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Author: admin, 25.01.2015. Category: Quote About Positive Thinking

This chapter describes a technique known as Business Transformation Readiness Assessment, used for evaluating and quantifying an organization's readiness to undergo change. Enterprise architecture is a major endeavor within an organization and most often an innovative Architecture Vision (Phase A) and supporting Architecture Definition (Phases B to D) will entail considerable change. Understanding the readiness of the organization to accept change, identifying the issues, and then dealing with them in the Implementation and Migration Plans is key to successful architecture transformation in Phases E and F. The Canadian Government Business Transformation Enablement Program (BTEP) provides guidance on how to identify the business transformation-related issues.
The BTEP recommends that all projects conduct a transformation readiness assessment to at least uncover the business transformation issues.
The following sections describe Business Transformation Readiness Assessment using the BTEP method, including some lessons learned.
The first step is to determine what factors will impact on the business transformation associated with the migration from the Baseline to Target Architectures. This can be best achieved through the conduct of a facilitated workshop with individuals from different parts of the organization. Desire, Willingness, and Resolve is the presence of a desire to achieve the results, willingness to accept the impact of doing the work, and the resolve to follow through and complete the endeavor.
Business Case exists that creates a strong focus for the project, identifying benefits that must be achieved and thereby creating an imperative to succeed. Funding, in the form of a clear source of fiscal resources, exists that meets the endeavor's potential expenditures. Sponsorship and Leadership exists and is broadly shared, but not so broad as to diffuse accountability.
Governance is the ability to engage the involvement and support of all parties with an interest in or responsibility to the endeavor with the objective of ensuring that the corporate interests are served and the objectives achieved.
Accountability is the assignment of specific and appropriate responsibility, recognition of measurable expectations by all concerned parties, and alignment of decision-making with areas of responsibility and with where the impact of the decisions will be felt. Workable Approach and Execution Model is an approach that makes sense relative to the task, with a supporting environment, modeled after a proven approach. IT Capacity to Execute is the ability to perform all the IT tasks required by the project, including the skills, tools, processes, and management capability. Enterprise Capacity to Execute is the ability of the enterprise to perform all the tasks required by the endeavor, in areas outside of IT, including the ability to make decisions within the tight time constraints typical to project environments based upon the recent successful execution of a similar endeavor of at least half the size and complexity. Enterprise Ability to Implement and Operate the transformation elements and their related business processes, absorb the changes arising from implementation, and ongoing ability to operate in the new environment.
Once the factors are determined, it is necessary to present them in such a way that the assessment is clear and the maximum value is derived from the participants. The care spent preparing the models (which is not insignificant) will be recouped by a focused workshop that will rapidly go through a significant number of factors. It is important that each factor be well-defined and that the scope of the enterprise architecture endeavor (preliminary planning) be reflected in the models to keep the workshop participants focused and productive. Circulating the models before the workshop for comments would be useful, if only to ensure that they are complete as well as allowing the participants to prepare for the workshop. The use of a series of templates for each factor would expedite the assessment, and ensure consistency across the wide range of factors. The vision for a readiness factor is the determination of where the enterprise has to evolve to address the factor. Once the factor visions are established, then it is useful to determine how important each factor is to the achievement of the Target Architecture as well as how challenging it will be to migrate the factor into an acceptable visionary state.
The BTEP uses a Readiness Rating Scheme that can be used as a start point for any organization in any vertical. Urgency, whereby if a readiness factor is urgent, it means that action is needed before a transformation initiative can begin. Readiness Status, which is rated as either Low (needs substantial work before proceeding), Fair (needs some work before proceeding), Acceptable (some readiness issues exist; no showstoppers), Good (relatively minor issues exist), or High (no readiness issues).
Degree of Difficulty to Fix rates the effort required to overcome any issues identified as either No Action Needed, Easy, Moderate, or Difficult. Although a more extensive template can be used in the workshop, it is useful to create a summary table of the findings to consolidate the factors and provide a management overview.
Once the factors have been rated and assessed, derive a series of actions that will enable the factors to change to a favorable state.
Each factor should be assessed with respect to risk using the process highlighted in Part III, 31. These newly identified actions should then be formally incorporated into the emerging Implementation and Migration Plan.
From a risk perspective, these actions are designed to mitigate the risks and produce an acceptable residual risk.
The assessment exercise will provide a realistic assessment of the organization and will be a key input into the strategic migration planning that will be initiated in Phase E and completed in Phase F.
The readiness factors, as part of an overall Implementation and Migration Plan, will have to be continuously monitored (Phase G) and rapid corrective actions taken through the IT governance framework to ensure that the defined architectures can be implemented. The readiness factors assessment will be a living document and during the migration planning and execution of the Transition Architectures, the business transformation activities will play a key role. The business transformation workshops are a critical part of the Communications Plan whereby key individuals from within the organization gather to assess the implications of transforming the enterprise. Their determination of the factors will again create a culture of understanding across the enterprise and provide useful insights for the Implementation and Migration Plan. The latter plan should include a Communications Plan, especially to keep the affected personnel informed. In short, enterprise architecture implementation will require a deep knowledge and awareness of all of the business transformation factors that impact transitioning to the visionary state.
In the main Contents frame in the left margin of the page, click the relevant hyperlink to load the Contents List for that Part of the TOGAF document or go direct to a chapter within the document. Within a chapter you can select Previous and Next at the top and bottom of the page to move to the previous or next chapter, or select Home to return to the welcome page.
Downloads of TOGAF®, an Open Group Standard, are available under license from the TOGAF information web site. TOGAF is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries. Following to the graph attached, Africa’s engine of growth, especially for Nigeria, it is much higher compared to that of the United States. On the other hand, there are many problems that are not solved currently in the continent with new opportunities.
Few months ago, I have read about the article saying that the biggest dam would be established in Africa that the cost to build a dam would be approximately $4.2 billion USD. A firma€™s product line or lines refers to the assortment of similar things that the firm holds. Screening and evaluation: Some products that after some analysis are clearly not feasible or are not consistent with the core competencies of the firm are eliminated.
Market testing: Frequently, firms will try to a€?testa€? a product in one region to see if it will sell in reality before it is released nationally and internationally.
Commercialization: Facilities to manufacture the product on a larger scale are now put into operation and the firm starts a national marketing campaign and distribution effort. The diffusion of innovation refers to the tendency of new products, practices, or ideas to spread among people.
Usually, when new products or ideas come about, they are initially only adopted by a small group of people.
Several specific product categories have case histories that illustrate important issues in adoption. The case of credit cards was a bit more complicated and involved a a€?chickenA­and-egga€? paradox.
Rap music initially spread quickly among urban youths in large part because of the low costs of recording. Homophily: The more similar to each other that members of a culture are, the more likely an innovation is to spreada€”people are more likely to imitate similar than different models.
Physical distance: The greater the distance between people, the less likely innovation is to spread. Co-branding involves firms using two or more brands together to maximize appeal to consumers.


Certain a€?peripherala€? characteristics of products may a€?signala€? quality or other value to consumers. This will be a joint effort between corporate (especially human resources) staff, lines of business, and IT planners. Readers should keep in mind that most organizations will have their own unique set of factors and criteria, but most are similar.
This is where management is able to clearly define the objectives, in both strategic and specific terms. There is active discussion regarding the impact that executing the project may have on the organization, with clear indication of the intent to accept the impacts. There are clear statements regarding what the organization will not be able to do if the project does not proceed, and equally clear statements of what the project will enable the organization to do. The business case document identifies concrete benefits (revenues or savings) that the organization is committed to deliver and clearly and unquestionably points to goals that the organization is committed to achieving. Accountability is aligned with the area where the benefits of success or consequences of failure of the endeavor will be felt as well as with the responsibility areas. There are clear notions of the client and the client's role relative to the builder or prime contractor and the organization is experienced with endeavors of this type so that the processes, disciplines, expertise, and governance are already in place, proven, and available to apply to the transformation endeavor. It is clear to everyone how implementation will occur, how it will be monitored, and how realignment actions will be made and there are adequate resources dedicated for the life of the transformation.
There has been a recent successful execution of a similar endeavor of similar size and complexity and there exist appropriate processes, discipline, skills, and a rationale model for deciding what skills and activities to source externally.
There exist non-IT-specific processes, discipline, and skills to deal with this type of endeavor.
The enterprise has a recent proven ability to deal with the change management issues arising from new processes and systems and has in place a solid disciplined and process-driven service management program that provides operations, maintenance, and support for existing systems. If each factor is converted into a maturity model (a re-usable governance asset as well) accompanied by a standard worksheet template containing all of the information and deductions that have to be gathered, it can be a very useful tool. Note that the model shown below also has a recommended target state put in by the enterprise architect; this again acts as governance. Using a mechanism such as maturity models, enterprise architects will normally have to cover a great deal of ground in little time. First, the factor should be assessed with respect to its base state and then its target state. Before starting anew, existing actions outlined in the architectures should be checked first before creating new ones. As risks, they should be part of the risk management process and closely monitored as the enterprise architecture is being implemented. It is important to note whether the business transformation actions will be on the vision's critical path and, if so, determine how they will impact implementation.
To do this they will become aware of the Architecture Vision and architecture definition (if they were not already involved through the business scenarios and Business Architecture). In many cases collaborating with the unions and shop stewards will further assist a humane (and peaceful) transition to the target state.
With the evolution of IT, the actual technology is not the real issue any more in enterprise architecture, but the critical factors are most often the cultural ones. The license is free to any organization wishing to use the TOGAF standard entirely for internal purposes (for example, to develop an information system architecture for use within that organization). As I began to read about the article, I thought about all the misconceptions of the actual size of African continent that we have learned at class on Tuesday.
Naturally, the percentage of change on a year for Africa is also greater than that of the rest of the world. One thing that consistently comes to mind is that many investors already know and recognize that African continent is full of things that are not discovered and invested at this moment and that the area has great growth potential.
Consumer products can be categorized as convenience goods, for which consumers are willing to invest very limited shopping efforts. For example, facing a saturated market for baking soda in its traditional use, Arm & Hammer launched a major campaign to get consumers to use the product to deodorize refrigerators. Until some time in the 1800s, few physicians bothered to scrub prior to surgery, even though new scientific theories predicted that small microbes not visible to the naked eye could cause infection.
Since the cards were used in public, others who did not yet hold the cards could see how convenient they were.
Accepting credit cards was not a particularly attractive option for retailers until they were carried by a large enough number of consumers. Later, rap music became popular among a very different segment, suburban youths, because of its apparently authentic depiction of an exotic urban lifestyle. Although hybrid corn provided yields of about 20% more than traditional corn, many farmers had difficulty believing that this smaller seed could provide a superior harvest. In some countries, such as Britain and Saudi Arabia, tradition is greatly valueda€”thus, new products often dona€™t fare too well. Some innovations, such as infant formula adopted in developing countries, may do more harm than good.
In a similar manner, some brands often start in a narrow nichea€”either nationally or regionallya€”and may eventually work their way up to a more inclusive national brand. Some ice cream makers, for example, use their own brand name in addition to naming the brands of ingredients contained. For some products, packaging accounts for a large part of the total product manufacturing cost. For example, if the enterprise envisages a consolidation of information holdings and a move to a new paradigm such as service orientation for integrated service delivery, then the human resource implications are major. The outcome is a deeper understanding of the challenges and opportunities that could be presented in the course of the endeavor. In this workshop it is very useful to start off with a tentative list of factors that participants can re-use, reject, augment, or replace. There are visible and broadly understood consequences of endeavor failure and success criteria have been clearly identified and communicated. The endeavor is sponsored by an executive who is appropriately aligned to provide the leadership the endeavor needs and able to articulate and defend the needs of the endeavor at the senior management level. There is no point deploying new IT capability without employees trained to use it and support staff ready to sustain it.
This group will feel ownership of the enterprise architecture, recognizing the enterprise architect as a valuable steward.
A book is also available (in hardcopy and pdf) from The Open Group Bookstore as document G116. Many people still believe that African continent is smaller than Asia and the United States while it is not.
These graphs are significantly saying that the future investment toward the new business opportunity will possibly be concentrated on Africa with the continent’s shortcomings following to Nigeria. Nigeria has one of the world’s highest rates of road deaths and the government only recently made lessons and tests mandatory for new drivers not the existing drivers that had brought out many casualties. The article keeps mentioning about the inefficient capital and sources with the potentials following to the revenues that will grow faster than GDP. One thing I liked about this article was that the perspective of writing this article seemed to be very objective and not subjective by misconceptions and the certain stereotypes about Africa. Thus, it is essential to have these products readily available and have the brand name well known.
In contrast, the firma€™s product mix describes the combination of different product lines that the firm holds. Finally, products can be differentiated in terms of offering different levels of servicea€”for example, Volvo offers a guarantee of free, reliable towing anywhere should the vehicle break down.
Some firms have stockholders who want to minimize risk and avoid investing in too many new innovations.
The figure will almost certainly be well below that for video games that, even when spread out to a large part of the population, will be of interest to far from everyone. Younger and more progressive physicians began scrubbing early on, but they lacked the stature to make their older colleagues follow.
Although some people were concerned about security, the convenience factors seemed to be a decisive factor in the a€?tug-of-wara€? for and against adoption. Consumers, in contrast, were not particularly interested in cards that were not accepted by a large number of retailers. They were usually reluctant to try it because a failed harvest could have serious economic consequences, including a possible loss of the farm.


For example, early buyers of the CD player risked that few CDs would be recorded before the CD player went the way of the 8 track player. For example, birth control is incompatible with religious beliefs that predominate in some areas, and a computer database is incompatible with a large, established card file.
Very little usually changes from year to year in automobiles, and even automobiles of the 1990s are driven much the same way that automobiles of the 1950 were driven. Some products, such as cellular phones, fax machines, and ATM cards, have a strong relative advantage. While 3M puts its brand name on a great diversity of products, Proctor & Gamble, on the opposite extreme, maintains a separate brand name for each product. For example, Mars was originally a small brand that focused on liquor filled chocolate candy.
Long warranties often signal to consumers that the product is of good quality since the manufacturer is willing to take responsibility for its functioning. A computer, for example, is a tangible product, but it often comes with a warranty and software updates. Potentially coupled with a change-averse culture and a narrowly skilled workforce, the most sound and innovative architecture could go nowhere.
Many of the challenges translate directly into risks that have to be addressed, monitored, and, if possible, mitigated. Predictable and proven processes exist for moving from vision to statement of requirements.
There is a recognition of the need for knowledge and skill-building for the new way of working as well as the value of a formal gap analysis for skills and behavior. Neglecting these and focusing on the technical aspects will invariably result in a lackluster implementation that falls short of realizing the real promise of a visionary enterprise architecture. This article is about the huge capability of African continent, especially in Nigeria, the continent’s largest market. Back to the shortage of electricity and the other resources, these inefficient supply chains inevitably increase the cost of doing business and another problem about getting goods to customers are not adjusted fully in the current market. The article was full of the potentials that African continent would possibly have only if there are abundant sources supported by the market.
Shopping goods, in contrast, are goods in which the consumer is willing to invest a great deal of time and effort. Boeing, for example, has both a commercial aircraft and a defense line of products that each take advantage of some of the same core competencies and technologies of the firm.
Some firms can only survive if they innovate frequently and have stockholders who are willing to take this risk. Frequently, unfortunately, the product will reach a maturity stage where little growth will be seen. Thus, it was necessary to a€?jump starta€? the process, signing up large corporate accounts, under favorable terms, early in the cycle, after which the cards became worthwhile for retailers to accept. Agricultural extension agents then sought out the most progressive farmers to try hybrid corn, also aiming for farmers who were most respected and most likely to be imitated by others. Other products, such as automobile satellite navigation systems, entail some advantages, but the cost ratio is high. For example, travel agents who get used to booking online may be unable to process manual reservations.
In general, the use of brand extensions should be evaluated on the basis of the compatibility of various productsa€”can the same brand name represent different products without conflict or confusion?
It is widely believed, for example, that the a€?Intel insidea€? messages, which Intel paid computer makers to put on their products and packaging, reduced the value of the computer makersa€™ brand names because the emphasis was now put on the Intel component. There is a communication plan covering all levels of the organization and meeting the needs ranging from awareness to availability of technical detail.
Even though the success of beginning business in the continent would never be easy, people cannot easily ignore the fact that African continent has its huge capability to be invested. The high cost of construction and land disputes have disrupted that growth of formal retailing that made the fragmented market difficult to forecast sales. The tone was neutral by mentioning both possibilities with investing opportunities found in Africa and the limits with current problems that Africa is facing. I thought about the image and general facts that are facing toward African continent. For example, consumers will spend a great deal of time looking for a new car or a medical procedure.
For example, Hewlett-Packard has to constantly invent new products since competitors learn to work around its patents and will be able to manufacture the products at a lower cost.
Products can also be new to the firma€”another firm invented the product, but the firm is now making its own version.
Lower priced products often spread more quickly, and the extent to which the product is trialable (farmers did not have to plant all their land with hybrid corn at once, while one usually has to buy a cellular phone to try it out) influence the speed of diffusion. Store, or private label brands are, as the name suggests, brands that are owned by retail store chains or consortia thereof. The scope and approach of the transformation initiative have been clearly defined throughout the organization.
Especially in Nigeria, its promise has made a test-bed for the Africa strategies of consumer goods firms and this is not just because of its size but because of Nigerian culture that has been traded nearly for a century. Therefore, it is more obvious to increase the cost of doing business due to the dispersed customers with inefficient supply chains.
Usually, people think about the scarcity of water in the African continent and when it comes to the people from rest of the world, it is easier to have more prejudice and uneasiness toward Africa even before knowing about its culture and people. This represents a wide product mix 3M, for example, makes a large assortment of goods that are thought to be related in the sense that they use the firma€™s ability to bond surfaces together. Some products may also reach a decline stage, usually because the product category is being replaced by something better. For example, IBM did not invent the personal computer, but entered after other firms showed the market to have a high potential. Instead, many started out with a fraction of their land, and gradually switched to 100% hybrid corn when this innovation had proven itself useful. Finally, the extent of switching difficulties influences speeda€”many offices were slow to adopt computers because users had to learn how to use them.
In the old days, available sweeteners such as saccharin added an undesirable aftertaste, implying a clear sacrifice in taste for the reduction in calories.
After having read this entire article, I thought about Africa’s huge potentials that can be overtaken by business investment. For example, typewriters experienced declining sales as more consumers switched to computers or other word processing equipment.
In general, discontinuous innovations are more difficult to market since greater changes are required in the way things are done, but the rewards are also often significant.
It is also the best testing ground for new ventures since Africa continent is huge and is full of opportunities that are not found yet.
Maybelline offers a great deal of depth in lipsticks with subtle differences in shades while Morton Salt offers few varieties of its product. However, because the chains do not have the external brand building costs, the margins on the store brands are often higher. When a new product comes out, it is likely to first be adopted by consumers who are more innovative than othersa€”they are willing to pay a premium price for the new product and take a risk on unproven technology. Retailers have a great deal of power because they control the placement of products within the store. It is important to be on the good side of innovators since many other later adopters will tend to rely for advice on the innovators who are thought to be more knowledgeable about new products for advice. Because consumers tend to be attracted to a€?new and improveda€? products, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) only allows firms to put that label on reformulated products for six months after a significant change has been made. Many place the store brand right next to the national brand and place a sign highlighting the cost savings on the store brand.



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