The brain and spinal cord are part of what nervous system 3d,positivity quotes thinkexist birthday,positive nuclear power facts youtube,how to start a cleaning business in manitoba - 2016 Feature

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The components of this rign-shaped system paly a complex and importan role in the expression fo instincts, drives, and emotions. Within the center of the brain lies the thalamus, which is the brain's information relay station.
These masses, or nuclei, of gray matter found deep in the brain help control movement sequences such as walking. The corpus callosum is the largest of several bundles of nerve fibers, called commissures, that connect specific areas of the two hemispheres in the brain.
Mylinated fibers organized into so-called proyection tracts transmit impulses to and from the cerebral cortex and the lower brain an dspinal cord. After passing through the upper part of the brain stem, proyection fibers fan out and extend to the cerebral cortex, forming the corona radiata. The thalamus is a relay station that sorts, interprets, and directs sensory signals received from both the spinal cord and midbrain to the cerebral cortex and appropriate sites of the cerebrum.
Tiagabine may cause significant side effects including dizziness, fatigue, agitation, and tremor.
Daniel Kantor, MD, Kantor Neurology, Coconut Creek, FL and Immediate Past President of the Florida Society of Neurology (FSN).
Spinal cord injuries often result in long-term or permanent disability; they can be caused by auto accidents, slip and falls, medical malpractice or a variety of other circumstances. The bundles of nerves in the spinal cord transmit sensations to the brain from all parts of your body – as well as control your muscles and limbs.
The spinal cord is armed with tough layers of protection including the bony structure called your vertebral column, or as many people refer to as the spinal column, it can be damaged by blunt trauma. Many kinds of accidents can cause damage to the spinal cord, such as violent and run of the mill car accidents to slip and fall injuries to motorcycle accidents. And although recent research shows promise in treating spinal cord injuries, they remain a serious injury that requires extensive medical treatment. If you’ve suffered a spinal cord injury in Rhode Island or Massachusetts, you need a Massachusetts or Rhode Island spinal cord injury attorney you can trust.
Our expert team of Massachusetts and Rhode Island spinal cord injury lawyers operates out of twenty convenient RI and MA office locations where you’re always welcome – or if you prefer, we’ll come to you. If you’re entitled to financial compensation for pain, suffering, lost wages, medical bills or any other reason, one of our highly skilled Massachusetts Rhode Island spinal cord injury lawyers may be able to help you recover damages.
We firmly believe that you shouldn’t have to pay your own medical expenses if someone else is at fault for your injuries – that’s why we want to show you that RI and MA law is on your side, and we’re willing to fight for the justice you deserve. Although this site is viewable in all browsers, it will look much better in a browser that supports Web standards. They mediate the effects of moods on external behavior and influence internal changes in bodily function and their appropriate expression.
Surrounding the thalamus is a group of structures, the limbic system, which is involved in survival behavior and emotions such as rage and fright. White mater, by contrast, is composed mainly of the myelin-covered axons, or nerve fibers, that extend from the neuron cell bodies.
These nerve tracts pass through a commnication link called the internal capsule, a compact band of fibers, and intersect the corpus callosum. The brain stem contains centers that regulate several functions that are vital for survival; these include blood pressure, heartbeat, respiration, digestion, and certain reflex actions such as swallowing and vomiting.
Seizures are episodes of disturbed brain function caused by abnormalities of the brain's electrical activity. At Kevin P Landry Law Offices, our Massachusetts and Rhode Island spinal cord injury lawyers know how to deal with insurance companies, hospitals and guilty parties – and there’s no reason for you to suffer alone. It starts in the nerves from the back of  your brain, down through the center of the back, and ends just below the lowest vertebrae in your back. The the spinal cord is injured, there is oftentimes permanent damage to the body, resulting in loss of sensation to even paralysis.
One of our MA and RI spinal cord injury lawyers will be in touch with you as soon as possible to discuss your case and determine what the first step to recovery will be. It controls the things we choose to do -- like walk and talk -- and the things our body does automatically -- like breathe and digest food. Closely linked with the limbic system is the hypothalamus, which has overall control of the body's automatic processes.
Fatty myelin sheaths insulate the axons and increae the transmission speed of the nerve impulses.
There are many types of seizures. Causes Epilepsy can affect people of all ages but is most common in young children and older adults. The central nervous system is also involved with our senses -- seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling -- as well as our emotions, thoughts, and memory.The brain is a soft, spongy mass of nerve cells and supportive tissue. Other possible causes of epilepsy include brain injuries due to head trauma or oxygen deprivation at birth.
People who take this drug should be monitored for symptoms such as difficulty initiating urination, weak urine stream, or painful urination. The parts work together, but each has special functions.The cerebrum, the largest part of the brain, fills most of the upper skull. In many cases, the cause of epilepsy is unknown (idiopathic). Diagnosis A health care provider will diagnose epilepsy based on a person's medical history, description of seizures, and various diagnostic tools.
The most important diagnostic tool is the electroencephalogram (EEG), which allows providers to record and analyze brain waves. In 2013, the FDA warned that this drug may cause retina abnormalities, vision loss, and skin discoloration. The cerebrum uses information from our senses to tell us what's going on around us and tells our body how to respond.
Imaging tests such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may also be used. Treatment The goal of epilepsy treatment is to control seizures. The right hemisphere controls the muscles on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the muscles on the right side of the body.
Many different types of anticonvulsant (anti-epileptic) drugs are available to treat epilepsy.
It controls hunger and thirst and some of the most basic body functions, such as body temperature, blood pressure, and breathing.The brain is protected by the bones of the skull and by a covering of three thin membranes called meninges.
Dietary changes, such as the ketogenic diet, have shown promise in helping children with severe epilepsy. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) can cause many side effects. This watery fluid is produced by special cells in the four hollow spaces in the brain, called ventricles. Pregnant women with epilepsy need to take special precautions, because some of these drugs (particularly valproate) can cause birth defects. IntroductionEpilepsy is a brain disorder involving repeated, spontaneous seizures of any type. Perampanel also has a boxed warning to alert about potential risks of serious mood changes and mental disturbances including irritability, aggression, anxiety, and violent thoughts or behaviors. There are different types of epilepsy but what they all share are recurrent seizures caused by an uncontrolled electrical discharge from nerve cells in the cerebral cortex.
Cerebrospinal fluid also brings nutrients from the blood to the brain and removes waste products from the brain.The spinal cord is made up of bundles of nerve fibers.
However, due to reports of deaths from liver failure and from a serious blood condition called aplastic anemia, felbamate is recommended only under certain circumstances. Seizures are episodes of disturbed brain function that cause changes in neuromuscular function, attention, or behavior. They are caused by abnormally excited electrical signals in the brain. Seizures can also be caused by conditions other than epilepsy. Like the brain, the spinal cord is covered by the meninges and cushioned by cerebrospinal fluid.Spinal nerves connect the brain with the nerves in most parts of the body. Many people experience a single seizure at some point in their life and then never experience another.
Vigabatrin is also prescribed as a low-dose oral solution to treat infantile spasms in children ages 1 month to 2 years.
A single seizure may be related to a specific medical problem such as fever, a reaction to a drug, or withdrawal from alcohol.
It can cause rare but serious skin reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The seizures that are associated with epilepsy are provoked by abnormal bursts of electrical activity in the brain. While these types of serious skin reactions can occur with other AEDs, they are not usually associated with benzodiazepine drugs. Even if surgery is successful, people may still need to take medications for several years following surgery, to help maintain seizure control. Partial Seizures (also called Focal Seizures)Partial (focal) seizures are subcategorized as "simple" or "complex partial": Simple Partial Seizures. Various advanced imaging brain scan and mapping techniques are used to provide information on the exact area or areas in the brain that are triggering seizure activity. A person with a simple partial seizure (sometimes known as Jacksonian epilepsy) does not lose consciousness, but may experience confusion, jerking movements (convulsions), tingling, or odd mental and emotional events. Such events may include deja vu, mild hallucinations, or extreme responses to smell and taste. The two types of resection surgery are lobectomy and lesionectomy. Lobectomy involves removing an entire lobe of the brain. The most common and successful surgical procedure for epilepsy is anterior temporal lobectomy, which is performed when seizures originate in the temporal lobe.
About 80% of these seizures originate in the temporal lobe, the part of the brain located close to the ear.
Temporal lobe disturbances can result in loss of judgment, involuntary or uncontrolled behavior, or loss of consciousness.

People may lose consciousness briefly and appear to others as motionless with a vacant stare. Temporal lobectomy successfully reduces or eliminates seizures in most people, but can cause problems with memory and learning. Lesionectomies are performed to remove damaged or abnormal tissue that is causing seizure activity. After a few seconds, a person may begin to perform repetitive movements, such as chewing or smacking of lips. The surgeon cuts into the band of tissue that connects these hemispheres to prevent seizures from becoming generalized and spreading from one side of the brain to the other. However, this procedure does not stop seizures from continuing to occur in one side of the brain. In some cases, simple or complex partial seizures evolve into what are known as secondarily generalized seizures. The progression may be so rapid that the initial partial seizure is not even noticed. Generalized SeizuresGeneralized seizures are caused by nerve cell disturbances that occur in more widespread areas of the brain than partial seizures. This is a radical surgical procedure that involves removing a large portion of one side of the brain. Neurostimulators are sometimes called "pacemakers for the brain." In 1997, the FDA first approved vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for treating people with partial epilepsy whose seizures were not helped by medication. The muscles suddenly contract, causing the person to fall and lie stiffly for about 10 to 30 seconds. Researchers are continuing to study other types of brain stimulation devices as treatments for epilepsy. If the throat or larynx is affected, there may be a high-pitched musical sound (stridor) when the person inhales. Spasms occur for about 30 seconds to 1 minute. They run from the brain stem and down through each side of the neck, and then pass through the esophagus to the gastrointestinal tract. The person remains unconscious for a while and then awakens to confusion and extreme fatigue. VNS is FDA-approved for people with partial epilepsy and those whose seizures are not helped by medication. According to the most recent guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology, there is weak evidence that VNS may help as added therapy for children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and children and adults with generalized or partial epilepsy. There is also weak evidence that VNS may possibly help improve depression and mood problems in people with epilepsy.
Petit mal may be confused with simple or complex partial seizures, or even with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
For side effects, VNS can cause shortness of breath, hoarseness, sore throat, coughing, ear and throat pain, or nausea and vomiting. Sometimes it may affect only one part of the body so that, for instance, the jaw slackens and the head drops.
Turning off the VNS (for example before an MRI or surgery) may increase the risk for status epilepticus. In tonic seizures, the muscles contract and consciousness is altered for about 10 seconds, but the seizures do not progress to the clonic or jerking phase. RNS detects abnormal electrical activity in the brain and responds by sending electrical stimulation. The RNS Stimulator will not completely eliminate seizures, but can help reduce seizure frequency. People who have an RNS stimulator implanted cannot undergo MRI procedures. Lifestyle ChangesEpilepsy is a chronic and usually lifelong condition.
If you suspect that a food is a seizure trigger, try keeping a diary of what you eat and when your seizures occurred. Light alcohol consumption does not usually increase seizure activity in people who are not alcohol dependent or sensitive to alcohol. Video games have been known to trigger seizures in people with existing epilepsy, but apparently only if they are already sensitive to flashing lights. Simple febrile seizures last for less than 15 minutes and only occur once in a 24-hour period. Seizures have been reported among people who watch cartoons with rapidly fluctuating colors and quick flashes. No strong evidence supports their value on reducing seizures (although some people benefit), but they may be helpful in reducing anxiety. ExerciseExercise is important for many aspects of epilepsy, although it can be problematic. Weight-bearing exercise helps maintain bone density, which can be reduced by some medications. Many people who have a first seizure will never have another seizure, and do not have epilepsy. Still, a health care provider may order a brain imaging test to make sure that epilepsy is not an underlying cause. Exercise is also helpful for preventing depression and maintaining good emotional and psychological health. Make sure that you have a companion with you when you go swimming who can recognize the signs of a seizure and knows what to do if you have one. They produce electric charges that must fire regularly in order for a steady current to pass from one nerve cell in the brain to another. Some children who try the ketogenic diet are able to stop or at least reduce their medications. Generalized epilepsy seizure types appear to be more related to genetic influences than partial seizure epilepsies. Brain DamageEpilepsy can be caused by many types of diseases or injuries that damage the brain. The standard theory is that burning fat instead of carbohydrates causes an increase in ketones (chemical substances in the body that result from the breakdown of fat in the body). Cerebral palsy and other disorders caused by lack of oxygen to the brain during birth are often associated with epilepsy. Ketosis appears to alter certain amino acids in the brain and to increase levels of the neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps prevent nerve cells from over-firing. This diet must be professionally monitored. Parents can endanger their children if they try the program on their own without consulting a doctor or trained dietician. The child fasts for the first 1 to 2 days, and then the diet is gradually introduced. The regimen uses small amounts of carbohydrates and large amounts of fats (up to 90%), with very few proteins and no sugar. Children generally consume 75% of their usual daily calorie requirements. A typical dinner may include a chicken cutlet or piece of fish, broccoli with cheese, lettuce with mayonnaise, and a whipped cream sundae.
In infants and toddlers, prenatal factors and birth delivery problems are associated with epilepsy risk. In children age 10 and younger, generalized seizures are more common. Although such injuries are usually minor, people with epilepsy have a higher risk for fractures than those without the disorder. Children cannot take medications that contain sugar (which is common in many drugs produced for children). Some sunscreens and lotions contain sorbitol, a carbohydrate that can be absorbed through skin. Parents should take precautions to prevent burning accidents from stoves and other heat sources. Many children and parents find the diet too difficult or ineffective and stop it after 6 months. Researchers are investigating a modified version of the popular Atkins diet, which does not require the caloric, protein, or fluid restrictions of the ketogenic diet. Unlike the traditional Atkins diet, the modified Atkins diet uses less carbohydrates and fatter intake.
In general, to obtain a driver's license, a health care provider must confirm that a person has been seizure-free for a specific number of months.
Another alternative is a low glycemic index diet, which contains even fewer carbohydrates than the Atkins diet. In fact, one study suggested that the drowning risk for people with epilepsy is 15 to 19 times greater than for the general population. These services are usually free and available in most cities. People with epilepsy often contend with depression and other mental health issues.
People with epilepsy who swim should avoid deep and cloudy water (a clear swimming pool is best), and always swim with a knowledgeable, competent, and experienced companion or at a facility that has a lifeguard on site. Mental Health ComplicationsDepression and anxiety are common among people with epilepsy. People with epilepsy have a higher risk for suicide, particularly in the first 6 months following diagnosis.
Cognitive behavioral therapy offers a structured counseling program that helps people change behaviors associated with seizure triggers, such as anxiety and insomnia. The risk for suicide is highest among people who have epilepsy and an accompanying psychiatric condition, such as depression, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, or chronic alcohol use. Some parents of children with epilepsy have turned to medical marijuana as a possible treatment when their children's seizures have not been helped by medication.
According to organizations such as the American Epilepsy Society and American Academy of Neurology, there is currently not enough evidence to know whether the cannabinoids in marijuana are safe and effective for reducing seizure activity. Medication side effects, including fatigue and drowsiness, can also be contributing factors.
Problems with learning and memory can affect school performance, and lead to behavioral issues.
Some types of anti-epileptic drugs should not be taken during the first trimester because they can cause birth defects. Women with epilepsy who are thinking of becoming pregnant should talk to their health care providers in advance to plan changes in their medication regimen. Permanent brain damage or death can result if the seizure is not treated effectively. The condition is generally defined as a continuous seizure that lasts for more than 5 minutes. There are two forms of status epilepticus: generalized convulsive, which involve prolonged seizures, and non-convulsive, which affects behavior and consciousness. Most times, this condition occurs in people who do not have epilepsy and who have never had a prior seizure. Other general causes of status epilepticus include alcohol intoxication or withdrawal, infections, fever, metabolic disorders, stroke, brain tumors, and head trauma.

The causes of such events are not fully known, but heart arrhythmias and pauses in breathing (apnea) may be factors in many cases. Your health care provider can explain if you have specific risk factors for SUDEP and what protective measures can be taken. The best preventive measure is to take your medication as prescribed. Do not make any changes to your drug regimen without speaking first with your provider. PrognosisThe prognosis for epilepsy depends on various factors. In general, people whose epilepsy is well-controlled by medications have an excellent prognosis and many experience short- and even long-term remission from seizures. The outlook is best for people whose epilepsy responds to treatment soon after being diagnosed. The longer a person remains free from seizures, the lower the chance of seizure recurrence. Some people are able to reduce or even stop their anti-seizure medications after having no seizures for several years. People who tend to have a poorer prognosis include those with chronic, active epilepsy (high frequency of seizures) that does not respond to early treatment. People who have other illnesses in addition to epilepsy (diabetes and heart disease) are also at increased risk for developing other health problems. Certain types of childhood epilepsy go away or improve with age, usually by the late teens or 20s. Syndromes such as childhood absence epilepsy have excellent prognosis, with many children outgrowing the syndrome and experiencing remission by their teenage years. Other syndromes, such as juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, can be well-controlled by medication but are likely to be lifelong. Epilepsy is considered resolved if a person has been seizure-free for 10 years or has not taken antiepileptic medications for 5 years. It implies that a person does not have active epilepsy. SymptomsSeizure symptoms vary from person to person. An EEG records and measures brain waves, which reflect the electrical activity of nerve cells in the brain. This test is conducted in a special hospital room where you will be both monitored by EEG and watched by a video camera to evaluate your behavior during a seizure.
You will have an IV so that medications can be administered in case of a prolonged seizure.
More advanced imaging tests may be performed for surgery planning and to identify specific areas in the brain associated with seizure activity.
These tests include positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computer tomography (SPECT), and magnetoencephalography (MEG). People with syncope do not have the rhythmic contracting and then relaxing of the body's muscles. Migraine headaches, particularly migraine with auras, may sometimes be confused with seizures. With epileptic seizure, the preceding aura is often seen as multiple, brightly colored, circular spots, while migraine tends to cause black, white, or colorless lined or zigzag flickering patterns. Panic attacks may resemble partial seizures. Symptoms of a panic attack include palpitations, sweating, trembling, sensation of breathlessness, chest pain, feeling of choking, nausea, faintness, chills or flushes, fear of losing control, and fear of dying. Narcolepsy, a sleep disorder that causes a sudden loss of muscle tone and excessive daytime sleepiness, can be confused with epilepsy.
It is not true that people having seizures will swallow their tongues. Turn the person gently on the side.
Do not try to hold the person down to prevent shaking. Rest the person's head on something flat and soft to protect it from banging on the floor and to support the neck. For people with severe epilepsy that has not been helped by drugs, surgery or a neurostimulation device may be options. Drug therapy is not usually recommended after a single initial seizure, unless imaging tests reveal brain injuries or a diagnosed epilepsy syndrome suggests increased risk for recurrence In general, drug therapy is considered after a person has had 2 or 3 seizures. Women with epilepsy should consider taking folic acid supplements at least 3 months before conception as well as during the pregnancy. Women with epilepsy do not face a substantially increased risk of premature birth or labor and delivery complications (including cesarean section). However, smoking may increase the risk of premature delivery. Babies born to mothers who use an AED during pregnancy may be at increased risk of being small for their gestational age or for having other birth defects. Medication Use During Pregnancy: Women should discuss with their providers the risks of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and the possibility of making any changes in their drug regimen in terms of dosages or prescriptions. According to current guidelines: Women with epilepsy should consider taking only one AED during their pregnancy to reduce the risk of birth defects. Carbamazepine is generally considered to be the safest AED for use during pregnancy. Of all AEDs, valproate carries the highest risk for birth defects and should be avoided, if possible, during the first trimester. Valproate use has been associated with neural tube defects, facial clefts (cleft lip or palate), and hypospadias (abnormal position of urinary opening on the penis). In studies, children born to mothers who took valproate during pregnancy had lower scores on IQ and other cognitive tests than children whose mothers took other types of AEDs. Some research suggests valproate may increase the risk for autism and autism spectrum disorders. Longitudinal cohort studies of the prognosis of epilepsy: contribution of the National General Practice Study of Epilepsy and other studies. Your provider should monitor your blood levels throughout your pregnancy to see if your dosage needs to be adjusted.
Breastfeeding: If women on AEDs breastfeed they should be aware that some types of AEDs are more likely than others to pass into the breast milk. The following AEDs appear to be the most likely to pass into breast milk in clinically important amounts: Primidone, levetiracetam, and possibly gabapentin, lamotrigine, and topiramate.
Talk with your provider about any concerns you have about breastfeeding and AEDs. MedicationsAnti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) include many types of medications but all act as anticonvulsants. A drug is usually started at a low dose and then slowly increased to a higher dose until the seizures are controlled or side effects occur. The specific drugs and whether more than one should be used are determined by various factors, including a person's age and health condition, and the side effect profile of the drug. During the first few months of therapy, your health care provider will probably order blood tests to check your liver and kidney function and to monitor drug levels and any side effects.
Be sure to inform your provider of any medications, herbal remedies, or dietary supplements you take. Research has shown that the highest risk of suicide can occur as soon as 1 week after beginning drug treatment and can continue for at least 24 weeks.
People who take these drugs should be monitored for signs of depression, changes in behavior, or suicidality. There are dozens of anti-epileptic drugs.
They are the first choice for people with generalized seizures and are used to prevent nearly all other major seizures as well. These drugs have a number of side effects that vary depending on dosage and duration.
Less common side effects include dizziness, hair thinning and loss, and difficulty concentrating.
In particular, these drugs are associated with facial cleft deformities (cleft lip or palate) and cognitive impairment.
CarbamazepineCarbamazepine (Tegretol, Equetro, Carbatrol, and generic) is used for many types of epilepsy including partial seizures, generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures, and mixed seizures.
A chewable form is available for children. Common side effects of carbamazepine include dizziness, drowsiness, problems with walking and coordination, nausea, and vomiting.
These skin reactions cause rash, mouth sores, peeling and blistering skin, and other severe symptoms. Grapefruit, Seville oranges, and tangelos can increase carbamazepine's blood levels and risk of adverse effects. PhenytoinPhenytoin (Dilantin, generic) is often prescribed as a first-line drug to treat generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures and complex partial seizures. Primidone (Mysoline, generic) is converted in the body to phenobarbital, and has the same benefits and adverse effects. Barbiturates may be used to prevent grand mal (tonic-clonic) seizures or partial seizures. They are no longer typically used as first-line drugs, although they may be the initial drug prescribed for newborns and young children. Many people experience difficulty with side effects. There is some evidence that phenobarbitol may cause heart problems in the fetus. Ethosuximide and Similar DrugsEthosuximide (Zarontin, generic) is used for petit mal (absence) seizures in children and adults who have experienced no other type of seizures. Methsuximide (Celontin), a drug similar to ethosuximide, may be suitable as an add-on treatment for intractable epilepsy in children. This drug can cause stomach problems, dizziness, loss of coordination, and lethargy. Although clonazepam can prevent generalized or partial seizures, people generally develop tolerance to the drug, which causes seizures to recur. People who have had liver disease or acute angle glaucoma should not take clonazepam, and people with lung problems should use the drug with caution. Side effects include drowsiness, imbalance and staggering, irritability, aggression, hyperactivity in children, weight gain, eye muscle problems, slurred speech, tremors, skin problems, and stomach problems. LamotrigineLamotrigine (Lamictal, generic) is approved as add-on (adjunctive) therapy for partial seizures, and generalized seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, in children aged 2 years and older and in adults.
Lamotrigine can be used as a single drug treatment (monotherapy) for adults with partial seizures. Birth control pills lower blood levels of lamotrigine. Common side effects include dizziness, headache, blurred or double vision, lack of coordination, sleepiness, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, and rash.
The risk of rash increases if the drug is started at too high a dose or if used in combination with valproate. Be sure to immediately notify your provider if you develop a rash, even if it is mild. Lamotrigine may cause aseptic meningitis.
Symptoms of meningitis may include headache, fever, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, rash, and sensitivity to light.
It is approved as add-on therapy for people with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, partial-onset seizures, or seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. It is also approved as single drug therapy. Most side effects are mild to moderate and can be reduced or prevented by beginning at low doses and increasing dosage gradually. Common side effects may include numbness and tingling, fatigue, abnormalities of taste, difficulty concentrating, and weight loss.
If used during pregnancy, topiramate may increase the risk for cleft lip or palate birth defects. OxcarbazepineOxcarbazepine (Trileptal, generic) is similar to phenytoin and carbamazepine but generally has fewer side effects.
It is approved as single or add-on therapy for partial seizures in adults and for children ages 4 years and older. Serious side effects, while rare, include Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Rash and fever may also be a sign of multi-organ hypersensitivity, another serious side effect associated with this drug. It may reduce sweating and cause a sudden rise in body temperature, especially in hot weather. More serious side effects may include muscle weakness and coordination difficulties, behavioral changes, and increased risk of infections. It is approved only for use with other anti-epilepsy medicines to treat partial seizures in adults and children 12 years and older.

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