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Author: admin, 31.08.2015. Category: Positive Phrases About Life

I wouldn’t usually discuss politics in a blog like this, but a recent story caught my eye, as it provides an example of the depressing and sometimes bizarre level of scientific illiteracy among elected officials or some people who hope to be elected.
We are pleased to announce the second Cold Spring Harbor meeting on Wiring the Brain, which will run from Tuesday March 24th to Saturday March 28th, 2015. The macaw has a brain the size of an unshelled walnut, compared to the macaque monkey’s lemon-sized brain.
The first study to systematically measure the number of neurons in the brains of more than two dozen species of birds has found that the birds that were studied consistently have more neurons packed into their small brains than those in mammalian or even primate brains of the same mass.
The study results were published online in an open-access paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences early edition on the week of June 13. The study answers a puzzle that comparative neuroanatomists have been wrestling with for more than a decade: How can birds with their small brains perform complicated cognitive behaviors?
The conundrum was created by a series of studies beginning in the previous decade that directly compared the cognitive abilities of parrots and crows with those of primates.
That’s because the neurons in avian brains are much smaller and more densely packed than those in mammalian brains, the study found.
Although she acknowledges that the relationship between intelligence and neuron count has not yet been firmly established, Herculano-Houzel and her colleagues argue that having the same or greater forebrain neuron counts than primates with much larger brains can potentially provide the birds with much higher “cognitive power” per pound than mammals.
Does the surprisingly large number of neurons in bird brains comes at a correspondingly large energetic cost?
Are the small neurons in bird brains a response to selection for small body size due to flight, or possibly the ancestral way of adding neurons to the brain — from which mammals, not birds, may have diverged. Herculano-Houzel hopes that the results of the study and the questions it raises will stimulate other neuroscientists to begin exploring the mysteries of the avian brain, especially how their behavior compares to that of mammals of similar numbers of neurons or brain size. Researchers at Charles University in Prague and the University of Vienna were also involved in the study.
Some birds achieve primate-like levels of cognition, even though their brains tend to be much smaller in absolute size. A meta-analysis of 45 studies (64 publications) of consumption of whole grain by an international team of researchers, led by Dagfinn Aune, PhD, at Imperial College London, found lower risks of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease overall, as well as deaths from all causes and from specific diseases, including stroke, cancer, diabetes, infectious and respiratory diseases.
The results have been published in an open-access paper in the British Medical Journal (BMJ). A large body of evidence has emerged on the health benefits of whole grain foods over the last 10–15 years. But recommendations on the daily amount and types of whole grain foods needed to reduce risk of chronic disease and mortality have often been unclear or inconsistent.
Reductions in risks of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality were associated with intake of whole grain bread, whole grain breakfast cereals, and added bran, as well as total intake of bread and breakfast cereals. There was little evidence of an association with intake of refined grains, white rice, total rice or other grains. However, the researchers noted that systematic reviews and meta-analyses involving observational research cannot be used to draw conclusions about cause and effect. They call for more research to determine health benefits of different types of whole grain in different geographical regions, as most of the current evidence is from the U.S. Objective To quantify the dose-response relation between consumption of whole grain and specific types of grains and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality. Study selection Prospective studies reporting adjusted relative risk estimates for the association between intake of whole grains or specific types of grains and cardiovascular disease, total cancer, all cause or cause specific mortality. Data synthesis Summary relative risks and 95% confidence intervals calculated with a random effects model. Conclusions This meta-analysis provides further evidence that whole grain intake is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and total cancer, and mortality from all causes, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, diabetes, and all non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes.
The Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI) is one of the premier international conferences on research related to knowledge representation, learning, and reasoning in the presence of uncertainty.
Workshops will include Causation: Foundation to Application, Bayesian Applications Workshop, and Machine Learning for Health.
The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy: Evolution with performance-only selection results in non-hierarchical and non-modular networks, which take longer to adapt to new environments.
New research suggests why the human brain and other biological networks exhibit a hierarchical structure, and the study may improve attempts to create artificial intelligence. This study also supports Ray Kurzweil’s theory of the hierarchical structure of the neocortex, presented in his 2012 book, How to Create a Mind. The human brain has separate areas for vision, motor control, and tactile processing, for example, and each of these areas consist of sub-regions that govern different parts of the body.
The research findings suggest that hierarchy evolves not because it produces more efficient networks, but instead because hierarchically wired networks have fewer connections. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings may also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics. Aside from explaining why biological networks are hierarchical, the research might also explain why many man-made systems such as the Internet and road systems are also hierarchical.
Hierarchical organization—the recursive composition of sub-modules—is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. Boosting the transport of mitochondria (cell energy suppliers) along neuronal axons enhances the ability of mouse nerve cells to repair themselves and regrow after injury or disease, researchers at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke report in The Journal of Cell Biology.
Neurons need large amounts of energy to extend their axons long distances through the body. During development, mitochondria are transported up and down growing axons to generate ATP wherever it is needed. Zu-Hang Sheng and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke wondered whether this decrease in mitochondrial transport might explain why adult neurons are typically unable to regrow after injury. They initially found that when mature mouse axons are severed, nearby mitochondria are damaged and become unable to provide sufficient ATP to support injured nerve regeneration.
The Syntaphilin-deficient mature neurons therefore regained the ability to regrow after injury, just like young neurons. Although neuronal regeneration is a highly energy-demanding process, axonal mitochondrial transport progressively declines with maturation. In a lab experiment, the scientists exposed healing macrophages (white blood cells that eat things that don’t belong), taken from human blood, to electrical fields of strength similar to that generated in injured skin. The research extends previous research reported by KurzweilAI (New evidence that electrical stimulation accelerates wound healing).
Macrophages are key cells in inflammation and repair, and their activity requires close regulation. With five full days of great content, WWDC is designed to help you collaborate, learn, and get inspired.
We’ll be live streaming sessions daily and posting videos of all sessions throughout the week of the conference.
Finnish researchers have developed a method for building highly efficient miniaturized micro-supercapacitor energy storage directly inside a silicon microcircuit chip, making it possible to power autonomous sensor networks, wearable electronics, and mobile internet-of-things (IoT) devices. Supercapacitors function similar to standard batteries, but store electrostatic energy instead of chemical energy. The researchers at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland have developed a hybrid nano-electrode that’s only a few nanometers thick.
The micro-supercapacitor can store 0.2 joule (55 microwatts of power for one hour) on a one-square-centimeter silicon chip.
Micro-supercapacitors can also be integrated directly with active microelectronic devices to store electrical energy generated by thermal, light, and vibration energy harvesters to supply electrical energy (see, for example, Wireless device converts ‘lost’ microwave energy into electric power).
Today’s supercapacitor energy storages are typically discrete devices aimed for printed boards and power applications.
This electron microscope image shows a hybrid nanoparticle consisting of a nanodiamond (roughly 50 nanometers wide) covered in smaller silver nanoparticles that enhance the diamond’s optical properties.
University of Maryland researchers have developed a method to quickly and inexpensively assemble diamond-based hybrid nanoparticles from the ground up in large quantities while avoiding many of the problems with current methods.
These hybrid nanoparticles could speed the design of room-temperature qubits for quantum computers and create brighter dyes for biomedical imaging or highly sensitive magnetic and temperature sensors, for example. Pure diamonds consist of an orderly lattice of carbon atoms and are completely transparent. This altered bond is also the source of the optical, electromagnetic, and quantum physical properties that will make a nanodiamond useful when paired with other nanomaterials. As KurzweilAI has shown in several articles, a nitrogen vacancy in a diamond (or other crystalline materials) can lead to a variety of interesting new properties, such as a highly sensitive way to detect neural signals, an ultrasensitive real-time magnetic field detector, and importantly, making a nanodiamond behave as a quantum bit (qubit) for use in quantum computing and other applications. Ougang’s and colleagues’ main breakthrough, though, is their method for constructing the hybrid nanoparticles. His team’s method also enables precise control of the hybrid particles’ properties, such as the composition and total number of non-diamond particles.


In this artist’s conception, a carbon planet orbits a sunlike star in the early universe.
New findings by scientists at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) suggest that planet formation in the early universe might have created carbon planets consisting of graphite, carbides, and diamond and that astronomers might find these diamond worlds by searching a rare class of stars.
The primordial universe consisted mostly of hydrogen and helium, and lacked chemical elements like carbon and oxygen necessary for life as we know it.
Mashian and her PhD thesis advisor Avi Loeb examined a particular class of old stars known as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. From a distance, these carbon planets would be difficult to tell apart from more Earth-like worlds. When a planet crosses in front of its star as viewed by an observer, the event is called a transit. But a dedicated search for planets around CEMP stars can be done using the transit technique, the scientists suggest.
Headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a joint collaboration between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory. We explore the possibility of planet formation in the carbon-rich protoplanetary disks of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, possible relics of the early Universe. Insilico Medicine and Life Extension announced today an exclusive collaboration to identify novel biomarkers of human aging through the use of big-data analytics and AI, with the ultimate goal of discovery and formulation of nutrients to support health and longevity. Insilico Medicine* is a big-data analytics company specializing in applying advances in deep learning to discovery of biomarkers and drugs. Insilico Medicine will focus on applying advanced signaling pathway activation analysis techniques and deep-learning algorithms to find nutraceuticals that mimic the tissue-specific transcriptional response of many known interventions and pathways associated with health and longevity. Insilico Medicine scientists will present the results of this collaboration at RAADFest in San Diego in August, a longevity-focused conference. Triclosan, a common antibacterial ingredient found in many products such as toothpastes, soaps, and detergents to reduce or prevent bacterial infections, has been linked to making bacteria resistant to antibiotics, with adverse health effects.
In contrast, current antibiotics only kill the bacteria but fail to destroy the cell membrane, allowing new antibiotic-resistant bacteria to grow. Infectious diseases and the increasing threat of worldwide pandemics have underscored the importance of antibiotics and hygiene. Efficiency trends in DNA sequencing (green) and synthesis of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA, blue) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA, red) over the past ~35 years. Leading genomics experts have announced Genome Project-write (HGP-write), which aims to synthesize entire genomes of humans and other species from chemical components and get them to function in living cells. As explained in Science, the goal of HGP-write is to reduce the costs of engineering large genomes, including a human genome, and to develop an ethical framework for genome-scale engineering and transformative medical applications.
HGP-write will build on the knowledge gained by The Human Genome Project (HGP-read), especially in genomic-based discovery, diagnostics, and therapeutics.
The goal is to launch HGP-write in 2016 with $100 million in committed support from public, private, philanthropic, industry, and academic sources globally.
The new effort is expected to lead to a massive amount of information connecting the sequence of nucleotide bases in DNA with their physiological properties and functions, and it promises to have a significant impact on human health and other critical areas such as energy, agriculture, chemicals, and bioremediation, according to the organizers. Another goal is development of new genomics analysis, design, synthesis, assembly and testing technologies, with the goal of making them more affordable and widely available. The HGP-write project developed from a series of meetings held over the last several years, including a closed-door meeting held May 10 in Boston, which brought together a diverse group of 130 participants from many different countries, including biologists, ethicists, engineers, plus representatives from industry, law and government.
To ensure public engagement and transparency, HGP-write will include mechanisms to encourage public discourse around the emerging HGP-write capabilities.
The Human Genome Project (“HGP-read”) nominally completed in 2004 aimed to sequence the human genome and improve technology, cost, and quality of DNA sequencing (1, 2).
Now it turns out that it should be a compliment,” said Vanderbilt University neuroscientist Suzana Herculano-Houzel, senior author of the paper with Pavel Nemec at the Charles University in Prague. The studies found that the birds could manufacture and use tools, use insight to solve problems, make inferences about cause-effect relationships, recognize themselves in a mirror, and plan for future needs, among other cognitive skills previously considered the exclusive domain of primates. For each species, the total number of neurons (in millions) in each brain is shown in yellow, the number of neurons (in millions) in the forebrain (pallium) is shown in blue and the brain mass (in grams) is shown in red. Two years ago, even this hypothesis was knocked down by a detailed study of pigeon brains, which concluded that they are, in fact, organized along quite similar lines to those of primates. That explains why they exhibit levels of cognition at least as complex as primates,” said Herculano-Houzel. Parrot and songbird brains, for example, contain about twice as many neurons as primate brains of the same mass and two to four times as many neurons as equivalent rodent brains. Previously, neuroanatomists thought that as brains grew larger, neurons had to grow bigger as well because they had to connect over longer distances. This poses a fundamental problem in comparative and computational neuroscience, because small brains are expected to have a lower information-processing capacity. Grains are one of the major staple foods worldwide and provide on average 56% of energy intake and 50% of protein intake. These findings support dietary guidelines that recommend increased intake of whole grain to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and premature mortality.
However, evolving networks with a connection cost creates hierarchical and functionally modular networks that can solve the overall problem by recursively solving its sub-problems.
To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. In adults, however, mitochondria become less mobile as mature neurons produce a protein called syntaphilin that anchors the mitochondria in place. However, when the researchers experimentally removed syntaphilin from the nerve cells (by using a genetically modified mouse), mitochondrial transport was enhanced, allowing the damaged mitochondria to be replaced by healthy mitochondria capable of producing ATP. Such combined approaches may represent a valid therapeutic strategy to facilitate regeneration in the central and peripheral nervous systems after injury or disease,” Sheng says. Mature neurons typically fail to regenerate after injury, thus raising a fundamental question as to whether mitochondrial transport is necessary to meet enhanced metabolic requirements during regeneration. When the voltage was applied, the macrophages moved in a directed manner to Candida albicans fungus cells (representing damaged skin) to facilitate healing (engulfing and digesting extracellular particles). The characterization of cues coordinating macrophage function has focused on biologic and soluble mediators, with little known about their responses to physical stimuli, such as the electrical fields that are generated naturally in injured tissue and which accelerate wound healing. The Keynote and State of the Union promise exciting reveals, providing inspiration and new opportunities to continue creating the most innovative apps in the world.
In addition to learning about the latest Apple technologies and getting one-on-one advice from Apple experts, you can gain insight from guest speakers and make valuable connections with fellow developers. It consists of porous silicon coated with a titanium nitride layer formed by atomic layer deposition. That combined with an ionic liquid (in a microchannel formed in between two electrodes), results in an extremely small form factor and efficient energy storage. This design also leaves the surface of the chip available for active integrated microcircuits and sensors.
The development of autonomous sensor networks and wearable electronics and the miniaturization of mobile devices would benefit substantially from solutions in which the energy storage is integrated with the active device. It’s similar to doping silicon to give it special electronic properties (such as making it work as a transistor).
However, pure diamonds are quite rare in natural diamond deposits; most have defects resulting from non-carbon impurities such as nitrogen, boron and phosphorus.
A qubit that works at room temperature would represent a significant step forward, helping use quantum circuits in industrial, commercial and consumer-level electronics. Other researchers have paired nanodiamonds with complementary nanoparticles using relatively imprecise methods, such as manually installing the diamonds and particles next to each other onto a larger surface one by one. However, existing methods typically employ top-down fabrication, which restrict scalable and feasible manipulation of nitrogen-vacancy centres. Young planetary systems lacking heavy chemical elements but relatively rich in carbon could form worlds made of graphite, carbides, and diamond rather than Earth-like silicate rocks. Only after the first stars exploded as supernovae and seeded the second generation did planet formation and life become possible. This relative abundance would influence planet formation as fluffy carbon dust grains (from supernovae) clump together to form tar-black worlds. CfA scientists, organized into six research divisions, study the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the universe. Life Extension**, a Florida-based organization established in the early 1980s, is a dietary-supplement innovator dedicated to extending healthy human longevity.
Computational chemistry studies supported our experimental findings that the chain-like compound works by attacking the cell membrane. The researchers also found that once this was dissolved in alcohol, it formed gels spontaneously.


Intensive efforts have been devoted to developing new antibiotics to meet the rapidly growing demand. The disruptive improvement in sequencing and ssDNA (oligonucleotides) synthesis technologies has improved from multiplex and miniaturization technologies in high-throughput DNA sequencing and oligo microarray technologies, respectively.
Autodesk has already contributed a leadership gift of $250,000 to seed the planning and launch of HGP-write. The Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars will help to lead such efforts for HGP-write.
He spearheads a multidisciplinary team exploring computer-aided design and manufacturing for biotechnology and nanotechnology R&D. She is lead executive of HGP-write and the related Center of Excellence for Engineering Biology. Using the isotropic fractionator to determine numbers of neurons in specific brain regions, here we show that the brains of parrots and songbirds contain on average twice as many neurons as primate brains of the same mass, indicating that avian brains have higher neuron packing densities than mammalian brains. The researchers also simulated the evolution of computational brain models, known as artificial neural networks, both with and without a cost for network connections. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. Here, we reveal that reduced mitochondrial motility and energy deficits in injured axons are intrinsic mechanisms controlling regrowth in mature neurons. To address this gap in understanding, we tested how properties of human monocyte-derived macrophages are regulated by applied electrical fields, similar in strengths to those established naturally.
End the day by honoring the most remarkable developers of the year at the Apple Design Awards. Nanostructures based on porous silicon (PS) provide a route towards integration due to the very high inherent surface area to volume ratio and compatibility with microelectronics fabrication processes. Here, we develop a general bottom-up approach to fabricate an emerging class of freestanding nanodiamond-based hybrid nanostructures with external functional units of either plasmonic nanoparticles or excitonic quantum dots. Blue patches show where water has pooled on the planet’s surface, forming potential habitats for alien life. It utilizes advances in genomics, big-data analysis, and deep learning for in silico drug discovery and drug repurposing for aging and age-related diseases. The company’s products are developed based on the latest scientific studies from peer-reviewed medical journals and are continually updated as new information occurs. This material is also safe for use because it carries a positive charge that targets the more negatively charged bacteria, without destroying red blood cells,” said Zhang. So this material could be incorporated in alcohol-based sprays used for sterilization in hospitals or homes. Such infection is contagious and can spread through contaminated food or water, or from contact with people or animals. In particular, advancing the knowledge of the structure–property–activity relationship is critical to expedite the design and development of novel antimicrobial with the needed potential and efficacy. Boeke is a leader of the Synthetic Yeast Project (Sc2.0), which seeks to create living yeast cells with entirely redesigned chromosomes by 2017. Church currently heads an effort to create a version of the bacteria E.coli with a redesigned genome.
Additionally, corvids and parrots have much higher proportions of brain neurons located in the pallial telencephalon compared with primates or other mammals and birds. They found that hierarchical structures emerge much more frequently when a cost for connections is present. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections.
Unfortunately, pristine PS has limited wettability and poor chemical stability in electrolytes and the high resistance of the PS matrix severely limits the power efficiency. Precise control of the structural parameters (including size, composition, coverage and spacing of the external functional units) is achieved, representing a pre-requisite for exploring the underlying physics.
Herein, a series of new antimicrobial imidazolium oligomers are developed with the rational manipulation of terminal group’s hydrophobicity. Thus, large-brained parrots and corvids have forebrain neuron counts equal to or greater than primates with much larger brains. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. Thus, mature neuron-associated increases in mitochondria-anchoring protein syntaphilin (SNPH) and decreases in mitochondrial transport cause local energy deficits. In this work, we demonstrate that excellent wettability and electro-chemical properties in aqueous and organic electrolytes can be obtained by coating the PS matrix with an ultra-thin layer of titanium nitride by atomic layer deposition. Fine tuning of the emission characteristics through structural regulation is demonstrated by performing single-particle optical studies. Given that the related transits are detectable with current and upcoming space-based transit surveys, we suggest initiating an observational program to search for carbon planets around CEMP stars in hopes of shedding light on the question of how early planetary systems may have formed after the Big Bang. Through its Pharma.AI division, the company provides advanced machine-learning services to biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and skin-care companies. We suggest that the large numbers of neurons concentrated in high densities in the telencephalon substantially contribute to the neural basis of avian intelligence. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure.
Strikingly, enhancing mitochondrial transport via genetic manipulation facilitates regenerative capacity by replenishing healthy mitochondria in injured axons, thereby rescuing energy deficits.
Strikingly, we show for the first time that electrical fields significantly enhance macrophage phagocytic uptake of a variety of targets, including carboxylate beads, apoptotic neutrophils, and the nominal opportunist pathogen Candida albicans, which engage different classes of surface receptors. This study opens a rich toolbox to tailor properties of quantum emitters, which can facilitate design guidelines for devices based on nitrogen-vacancy centres that use these freestanding hybrid nanostructures as building blocks. Molecular dynamic simulations reveal the delicate effect of structural changes on the translocation motion across the microbial cell membrane. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. An in vivo sciatic nerve crush study further shows that enhanced mitochondrial transport in snph knockout mice accelerates axon regeneration.
These electrical field-induced functional changes are accompanied by clustering of phagocytic receptors, enhanced PI3K and ERK activation, mobilization of intracellular calcium, and actin polarization.
Furthermore, we show that the PS–TiN nanomaterial can be integrated inside a silicon chip monolithically by combining MEMS and nanofabrication techniques. The energy barrier of the translocation process analyzed by free energy calculations provides clear kinetic information to suggest that the spontaneous penetration requires a very short timescale of seconds to minutes for the new imidazolium oligomers.
Understanding deficits in mitochondrial trafficking and energy supply in injured axons of mature neurons benefits development of new strategies to stimulate axon regeneration. Electrical fields also modulate cytokine production selectively and can augment some effects of conventional polarizing stimuli on cytokine secretion.
Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity.
Taken together, electrical signals have been identified as major contributors to the coordination and regulation of important human macrophage functions, including those essential for microbial clearance and healing. Overall, our results suggest that the same force–the cost of connections–promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. Our results open up a new area of research into effects of naturally occurring and clinically applied electrical fields in conditions where macrophage activity is critical. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.
O’Donnell may have been trying to refer to was a story that got some press coverage at the time of scientists who had transplanted a small number of human cells into a mouse brain to see if they would migrate and integrate normally. Human multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) increase neurogenesis and decrease atrophy of the striatum in a transgenic mouse model for Huntington's disease.
PloS one, 5 (2) PMID: 20179764 Salazar DL, Uchida N, Hamers FP, Cummings BJ, & Anderson AJ (2010). Human neural stem cells differentiate and promote locomotor recovery in an early chronic spinal cord injury NOD-scid mouse model.
Human neural stem cells genetically modified to overexpress brain-derived neurotrophic factor promote functional recovery and neuroprotection in a mouse stroke model.



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