The brain and spinal cord together is referred to as 420,the law of attraction book by michael losier,the power book free pdf converter - Try Out

Author: admin, 14.05.2015. Category: Positive Quote Of The Day

1 Chapter 13 The Spinal Cord & Spinal Nerves Together with brain forms the CNS Together with brain forms the CNS Functions Functions spinal cord reflexes. 2 Spinal Cord Protection By the vertebral column, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and vertebral ligaments.
12 Spinal Reflexes Automatic response to change in environment Automatic response to change in environment Integration center for spinal reflexes is gray matter of spinal cord Integration center for spinal reflexes is gray matter of spinal cord Examples Examples somatic reflexes result in skeletal muscle contraction somatic reflexes result in skeletal muscle contraction autonomic (visceral) reflexes involve smooth & cardiac muscle and glands. 25 Brachial Plexus Ventral rami from C5 to T1 Ventral rami from C5 to T1 Supplies shoulder & upper limb Supplies shoulder & upper limb Passes superior to 1st rib & under clavicle Passes superior to 1st rib & under clavicle Axillary n.
31 Dermatomes Damaged regions of the spinal cord can be distinguished by patterns of numbness over a dermatome region Damaged regions of the spinal cord can be distinguished by patterns of numbness over a dermatome region Infusing local anesthetics or cutting roots must be done over 3 adjacent spinal nerves. A basic understanding of the spinea€™s anatomy and its functions is extremely important for patients with spinal disorders. Typically, the spine is divided into four main regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral.
In addition to longer spinous processes, rib attachments add to the thoracic spinea€™s strength. The lumbar spine has more range of motion than the thoracic spine, but less than the cervical spine. Immediately below the sacrum are five additional bones, fused together to form the Coccyx (tailbone). Although not typically viewed as part of the spine, the pelvis and the skull are anatomic structures that closely inter-relate with the spine, and have a significant impact on the patienta€™s balance.
All vertebrae consist of the same basic elements, with the exception of the first two cervical vertebrae. These are two short processes, made of strong cortical bone, that protrude from the back of the vertebral body. Two relatively flat plates of bone that extend from the pedicles on either side and join in the midline. The 4 articular processes link with the articular processes of adjacent vertebrae to form the facet joints. The spinous process extends posteriorly from the point where the two laminae join, and acts as a lever to effect motion of the vertebra. The top (superior) and bottom (inferior) of each vertebral body is a€?coateda€? with an endplate. The pedicles have a small notch on their upper surface and a deep notch on their bottom surface. The joints in the spinal column are located posterior to the vertebral body (on the backside). Like other joints in the body, each facet joint is surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue and produces synovial fluid to nourish and lubricate the joint. The annulus is a sturdy tire-like structure that encases a gel-like center, the nucleus pulposus. The center portion of each intervertebral disc is a filled with a gel-like elastic substance. Like the annulus fibrosus, the nucleus pulposus consists of water, collagen and proteoglycans.

The system of ligaments in the vertebral column, combined with the tendons and muscles, provides a natural type of brace to help protect the spine from injury.
This thin ligament attaches to another ligament, called the ligamentum flavum, that runs deep into the spinal column. The muscular system of the spine is complex, with several different muscles playing important roles. As the spinal cord travels down from the brain, spinal nerves at each vertebral level exit the spine through a small bony tunnel on either side of the vertebral bones (arrow).
The spinal nerves, along with the cranial nerves, are the means by which the CNS communicates with the periphery.
This article provides a straightforward overview of the spinea€™s remarkable and complex anatomy. This region consists of seven vertebrae, which are abbreviated C1 through C7 (top to bottom). The size and shape of each lumbar vertebra is designed to carry most of the bodya€™s weight.
The lumbar facet joints allow for significant flexion and extension movement but limit rotation. Endplates are complex structures that a€?blenda€? into the intervertebral disc and help support the disc. When the vertebrae are stacked on top of each other the pedicle notches form an area called the intervertebral foramen.
The superior articular facet faces upward and works like a hinge with the inferior articular facet (below). The surfaces of the joint are coated with cartilage that helps each joint to move (articulate) smoothly. Each disc absorbs the stress and shock the body incurs during movement and prevents the vertebrae from grinding against one another. The annulus enhances the spinea€™s rotational stability and helps to resist compressive stress. The fibers are oriented at different angles horizontally similar to the construction of a radial tire. Together with the annulus fibrosus, the nucleus pulposus transmits stress and weight from vertebra to vertebra. The spinal cord begins immediately below the brain stem and extends to the first lumbar vertebra (L1). The nerve roots exit the spinal canal through the intervertebral foramen, small openings between each vertebra.
About one inch wide, the ALL runs the entire length of the spine from the base of the skull to the sacrum. About one inch wide, the PLL runs the entire length of the spine from the base of the skull to sacrum. Moulton and his colleagues teach spine surgery in communities that need it around the world. It begins by providing a a€?big picturea€? of the functions of the spine, its regions, and major curves.

These vertebrae protect the brain stem and the spinal cord, support the skull, and allow for a wide range of head movement. In addition, the rib cage and ligament systems limit the thoracic spinea€™s range of motion and protect many vital organs. Each structural element of a lumbar vertebra is bigger, wider and broader than similar components in the cervical and thoracic regions. Inside each vertebra is cancellous bone, which is weaker than cortical bone and consists of loosely knit structures that look somewhat like a honeycomb.
When looked at from the side, the vertebral body is shaped like an hourglass, being thicker at the ends and thinner in the middle. This area is of critical importance as the nerve roots exit from the spinal cord through this area to the rest of the body. Although these joints enable movement, they also restrict excessive movement such as hyperextension and hyper-flexion (i.e.
Collagen gains its strength from strong fibrous bundles of protein that are linked together. Thereafter, the cord blends with the conus medullaris that becomes the cauda equina, a group of nerves resembling the tail of a horse. It connects the front (anterior) of the vertebral body to the front of the annulus fibrosis.
It connects the back (posterior) of the vertebral body to the back of the annulus fibrosis. It runs from the base of the skull to the pelvis, in front of and between the lamina, and protects the spinal cord and nerves.
This is followed by detailed information on specific anatomic elements such as vertebral structures, intervertebral discs, the spinal cord and nerve roots, joints, muscles and ligaments. It is circular in shape with a blunt peg-like structure (called the Odontoid Process or a€?densa€?) that projects upward into the ring of the Atlas. The thoracic vertebrae are larger than the cervical bones and have longer spinous processes.
Bone marrow, which forms red blood cells and some types of white blood cells, is found within the cavities of cancellous bone. These a€?holesa€? provide space for the nerve roots to exit the spinal canal and to further branch out to form the peripheral nervous system.
For example, the Sternocleidomastoid muscle assists with movement of the head, while the Psoas Major muscle is associated with flexion of the thigh. The spinal nerves take origin from the spinal cord (as we have discussed) and will be the topic for the remainder of this module.
The other cervical vertebrae (C3 through C7) are shaped like boxes with small spinous processes (finger-like projections) that extend from the back of the vertebrae.

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