of course, we have also put in place the means to keep our technological leadership on the market. We will go on developing rail services beyond the "traditional" spares business: training for customers, maintenance and modernization. Knorr-Bremse is one of the world's leading manufacturer of braking systems for rail and commercial vehicles, with sales totaling almost 6 billion euros in 2015. EuroEyes offers Chinese patients the same standard of care and premium treatments that are found at its European clinics.
In recent years, ties between China and Germany have made significant strides in industry, business, education, healthcare and environmental protection. It was among the first overseas medical organizations to establish a clinic in China and currently has three clinics in Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou. Joergensen said all surgical procedures at EuroEyes are performed by experienced German doctors that perform more than 2,000 eye surgeries each year.
Since its opening in 1993, EuroEyes has performed more than 400,000 eye surgical operations globally.
Joergensen said part of EuroEyes' success lies in its constant technological innovations and investment in advanced equipment.
In 2004, EuroEyes was the first laser eye center in Germany to routinely use the AMO Inralase IFS 150Hz femtosecond laser system in refractive surgeries.
In 2011, EuroEyes was among the first clinics in Germany to use the advanced image-guided femtosecond LenSx Laser for refractive lens exchange.
It is also among the first centers in the world to have certification standards for laser vision correction, or LASIK TV. Compared with European patients, Chinese patients are not very well informed on related eye treatment solutions, said Joergensen. To allow more Chinese patients to understand EuroEyes and its treatment solutions and learn more about knowledge of vision impairment, EuroEyes also organizes education activities and lectures regularly.
EuroEyes organizes eye health-related lectures and education activities each month, which are given by professors and experts. ReLExsmile, a form of Femto-LASIK and one of the safest laser eye procedures in laser correction, can be provided to patients with myopia, or nearsightedness, which is a refractive error that renders objects in the distance blurry. For patients with nearsightedness of more than -10.0 dioptres, EuroEyes provides an intraocular contact lens, or ICL, implantation.
Other solutions include eePreLex, or presbyopic lens exchange, which is for people over the age of 45 who need reading or progressive glasses to read clearly.
A cataract is the clouding-over of the natural lens and is the leading cause of vision loss in people over the age of 65. The EuroEyes Clinical Group is an association of licensed eye clinics specializing in the correction of refractive disorders, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism and presbyopia. With 27 eye clinics in Europe and Asia, including in Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou, EuroEyes is among the largest independent clinical groups for laser eye surgery in Germany. Thirty-three years ago Chen Bin decided to quit his job in a state-owned maternity hospital in the northwestern city of Lanzhou and to go into business on his own.
Chen is among millions of Chinese who, after economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping in 1978 that encouraged private business, decided to embark on the entrepreneurial road. In 2002, 15 years after Chen opened his bakery business, it folded amid fierce competition, and these days there is a cafe across the road that has become a hot-spot for the young and self-employed to exchange ideas. Now, nearly four decades after China began opening up, there is a new boom in startups, but rather than selling fabrics, cheap plastic toys, cakes and the like, these ventures have a sharp technology bent and are looking to serve markets the size of which their earlier counterparts could barely have conceived of. In these fledgling companies the country sees the opportunity to give a fillip to innovation, in turn spurring domestic consumption that can help ensure the country's future prosperity.
Two years ago Premier Li Keqiang sounded a clarion call to the young to start their own businesses and take up the challenge of technological innovation, and he pledged the government's wholehearted backing. Following up on that, last year the government unveiled dozens of measures aimed at helping grassroots entrepreneurs, including giving them tax breaks and easing their path to obtain finance.
Lin Nianxiu, deputy director of the National Development and Reform Commission, says the aim is to cut red tape and help the startups solve practical problems. China also announced an Internet Plus strategy, an initiative that promotes the adoption of advanced information technology in traditional sectors in an effort to stimulate the economy. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology says plans are afoot to make it easier for internet startups to enter sectors such as manufacturing, services and logistics to increase efficiency and product quality. To promote the growth of technology startups, industry regulators say, faster and cheaper internet service will be provided. A negative list would spell out a small number of businesses or services that are closed to internet firms, and the businesses that are not listed would provide a happy hunting ground.
A plethora of antiquated industry regulations still prevent startups from providing IT services for government-backed projects and state-owned enterprises. Liu Dong, managing director of Accenture Technology Labs in Beijing, says technology innovation is playing an increasingly critical role in China as the country looks for ways to produce products with larger added value.
Zhao had been part of a team of seven in the United States that developed Google Glass, a wearable computer device in the shape of spectacles.
DeepGlint specializes in providing computer vision technology to industries such as those in the security, auto-driving and robotics fields.
Returning to China, Zhao says, has given him a bigger opportunity to work with the Chinese market, which overseas technology firms may find harder to penetrate because of a lack of understanding of local customers. Employees talk at the thinking room of Iflytek Co, a technology startup dedicated to the research of intelligent speech and language technologies in Hefei, Anhui province. Today as China is focused on transforming itself from a world factory into an innovation hub, more and more young people are encouraged to go the startup route, and entrepreneurship is the buzz word, I'm reminded of Xiao and his short-lived enterprise.
US-based research organization IdeaLab studied 200 cases to arrive at five factors - idea, team, business model, funding and timing - that determine the success of a company. At times I can't help wondering: Would Xiao have better luck if he started his company now? The business of buying or merging with overseas companies is not unlike looking for the perfect marriage partner: At times it may be OK to let your heart rule your head, but ultimately the decisions to be taken need strong doses of sober reflection. Looked at this way you could say that over the past 15 years China's enterprises have fallen head over heels with mergers and acquisitions, have taken the plunge and are now enjoying the honeymoon.
The clearest evidence of the gusto with which the country has taken to this new way of life is the fact that in the first quarter of this year it was the world's largest acquirer in terms of the value of mergers and acquisitions, based on figures provided by Dealogic, a global financial data provider. China announced a record $92 billion of overseas mergers and acquisitions deals from January to March this year, accounting for 30 percent of the world's total, Dealogic says.
In February the State-owned conglomerate China National Chemical Corp agreed to buy the Swiss agricultural group Syngenta for $43 billion, making it the largest foreign takeover by a Chinese company. The value of such activities has grown six years in a row, the total last year being $107 billion, Dealogic says. In 1992 Shougang Group bought a 98.4 percent stake in Hierro Peru Co in one of the earliest overseas mergers and acquisition deals by a Chinese company, he says. However, it was not until 12 years later, after the National Development and Reform Commission streamlined rules on the management of overseas investment projects, that interest by Chinese concerns in overseas mergers and acquisitions really began to take off. As with any quest for a good suitor, Chinese enterprises have had the odd rebuff or two on the mergers and acquisitions path over the past decade or so.
The failure of the Rio Tinto deal was the result of bulk commodities prices rising sharply, more than making up for a cancellation fee the company would have to pay, Xu says. Henry Cai, chairman of the Asian-Europe growth capital investor AGIC Capital, says: "There has been a huge amount of overseas investment by Chinese companies over the past 15 years, but in half the cases the result has been failure.
Over the past three years private companies have emerged as one of the major players in overseas mergers and acquisitions, Xu says. Private companies are more nimble in their decision making, and they will continue to be an increasingly important force in overseas mergers and acquisitions, Xu says, citing the insurance company Anbang, the investment group Fosun and the conglomerate Dalian Wanda as examples. Of all the overseas deals Xu has studied, those of the automotive components maker Wanxiang Group in the United States have been among the most impressive, he says.
Since its first acquisition of a solar energy plant in the US in 1996, Wanxiang has bought 28 plants in the US, producing auto spare parts for GM, Ford and Daimler Chrysler.
Ni Ping, president of Wanxiang Group's US company, says the way existing staff and those of a newly acquired company are integrated can determine whether the acquisition succeeds or not. Despite the impressive growth of Chinese enterprises' overseas mergers and acquisitions, the proportion of Chinese assets overseas remains minuscule compared with those of developed markets. According to a survey by the University of International Business and Economics in Beijing, Chinese companies lack translation and other language skills needed to expand overseas. These can still be counted as the early days of Chinese companies making transnational acquisitions, says Shen Danyang, a spokesman for the Ministry of Commerce.
Inter Milan Vice-President Javier Zanetti (left) and Vice-President of Suning Sports Group Gong Lei exchange shirts in Nanjing. I remember that on the first anniversary of China Daily, on June 1, 1982, the paper's Opinion Page carried a short letter from Willbur Schramm, the then director-emeritus of the Institute of Communication Research, Stanford University; and the East-West Communication Institute, East-West Center, in Hawaii. Schramm said China Daily's potential readers would include "the millions outside China who cannot read the People's Daily and other official publications in Chinese, but nevertheless want to hear the voice and feel the pulse of China if they can". The bulk of the story was based on a talk given by Ji Chongwei, a senior economic official, upon his announcement of a newly established Foreign Investment Administration Committee under the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and Trade (now part of Ministry of Commerce).
Most young staff members like me, even though we had majored in English, had never heard of the expression "mergers and acquisitions".
Soon enough, changes taught me that overseas investment was an indispensable driving force in China's modernization. Mergers and acquisitions, as a matter of course, became a daily phenomenon between Chinese and foreign companies.
In 2016, the country is moving rapidly toward a balance between inbound and outbound direct investments. It was the early 1990s and Yuan was just one of hundreds of other medical personnel keen to realize a dream of broadening their professional experience in another country. Of the few Chinese who studied overseas in the 1980s and the early 1990s, almost all did so thanks to financial support from the government. After graduating from high school and scoring well in an English competence test, Sun enrolled at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, in 2013. Yuan marvels at how easy it was for her son to pursue his overseas ambitions compared with those of her generation. Behind this greater freedom lie policy changes that have made China the largest source country for overseas students. As the country started to open up and implement economic and social reform in 1978, it began to make it easier for more students to go overseas, where they could study in fields in which the country needed to catch up. In August 1978 the Ministry of Education called for more undergraduate and graduate students to study overseas, a milestone that is regarded as the genesis of sending students to study overseas at the government's expense. However, in reality traveling overseas at one's own expense was beyond most people's means. Chen Zhiwen, editor-in-chief of a website that publishes information about education, recalls how difficult it was to study abroad in the 1980s. Being able to get a visa essentially came down to having government financial backing, Chen says.
In the mid-1990s the policy of supporting students going overseas to study was further relaxed.
Now China has become the biggest source country for university students for more than 10 countries, including Australia, Britain, Canada, Japan and the US. The Open Doors Report said that in the 2009-10 academic year, 127,628 Chinese students studied in the US, 31 percent of them undergraduates.
Among the Chinese undergraduates in the US is Zhou Yutong, 20, who studies at George Washington University in Washington.
I didn't realize until recently that a third of my young colleagues are haigui (students returned from overseas).
Years of fast economic growth have produced millions of Chinese families who can now afford to send their children overseas for studies. While a little envious of their parents' deep pockets, I could not help but recall my bittersweet days studying in the United States three decades ago. One of the lucky few, I enrolled as an English major in a Shanghai university in early 1978 soon after the "cultural revolution" (1966-76).
In my junior year in college, a close friend of mine, who was studying in the Beijing Language Institute which focused on teaching Chinese to foreign students, managed to get help from his American roommate and successfully sent his - and my - application to a university in Boston. But as college students, we were living on a budget of about 20 yuan per month and it was then normal for a Chinese to survive on 6 yuan per month. My first exposure to the US was three years later thanks to China Daily sending me on a fellowship to the University of Hawaii and the East-West Center.
My trip marked a lot of firsts - it was the first time I took a plane, the first time I owned a credit card, the first time I went to a bar, the first time I played golf and the first time I had to cook my own meal. Boarding was free and each month I got $300 for food, which was certainly not enough for eating out, so I ended up cooking my own meals in the public kitchen shared by two dozen students from different countries. Two months later I began to show off my skills by inviting my professors and host families to dinner. On traditional bamboo rafts, with cormorants by their side and the mountains all around, the Huang brothers set out for another day of work on Lijiang River. Huang Quande, 87, and 76-year-old Huang Yuechuang, or yuying laoren, as they are known on the Chinese internet (it means old cormorant fishermen), are among the most well-known features of Xingping, a small, picturesque county in the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region that is popular with tourists from China and abroad. Huang Quande (right), 87, and his brother Huang Yuechuang, 76, fish on the Lijiang River in the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region. Almost every day, visitors to the area, many of them foreigners and some professional photographers, snap pictures of the brothers, who appear in the style of cormorant fishermen, with rafts, bamboo oars, palm leaf raincoats and kerosene lamps. In April last year, the Daily Telegraph in London posted a series about the Huang brothers' old way of life by Russian photographer Viktoriia Rogotneva, bringing them international attention. A British woman, who has lived in the nearby city of Guilin for more than a decade and has known the Huang brothers for many years, helps to organize photo shoots.
Countries were were emerging from feudalism, some had been impacted by the Black Plague, others had also experienced the Renaissance.
This was the case with the early monarchies that arose in Europe in the 14th-16th centuries in Europe. Princes in Germany drew up their territorial boundaries because much was at stake, as provided for in the Peace of Augsburg (1530) and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). The treaty resulted in a sectionalism that produced up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler. In addition, poor roads, poor transportation, and a zeal to hold on to traditional local power and local culture worked against unifying the people of several regions into a nation.
In many cities they resorted to armed uprisings and it was not until the late 17th century that the central governments were strong enough to deal effectively with the frequent uprisings among the populace.
In response, people often reacted against absolutism by resorting to a€?No Law,a€? or Anarchy. It makes possible the free expression and free exercise of those innate inalienable rights. He was a student of biblical law and understood well the form of government given by God to Moses. The Constitution usually has a provision by which amendments can be added by a vote of the people. Where a person is born, with regard to poverty or social class, is not where they are forced to remain.
They cannot be given out nor taken away by the ruler or the government because they are given by the Creator and not the king or emperor. He restored peace and order by personal example through his conversion from Calvinism to Catholicism.
The nobility and the clergy in northern France, including Paris, strongly opposed the idea of a Protestant king.
The nobles promised their continued support of the throne if the throne continued to hold them free from taxation.
His Catholic wife, Marie de Medici, a princess of Austria, appointed a regent, Catholic Cardinal Richelieu, to serve as regent for her young son, Louis XIII. Richelieu promoted the idea of limiting the strength of the nobility and expanding and strengthening the role of the bureaucracy (officials hired to do professional government work). But, in a compromise measure, the nobles left in place a strong monarchy -- just so long as it did not tax the nobility!
To increase his central power, Louis XIV centralized his government (1) by appointing intendants to govern for him in the various districts of France, (2) he kept the nobility powerless in government by refusing to call into session the Estates General (the parliament of France), and (3) he developed a widespread secret police by which he spread terror and fear. He became known as a€?the War King.a€? His war efforts plunged France into debt, required more and more taxation to pay the debt, and increased the poverty of the lower classes. The a€?suna€? of the French hegemony seemed to extend from east to west, wherever the sun rose and set. His major successes included 1) development of New World French colonies, 2) building up the French merchant fleet, 3) developing government-controlled industry, and 4) improving the process of tax collection. Only a strong central government with a large, professional army could preserve the new freedom from Islam. His journey was not primarily a trip to find new lands, but to discover a westward route to the Spice Islands in the Pacific.
The problem that continually checked the growth of constitutionalism in England was the concept held by the Tudor and Stuart dynasties was the divine right of kings.
The nobility and common people continually had recall to days when a just legal system prevailed and the ideas and opinions of all the people mattered. Concerning the execution of Mary, for example, she was twice petitioned to sign a death warrant for Mary.
She added the Dutch in their 80 year war for independence from Spain, and the failed Spanish Armada of 1588 simply rallied the people behind their queen.
To illustrate, consider how the House of Commons was expected to bring their requests and ideas to the attention of the king or queen. Sir Edward Coke, member of Parliament, is quoted as having commented to King James I, a€?I hope that everyone who saith, our Father, which are in heaven, does not prescribe God Almighty what he should do so do we speak of these things as petitioners to his Majesty, and not as prescribers, etc.a€? (Conrad Russell, Unrevolutionary England, 1603-1642, Continuum International Publishing Group, 1990, p. These were issued with more a tone of, a€?We are the House of Commons and this is what we think you should do.
In 1586 both the House of Lords and House of Commons petitioned Queen Elizabeth to sign the order for the execution of her cousin, Mary, Queen of Scotland for her reported involvement in plans to assassinate Elizabeth. He seemed to carry a chip on his shoulder, always alert to any hints of the Parliament moving into his kingly rights. Allow him to impose current taxes and tariffs to take care of current debt but no more in the future. Constitutionalism was certainly not at work in England during the Tudor dynasty and through the reigns of James I and Charles I. Today the queen of England is officially head of the Church of England and head of Great Britain, but her powers are very limited. In 1455 a series of wars were fought between two rival branches of the dynasty, the House of York (symbolized by a white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose). Elizabeth allowed a high degree of religious freedom in England during her reign, even though she was aware of the constant attempts by Catholic monarchs in Europe to have her deposed and Cathholicism re established in England. James became infant King James VI of Scotland after his mother, Mary, Queen of Scotland, was banished from Presbyterian Scotland for her Catholic faith and the intrigue resulting from the death of her husband. Their oldest daughter, Mary, was married at 9 to the Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, and subsequently became mother of William III, Prince of Orange who became King of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The High Court was composed of member of the House of Commons, without the consent of the House of Lords. As Goda€™s appointed absolute king, he refused to acknowledge their authority over him and concluded his comments with, a€?. In 1660 he was invited by Parliament to return to England and they composed all documents to make it appear that Charles had succeeded his father in 1649, as though the republican Commonwealth had never existed! He conducted war against the Netherlands and entered into a secret treaty with his first cousin, King Louis XIV of France. Parliament forced him to rescind the Declaration, viewing it as a Roman plot to return England to Catholicism. With that, Charles dissolved Parliament and for four years until his death in 1685 ruled England alone as absolute king. He was (1) pro-French, (2) pro-Catholic, (3) was himself a Catholic, and (4) his announced plans to establish an absolute monarchy. He created the army to protect him from rebellions after having to put down two rebellions in Scotland and southern England. In 1687 he unilaterally issued the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, which called for religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant nonconformists. The wife of William was Jamesa€™ oldest daughter, Mary, a staunch Calvinist, as was William. The basic premise of the Bill of Rights was the following: everyone, from the poorest beggar in the street to the richest merchant, from a child in school to members of nobility, lords, military officers, judges, monarchs, all have certain basic rights that are guaranteed. But this freedom is limited in the sense that the freedom of the individual is always to be carried out while living under the law of God. In 1549 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which solidified the Empirea€™s control over the seventeen states comprising the Netherlands. From the viewpoint of the seventeen states, however, this was the imposition of a level of control that threatened their independence. The major causes for the revolt also included persecution of the Calvinist majority as heretics by the Catholic Phillip II, removal of institutions of governance practiced by the states for generations, and the imposition of high taxes. A chief ally of William was Elizabeth I of England who supplied men, weapons, and financing to the Calvinist cause. In 1582 they took the strange, but politically astute move of inviting Francis, duke of Anjou in France, son of King Henry II of France. Each province was managed by its own representative assembly and each province elected representatives to sit in the general assembly of the united provinces. While the monarch ruled supreme, there were certain limitations placed upon his or her exercise of power, but this was a limited curtailment. In the French version of mercantilism, it was also believed that a nations stockpile of gold was the basis for economic health.
The one thwarts, squashes, and denies the inalienable rights of people and the other fosters, promotes, and grants those rights.
It produced a new more crushing in serfdom in Russia and the eastern portions of the Habsburg Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, and resulted in severe restrictions on travel, relocation, private ownership of land, and produced heavy taxation. It weakened the power of the Habsburg Empire in Vienna so that (1) it had to remain a confederation of multi-ethnic, multi-cultural states, (2) it gave former Habsburg territories to France and Sweden at the expense of Austria, and (3) made Calvinism a legal choice alongside Catholicism and Lutheranism throughout Europe, at least on paper if not always in fact. The Kaiser (Prussia) and the Emperor (Austria) gave almost total control over the peasants to the nobility in exchange for total loyalty of the nobles to the monarchy and their granting Kaiser and Emperor almost total freedom to raise taxes, raise professional armies, and conduct foreign affairs.
They kept the empire together by a program of rewarding the nobility (with land, control over peasants, expanded trade rights) and imposing Catholicism on everyone in the southern German states where they still retained power.
The nobility in Hungary proved a real problem because they resisted Austrian control, rebelled whenever possible, and as Calvinists resisted the attempts to impose Catholicism on them.


The head of the Hohenzollern family (a traditional royal Prussian family), Frederick William (Wilhelm), came to power, took away the traditional representative rights of the nobility, and gained control over the three Prussian provinces in northern Germany.
He controlled the nobility (a€?Junkersa€?) by placing in their hands the officer corps of the giant military machine.
Ivan the Terrible (not given that title because he was a nice guy!) was able to recapture Russian dominance away from the Huns, but was ruthless in his actions to gain absolute control. Beginning with their capture of Constantinople in 1453, which was both a strategic victory -- opening eastern Europe to their campaigns and occupation -- as well as a victory giving to them great prestige.
This created a level of interaction between Muslims, Jews, and Christians not often experienced by Catholics and Protestants in the rest of Europe. Religious commitment gave weight to a new sense of nationalism based upon a state or nationa€™s major religious beliefs. Economic Minister Colbert who served under Louis XIV, is known as the Father of Mercantilism.
England fought an ongoing struggle between the absolutist Stuarts and the non-absolutist Parliament.
As the Chinese government attaches increasing importance to innovation and entrepreneurship, the Xi'an zone, which has helped thousands of startups grow and develop, is expected to see faster growth in the coming years. Among them, the scale of technological services has been growing rapidly and accounted for more than 40 percent of all service businesses in 2015. It is home to thousands of software companies, providing high-quality products and services to the world. The amount is expected to surpass 300 billion yuan by 2020, with around 230,000 employees forecast to work in the sector by then. It has invented a hands-free camera drone designed for outdoor enthusiasts who enjoy capturing and sharing great moments. Its users cover more than 200 countries and regions with an output value of 1 billion yuan. Strategic emerging industries such as those listed are expected to account for more than 40 percent of the zone's industrial added value. About 200 Fortune 500 companies are forecast to invest in such facilities as offices, manufacturing centers or innovation centers in the zone.
The representative predicted that the zone would have around 80,000 high-tech companies and more than 200 companies with global influence by 2025.
Many fruits are able to be picked up in Taiwan in the morning and sold in Fujian in the afternoon.
We can offer packaging and posting services to airports or railway stations for our customers from the mainland," said Gao Qing, manager of Lion Travel Fujian. These encourage the exploration of new models of industrial cooperation between Fujian and Taiwan, building a new mechanism to promote two-way investment and promoting the free flow of goods and service elements on both sides. Upholding that political foundation, the cross-Straits relationship is able to look forward to a prosperous future," Yu said. Taiwan's young people and farmers will be invited to visit villages in Fujian that share the same names as those in Taiwan. Visitors can sample meat products, rice noodles and sausages from Taiwan at the fair, the organizers said. This is why I expect economic, trade and investment cooperation between Germany and China to occupy a large portion of the chancellor and her cabinet's discussions.
According to German and European statistics, our trade volume in 2015 remained basically unchanged at 163 billion euros ($185 billion). This can partly be explained by difficulties in the Chinese industrial sector in 2015, which depressed demand.
This is an EU matter, in which Germany, as the EU's largest member state, has an important stake.
Thus we are now importing more chemicals, electrical products and machinery from China than before. In Germany we are producing high-tech solutions for machines used in the manufacturing industry, while in China there is vast potential for the use of such machines.
Indeed, with the 'Made in China 2025' long-term strategy bearing more than a vague similarity to Germany's 'High-Tech Strategy 2020', it would seem that our countries intend to move down similar paths. China kept its position as Germany's top foreign investor in 2015 in terms of total number of projects with 260, with 28 percent of these being related to either machines and plants or electronics.
This ensures that we have a talented and balanced labor force filling a wide range of diverse and important roles. As we have seen, many Chinese investors are already taking advantage of these opportunities and are creating excellent value for both countries.
When President Xi Jinping proposed the initiative he demanded improvements in infrastructure access and interconnection with China's neighboring countries. Due to their technology and engineering know-how, European companies can participate in infrastructure projects.
Furthermore, European authorities are powerful but sometimes their capabilities to support investment decisions are limited.
Outsource whatever is not your core business to professional partners - no matter if these are Chinese or German firms; accept that quality has its price and be sure your business plan includes spare capacity for all possible events.
In this transaction we advised the Chinese side with a holistic approach from a legal, tax and economic perspective. The economic recovery in industrialized nations contrasted with falling growth rates in developing and emerging economies. The rail vehicle markets in the region were dominated by demand from the high-speed sector in China.
To further reinforce its strong market position in China, last year Knorr-Bremse expanded its plant in Suzhou and concluded a joint venture agreement with partner company Guotong. We have operated 14 production plants in China, including group divisions and two joint ventures for train doors and train HVACs - one in Qingdao and another in Wuxi - for 10 years. In 30 countries, some 25,000 employees develop, manufacture, and service braking, entrance, control, and energy supply systems, HVAC and driver assistance systems, as well as powertrain and transmission control solutions. After it exported its high-quality treatment solutions and services to China, many customers have received vision impairment treatment. It performs refractive surgery, from laser to lens surgical procedures, that treat nearsightedness, farsightedness, cataracts, presbyopia and other eye afflictions. This can ensure German doctors are always on duty at China's clinics and provide services to patients in China," he said. The technology allows surgeons to carry out precise cuts in targeted areas without damaging surrounding tissues.
Its 3-D surgical platform lets surgeons execute many challenging steps during cataract surgery.
The LASIK TV seal of approval testifies to a clinical organization's level of standard and can help inform a patient in choosing a professional LASIK clinic. So we help patients choose the treatment solutions that are most suitable to them," he added. We ensure that Chinese patients here can receive the same industry-leading treatment as we do in Europe, from technology, equipment to service and doctors," he said. They are among the most surgically experienced eye surgeons in Germany in laser eye and intraocular surgeries. First he sold T-shirts at a night bazaar, then owned a karaoke bar, which did not last long, and later opened a bakery on the main road. However, he says he soon found that managing a business was a lot harder than he had expected. There were a few exceptions, such as Wang Jianlin, the real estate tycoon, and Liu Chuanzhi, founder of the Lenovo Group Ltd, who would make their mark not only in China but around the globe, and others who did reasonably well, or even better, and retired. The central government is also considering a negative list mechanism to make it easier for startups to do business with state-owned enterprises.
There has also been a lack of incentives to startups hungry for liquidity to borrow money from banks at special rates. Preqin Ltd, a research firm in London, says venture capital firms invested in 1,555 deals in China last year, spending $37 billion (33 billion euros), more than double the sum of the previous year.
To fill the long hours of the day I would seek interview assignments from editors who were short-handed. When the Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping revitalized the process of economic reforms in 1992, hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of government officials, university faculty members, researchers and other public sector employees gave up their "iron rice bowls" to set up private businesses. I had begun to think I wasn't too bad a reporter after all, and would have asked my boss for a transfer to the reporter's section, were it not for a senior colleague who poured cold water on my aspirations, saying I had yet to figure out what the term entrepreneur really meant. In his early 50s, Xiao quit his job in research and set up a health drink manufacturing company based on his own patented formula. Among the many who ventured into new businesses in those years, more than half were failures. In 2005, a bid of $18.5 billion by China National Offshore Oil Corporation for control of Unocal, then a US oil and gas company, fell flat. One of the main reasons is that Chinese companies have had little knowledge of industrial systems in other markets. Europe, the United States and Japan each have about 40 percent of their business assets overseas, and the figure for China is just 8 percent, Morning Whistle says. But a front-page lead that had appeared just three weeks earlier, on May 7, 1982, indicated who they might be. I had just joined the staff, freshly graduated from college after receiving "re-education" on farms during the "cultural revolution" (1966-76). It was not until the early years of the 1990s when the concept of market economy was written into China's top-level official document. At the age of 27 the nurse was among just a handful her hospital chose to send to study in Japan - at the Chinese government's expense. That is hard to credit these days when you consider the international educational opportunities now available to Chinese.
However, unlike his mother two decades earlier who had to rely on government funding, his family paid his way. I had the necessary qualifications, so it was relatively easy to get offers from Australian universities," says Sun, 23, who opted for Monash over Sydney University and Queensland University and is now in his last year of a bachelor's degree in journalism.
Those willing to pay their own way would no longer be required to pay a fee to the government, and in the late 1990s agencies that helped with applications to study at overseas tertiary institutions were set up, and the number of those making applications began to surge.
The 2015 Open Doors Report by the Institute of International Education says China became the top country of origin for students going to the US in the 2009-10 academic year. After graduating from a high school in Beijing, Zhou went to the US to pursue a bachelor of arts degree in communication and French literature in 2014. According to official figures, there are a million Chinese pursuing higher education in other countries. Studying abroad was then beyond our wildest imagination - no channels to contact overseas universities, no idea about the application procedures and, importantly, no money.
Anyway, the upshot is we both got nods from a university, promising to cover everything except the airfare. With less than $30 in pocket for emergencies, I set off, excited, expectant, and a little scared.
I saved most of the food allowance to buy a camera, a tape recorder and a color TV - all luxuries then. A local newspaper even sent a reporter and a photographer on a two-hour assignment - the first hour watching me cutting and stir-frying; and the second enjoying my 10-course feast. Each weekend, I would be invited by local friends to their homes for dinner - which I had to cook.
The fishermen tie a snare near the base of the bird's throat which stops it from swallowing larger fish. Liz, the mother, says she came to China after being inspired by the photos of the two fishermen and that taking nice photos in Guilin was the sole aim for the trip.
This was the case within the dynasties of China and with the tribal leadership in Meso-America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. But it also gives a clear pattern for how the monarchy is to operate: (1) there must be law with justice, (2) the just law must apply to everyone, and (3) everyone, because created in the image of God, has certain God-given inalienable rights that no one is to seek to block or take away. These inalienable rights are guaranteed in a written constitution under which all people live.
He codified that system of law in his work Liber ex lege Moise (a€?The Book of the Law of Mosesa€?) c. Bartholomewa€™s Massacre, he was forced to quickly convert to Catholicism in order to save his life.
They promoted his uncle, Charles, but after the death of Charles delayed finding a replacement. The marriage was subsequently annulled by the pope in 1599 after Henry IV conveniently converted to Catholicism in 1593 (confiding at the time to a friend, a€?Paris is worth a massa€?). He even brought France into the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) on the side of the Protestants in an attempt to deal a death blow to fellow Catholics, the Austrian Habsburgs! The French kings never were able to rule with a€?absolute absolutism.a€? A peace of sorts was delicately maintained by an agreement -- the nobility would support the monarch if the monarch did not levy taxes them. It is interesting how a peace treaty intended to settle religious conflict in Germany was used by Louis 150 years later to maintain absolutism in France and to crush the Huguenots! Further, the other European nations, tired of Louisa€™ bullying tactics, built alliances pitted against France and did much to isolate France from the rest of Europe, negatively impacting Francea€™s economy and trade. The traditional routes from Spain to Asia were now jeopardized by Islamic navies in the Mediterranean.
If God set a king on the throne, then the common people, if they feared God, would do as the king commands -- or so the thinking went.
His daughter, Mary, controlled a predominantly Protestant Parliament with the same tactics and over 400 persons, mainly Protestant ministers and leaders, were executed under her reign.
Each time Elizabeth could not get herself to execute someone whom God had placed on a throne. Then the Catholics in England could be dealt with quietly with without causing a ruckus at home. A code of law was was established and a history of court decisions recorded, yet there was no one written document that could be call a legitimate constitution. His marriage to Catherine of Aragon and struggles for an annulment are discussed in Unit 17. Catherine was given funding and housing for life after her marriage to Henry was annulled by Pope Clement VII. In that treaty Louis promised military support to Charles, and to pay him a pension, and in return, Charles promised to convert to Roman Catholicism. Further fear in this regard broke out when it was discovered the Charlesa€™ brother James (and next in line as heir to become king!) was a Catholic! When the Dutch forces landed in 1688 James succumbed to fear and did not oppose them, although his own army was superior in numbers.
James chose the later, fled to Paris in 1688, and was given a pension for life and security by his cousin, Louis XIV. King George V changed the family name during World War I from Hanover to Windsor to avoid the reminder of their German ancestry.
Its independence was formally recognized by all of Europe in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648. Basically, it merged all seventeen states, for the purpose of administration, into one entity, and established that in the future, all seventeen would pass as a unit to the next emperor. Through the terms of the Treaty of Westphalia four more bordering provinces were added to the original seven, bringing the total to eleven.
Chart #2 reviews the history of the monarchy in England as it progressed from Absolutism to the passage of the English Bill of Rights and the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The nobility (landowners) weakened the economic power of merchants (former serfs) in towns and cities by selling their agricultural goods directly to merchants in other countries, by-passing the local merchants. The emperor used his professional army to keep control in the southern German speaking areas. Charles VI arranged the acceptance of the Pragmatic Sanction which eliminated the traditional Salic Law in the empire and thus allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, his only heir, who was to become, perhaps, the dominant female ruler of the era, to gain the throne in 1740. Surrounded by Russia to the north and the frequent invasions into Prussia by the Tartars (descendants of the Huns in Russia), Austria to the East, and France to the South, Frederick Wilhelm did not have to do much convincing of the population to show the necessity for a strong, absolutist monarchy.
After his death, Michael Romanov rose to power as the first hereditary ruler in Russia, establishing the Romanov family line that lasted on the Russian throne until 1918.
After suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of Sweden in the early stages of the Great Northern War, Peter Romanov strengthened the economy, the army, and the central government. Building a new capitol city from ground zero, he used the blood and sweat of serfs and forced cooperation by the nobles to build the city. The Ottomans continued their movement westward into Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, and even as far westward as Hungary. The city was defended by farmers, merchants, and other citizens, and by German and Spanish troops sent by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. The parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth valued highly the trade relations they enjoyed with the Ottoman Empire and wanted nothing to harm that relationship. The Skye Orbit is a quadcopter drone that allows for precise auto follow tracking and instant social sharing. China and Germany are anchors of stability and each other's most important partners in their respective global regions. On the investment side, things are even brighter: Germany's investment in China, already the biggest from Europe at around 60 billion euros, continued to climb. In order to sustain and even accelerate present dynamics, there are some questions that need to be addressed.
Another explanation could be that German goods have become less competitive in China and Chinese goods have caught up. At the same time, it has lowered domestic barriers to outward investment by Chinese companies.
The relationship between our countries has developed to the stage where our economies are highly dependent upon each other, so it is of paramount importance that we maintain our excellent relationship.
They form the backbone of our economy, which remains Europe's largest and most robust, even in the wake of the numerous economic shocks that have rocked us over the past decade. The initiative can also increase China's outbound investment activities to assimilate specific knowledge from abroad. This acquisition by Skyworth is a best practice example for China's going-out strategy and outlines the path of Skyworth's internationalization strategy by entering the German and European markets. The global market environment for rail vehicles remained stable compared to the previous year. Knorr-Bremse supplied braking equipment for 521 high-speed trains in 2015, as well as a proportion of the entrance and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems, to a total value of more than 500 million euros. He obtained a doctorate in computer vision from Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, returned to China in 2013 and founded the company DeepGlint.
After my interview with him was published in China Daily, several companies, including a South Korean conglomerate, called me. Xiao has stayed in my memory not because of his achievements but because of his refusal to let go of his dream as long as he could. That too was the fate that Aluminum Corp of China had to accept after it offered $19.5 billion for a partnership with Anglo-Australian company Rio Tinto Group, one of the two largest suppliers of iron ore in the world, in 2009.
Foreigners' equity in a Chinese company was an issue subject to the universal standards of law, and no longer politically sensitive. They repaid me with a full-page feature and a huge picture of me wearing a fancy Aloha shirt, smiling broadly with a Chinese kitchen knife. There were so many invitations that it was then I learned the expression "let me check my schedule".
Now the question arose, a€?How should we govern ourselves?a€? or to be more accurate, asked the question, a€?Now that we have fought our way to the top, how will we govern this country?a€? They had no patterns or role models to follow.
The excitement of the discoveries in the Renaissance and explorations in the New World began to fade. If you lived two feet on the other side of the state line your were compelled to be a Catholic. Full time, professional armies led to the frequent wars for expansion that characterized this period.
His marriage with Margaret was not a successful marriage, with both Henry and Margaret often separating and engaging in infidelity.
Henry took that opportunity to wage war against the Catholic north in order to secure the crown. In 1600 Henry then married Marie de Medici, daughter of the Duke of Tuscany (Florence, Italy) and a devout Catholic. At the time most people simply identified themselves by the region or town in which they lived. Mercantilism looked good on paper, but if no one in Europe will trade with France, the economy suffers greatly. Mercantilism is the philosophy and practice of a national economy that is controlled almost entirely by the central government.
Spain needed new income to replenish a bankrupt treasurer emptied by the struggle to defeat the Moors. But she used the strength of her personality and popular support among the people to wield great power over Parliament.
But on the third occasion, the petition from Parliament was so strong and the rationale so convincing, the Elizabeth finally relented and issued the death warrant for Mary. The issue also involved the kinga€™s right to levy taxes and tariffs to fund his expenses apart from Parliamenta€™s consent.
If they gave one inch they would compromise their authority to control the funding of the monarchy.
Parliament continued to exercise some degree of power because it possessed the purse strings.
As a sop, thrown in their direction with a view to pacifying them, but with an ulterior motive, James permitted them to publish a new English translation of the Bible. His frequent conflicts with Parliament resulted in his dissolving Parliament on three separate occasions when they did not yield to his wishes. This greatly threatened the privileged position of the Church of England and furthered the resentment and opposition to his rule. However, the move notified Spain that any attempts to overthrow the move for independence would result in French involvement. Michael built a strong central government, opened relations with other European countries, expanded Russiaa€™s territory, developed a government bureaucracy, and created Russiaa€™s first professional army.
The many ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups made the centralization of government difficult.
For instance, Jews and Christians were not permitted to ride horses, could not walk on the same side of the street as Muslims, were frequently forced to yield their 12-year old sons and daughters as slaves, and were generally treated as lower class people. Despite different political systems, our approaches to a large number of international issues are similar.
Reliable aggregate data is hard to come by, but fresh direct investment into companies in China climbed to 4 billion euros.
Thus, find an advisor who is familiar with German and Chinese affairs, and who will explain to you the processes and organizational steps.
Knorr-Bremse Rail's latest joint venture with Guotong began construction in late 2015, which will produce braking, door and HVAC systems for commuter and intercity trains. The company, in the northwestern suburbs of Beijing, develops technologies that allow computers to understand three-dimensional images they see and respond to constantly changing visual content. They wanted to either buy the formula or start a joint venture with Xiao and I helped set up the meetings for him. Years later I read an interview in which a top foreign business leader made the same assertion. His businesses, however, declined steadily for lack of fresh investment and went bust in two years. But I was not clear what overseas investment was and why it was so important as to deserve to be a front-page lead. Imagine yourself to be the head of the XYZ Family who through warfare and intrigue just gained control over the country of Bakonia. Central governments attempted to deal with the increasing problems of stagnation and decline by (1) building larger armies, (2) forming larger bureaucracies, (3) raising greater taxes to pay for the armies and bureaucrats, and (4) generally creating a stronger central sovereignty by also controlling the military, economy, production, the court system, and in most cases, religion. This second marriage produced six children, including Henrya€™s heir to the throne, Louis XIII.
The central government determines the prices of goods, controls export and import quotas, determines the numbers established for industrial production, and sets as its goal a controlled market where exports outnumber imports. They in turn kept her in check because she needed their approval for funding to keep her court afloat. The rationale given was that so long as Mary was alive, the Catholic monarch on the continent and the pope in Rome will not cease their attempts to overthrow Elizabeth in order to set Catholic Mary on the throne and thereby recapture England for Rome.
The debate was taken to the judicial officers of England who finally ruled that the king could not. The House of Lancaster won the battle in 1485, and then reconciled the two family lines through marriage. After failing to produce a surviving male heir was accused of adultery and executed, leaving behind young daughter, Elizabeth. Since the Tudors produced no heirs, James, a cousin to Elizabeth, became also King of England as James I. Because James authorized its publication, it became known as the Authorized Version of the King James Bible (1611).
James also appointed numerous Catholics to faculty positions at Cambridge and Oxford, began to purge Parliament of all his dissenters, began a screening process to allow only his supporters to run for Parliament if he should again call it into session, and of greatest concern, his wife gave birth to a first son. The people were unified by nationalism and generally given freedom to practice private ownership of property, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, and freedom to practice their vocations. The vastness of the empire, poor communication, and poor transportation further hindered Russiaa€™s development.
Therefore, they forbad Jan III, the king of Poland, who was in command of the commonwealtha€™s army, to go to the rescue of the Austrians against the Ottomans.
Achieving consensus, not shying away from disagreements but preventing them from spinning out of control has been a hallmark of our relationship.
Chinese investment in Germany is heavily concentrated in the high-tech sector and, on top of greenfield investments, is targeting more and more companies for acquisitions, such as the leading robotics company Kuka, which just received a takeover offer by Chinese consumer products company Midea. However, in the same year, German exports to the highly competitive United States increased by almost 20 percent. Addressing asymmetries in trade and investment would certainly help to put the issue back on a rational track. Increasing truck outputs in Western Europe, North America and Japan contrasted with declining production in China and Brazil. It will also act as a regional service and maintenance hub for South China, with a plant, which is located in the Guangdong Railway Industrial Park, due to go into operation in 2017. At the time, Xiao was desperately in need of new funding to scale up, but never budged from his position. In the same way the dividing line between Anglican England and Presbyterian Scotland also took on importance, as did the line separating Protestant Switzerland from Catholic France and Catholic Austria. It is also Peoplea€™s Law -- the people agree concerning how they will be governed, who will govern them, and, in turn, they vow to live cooperatively under the law.
His ulterior motive was to rid England of the Geneva Bible, an earlier English translation that was published in Geneva.
Now his Protestant daughters were not in line to ascend the throne, it would be a Catholic heir.
Nevertheless, by reducing the common people to serfdom, requiring them to give summer months to government projects, and compelling the nobility to serve in a new military-civilian bureaucracy, Peter gained the controlling upper hand. Petersburg (notice his humility in naming the city for himself!) following the best in European architecture and culture -- but as a capitol city of a population in which 90% of the people were serfs.
Defying the Commonwealtha€™s parliament, the Jan III marched his troops south to Vienna where they came to the rescue of the outnumbered troops of the Holy Roman Empire.
The boys were castrated and then trained as personal body guards and shock troopers for the Caliph or Sultan.
In the present global situation, this sober approach could help avoid dividing the world into rival camps. Unlike in other countries, Chinese investment in luxury real estate and other nonproductive areas in Germany is limited.
To the equally highly competitive midsized economies of South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan, they increased by almost 10 percent. We must both work hard to make sure that investment keeps flowing, hopefully with a sustained upward trend. If he did not have the funds, the "baby" wouldn't grow the way he wished, but that was not good enough reason for him to sell it off to a richer adoptive father.
The Polish-Lithuanian army arrived the very night before the Ottomans played to complete their tunnels under the walls of Vienna! Openness, mutual trust and robust legal frameworks based on international laws have their rewards. In the current global economic climate, which is shaky at best, trade conflicts between the world's top two traders are the last thing we need.
And we have to remove them from society by locking them away because they willingly choose to not live by the law of the land.
This opened the door for the long-enduring caliphate that was formed in Istanbul which existed from the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. However, as there are no registration requirements for foreign takeovers of midsized companies, we do not have very reliable data. Thus, the King James Bible was authorized but the notes from the Geneva Bible were not allowed to be included in the Authorized Version of 1611. In trade, it is not just a slogan but a truth based on hard facts and figures that Germany and China work for mutual benefit.
If we both intensify our efforts to achieve tangible progress on lowering the number of government and administrative licenses, more rigorous implementation of laws and reducing the parts of the economy closed to foreign investment, our economic relationship will have the potential to be second to none. Marriage was never really consummated because Henry was displeased with her almost immediately after the wedding. The president, and senators, and generals in the army, and all the people in major positions all have to obey the same law. If the president ever robbed a bank he would go to jail just like a homeless person would if he robbed a bank.



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