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Author: admin, 29.09.2015. Category: Positive Phrases About Life

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Bhul Jao Bite Hue Kal Ko, DiL Me Bsalo Aane Wale Kal Ko, Muskurao Chahe Jo Bi Ho Pal, Khushiya Lekr Ayega Aane Wala Kal. I but I don’t consider myself a writer… I blog because I wanted to immortalize my life experiences, share information and just write about all sorts of topics. Author Spotlight Hi, I am Cathy, a travel junkie, foodie, photog crazy and frustrated writer.
Your source for Famous Quotes and Great Quotations from Famous Authors, Celebrities, Newsmakers and other famous personalities. There are immortal stories on lovers and immortal quotes on love and a few of them are given below. Our goal is to help you by delivering amazing quotes to bring inspiration, personal growth, love and happiness to your everyday life. DESCRIPTION: These images show 19th and 20th century reconstructions of the world-view of the Greek philosopher Strabo who wrote his famous geography at the beginning of the Christian era and compiled his map from travelersa€™ reports and the a€?writingsa€? of ancients. The contribution of Strabo as a scholar of great stature as philosopher, historian, and geographer, epitomizes the continuing importance of the Greek intellectual heritage - and contemporary practice - to the development of cartography in the early Roman world. Strabo claimed to have traveled widely to bring together an enormous amount of geographical knowledge. In many ways the most interesting passages relating to cartography in Straboa€™s Geographia are those that, although they contain no maps, give an account, for the first time in a surviving text, of how a description of the known world should be compiled. In order to avoid the deformational problems of flat maps, Strabo stated that he preferred to construct his map on a globe large enough to show all the required detail. As with all Greek world maps, the great impediment to study for the historian of cartography is that we have only these verbal descriptions, not the images themselves.
It is not clear how we should interpret these familiar graphic similes Strabo employed to describe to his readers the land areas and other features on the world map. Strabo was a lengthy and discursive writer, but demonstrated good critical power in assessing earlier geographical writers and has given us a verbal picture of the known world of the time. The most detailed examination of a term arising from Homeric geography (#105) is in respect of Ethiopians. The function of geography, according to Strabo, is to be an interpreter, not of the whole world, but of the inhabited world.
He goes on to say there is little point in making the meridians converge slightly in such a map, so was it rectangular, a forerunner of something like Mercatora€™s projection?a€?Like Herodotus (#109), Strabo had traveled himself from Armenia and western Italy, from the Black Sea to Egypt and up the Nile to PhilA¦. Strabo has summed up for us the knowledge of the ancient world as it was in the days of the Emperor CA¦sar Augustus of the great Roman Empire, as it was when in far-off Syria the Christ was born and the greater part of the known earth was under the sway of Rome.
Strabo begins his book with a detailed account of southern Spain where he tells of her two hundred towns.
Large quantities of corn and wine are exported, besides much oil, which is of the first quality, also wax, honey, and pitch . But if anyone disbelieves the evidence of reason, it would make no difference, from the point of view of the geographer, whether we make the inhabited world an island, or merely admit what experience has taught us, namely, that it is possible to sail round the inhabited world on both sides, from the east as well as from the west, with the exception of a few intermediate stretches. Despite the extension of the geographical horizons of the inhabited world since the time of Eratosthenes, Straboa€™s oikumene [inhabited world] was smaller. He goes on to suggest that the quadrilateral in which the Atlantic lies resembles in shape half the surface of a spinning-wheel, and that the oikumene [inhabited world] resembles a chlamys, a Greek mantle.
He goes on to say there is little point in making the meridians converge slightly in such a map, so was it rectangular, a forerunner of something like Mercatora€™s projection?Like Herodotus (#109), Strabo had traveled himself from Armenia and western Italy, from the Black Sea to Egypt and up the Nile to PhilA¦.
Those best known are situated on the rivers, estuaries, and seas; but the two which have acquired the greatest name and importance are Cordova and Cadiz. He grows enthusiastic over the richness of this part of southern Spain, famous from ancient days under the name of Tartessus for its wealth. It appears to have been the grammarian Crates of Mallos (#113), a contemporary of Hipparchus, and a member of the Stoic school of Philosophers, who made the first attempt to construct a terrestrial globe, and that he exhibited the same in Pergamum, not far from the year 150 B. The record will show that Willett first played the US Open in 2014 at Pinehurst No 2, which had been restored to its original design by replacing the rough with natural sand areas, vegetation and wiregrass bushes. He also played last year at Chambers Bay, with its fine fescue grass that allowed the ball to bounce and roll like on a links course. Those were a departure from the US Open that over the years had been defined by narrow fairways, thick rough and firm greens. Even with rain in the forecast ahead of Thursday's opening round, no one expects a winning score under par. Defending champion Jordan Spieth played in unusually strong wind on Sunday and said he would have shot no better than 75 and then treated himself to a beer for a fine day of work.
Ernie Els, who won at Oakmont in 1994, lamented rough so thick that not even the strongest players would be able to do more than get back into short grass. The Masters brings excitement as the first major of the year on a course that metes out birdies and bogeys, eagles and double bogeys.
Branden Grace described the opening hole as "horrible." The closing hole is among the strongest in major championship golf, and Angel Cabrera's tee shot down the middle in 2007 is still celebrated as one of the great drives under pressure in US Open history.
The bunkers remind players of the pot bunkers in links golf, not so much by appearance but in penalty. He was tied for the lead last year until hitting his tee shot on the 16th onto the railroad tracks and finishing two shots behind. The toughest test in golf played on what is called the toughest course in America led to a short vocabulary for most players. What appealed to the Englishman were the options players have on every hole, whether to take it on with a driver or lay back with something less to make sure the ball is in the fairway. Jordan Spieth hits his drive on the first hole during Tuesday's practice round for the US Open at Oakmont CC in Oakmont, Pennsylvania. But that didn't dissuade Phil Mickelson from another cross-country trip on the eve of a US Open.
Lefty left Oakmont on his private plane for San Diego to attend daughter Sophia's eighth-grade graduation.
Mickelson took basically the same route in 2013, when he was playing at Merion and returned home to attend the eighth-grade graduation of his older daughter, Amelia. At Merion, he landed barely three hours before his tee time and three-putted his first hole for a bogey. The good news is that Mickelson didn't give back a shot the rest of the day, especially impressive since Merion surrendered only one other round under par to the 78 players who completed the first round. But the time away from the game - Rose missed two events struggling with a disk flare-up - could prove a blessing in disguise. And then there was that infamous slow-speed car chase on the other coast as police tracked O.J. With less than two months left before golf returns to the Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, more than a few golfers remain uneasy about the spread of the Zika virus - which has been tied to fetal deaths and severe birth defects - in Brazil.
Australians Adam Scott and Marc Leishman, South Africans Louis Oosthuizen and Charl Schwartzel, and Vijay Singh of Fiji have all announced they won't be going for a host of reasons. But all three major champions at the US Open who faced questions Tuesday about competing in Rio remain on track to show up.
Englishman Danny Willett was less effusive, saying he and his wife have a three-month-old son and are thinking about having more kids soon.
Last week: Canadian teenager Brooke Henderson defeated Lydia Ko in a playoff in the KPGA Women's PGA Championship for her first major. Notes: Henderson and Ko both are in the field after the show they put on at Sahalee Country Club in the second major of the yea.
It was misery for the Warriors and their fired-up fans to watch Monday's 112-97 NBA Finals loss to the Cavaliers that sent the series back to Cleveland for Game 6 on Thursday night.
They wanted so badly to do it for Draymond Green, do it for each other and for their home crowd.
Their "Strength in Numbers" mantra was tested once more in a game that mattered so much, but in the end the Warriors lost at home for only the second time this postseason and fourth overall. Yet there's no panic now for the defending champions after LeBron James and the Cavs forced at least one more game in what has become quite the testy rematch.
Golden State will get a boost having emotional leader and All-Star forward Green back after he sat out Game 5 serving a suspension for a Game 4 swipe at James' groin.
The 7-foot center sprained his left knee early in the third quarter on Monday and traveled with the team to Cleveland after undergoing further tests.
Bogut has been an imposing presence with his shot-blocking ability, but the Warriors have some depth at the position and often use a center-by-committee approach with Festus Ezeli, Marreese Speights and Anderson Varejao getting regular opportunities to contribute. Defensively, the Warriors must find a way to keep James and Kyrie Irving from getting open like they did on Monday, with each scoring 41 points.
Golden State doesn't have much further to fall after shooting a postseason-low 36.4 percent - its first game below a 40 percent clip - despite getting 37 points from Thompson with six 3-pointers and Curry's 25 with five 3s. The Warriors are trying to close out the fifth championship in franchise history and third since moving out West from Philadelphia in 1962-63. Murray is back working with Lendl two years after they parted ways, and their winning start has earned the defending Queen's champion a second round meeting with Aljaz Bedene in an all-British clash on Thursday.
It will be the only time Murray has ever faced a British opponent at tour level on home soil and the first time anywhere since he lost to Tim Henman in Bangkok in 2006. After flying in from the US on Monday evening, Lendl seemed to be making an instant impact, directing Murray's practice session on Tuesday morning and then watching his match from the courtside seats. With Maria Sharapova's two-year doping ban still a hot topic, Murray also stuck by his long-held view that players found guilty of doping warrant strong punishment. Five-time Grand Slam winner Sharapova, who tested positive for meldonium at January's Australian Open, on Tuesday appealed to the Court of Arbitration for Sport, saying her ban should be "eliminated" or reduced because she didn't mean to break the rules.
Sharapova's expedited ruling will be issued next month ahead of the Rio de Janeiro Olympics. She filed an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport seeking to overturn or reduce the suspension imposed by the International Tennis Federation last week. The court said both sides agreed to an "expedited procedure" that will allow the court to issue its ruling by July 18, at the latest. An independent three-person panel appointed by the ITF said Sharapova did not intend to cheat because she didn't know meldonium was banned, but that she bore "sole responsibility" and "very significant fault" for the positive test. The World Anti-Doping Agency said on Tuesday that, after reviewing the original ruling, it would not file an appeal to CAS. The 29-year-old Sharapova's ban is due to end on Jan 25, 2018, which would keep her out of eight Grand Slam tournaments, along with the Olympics. Two-time Wimbledon champion Petra Kvitova renewed her love affair with grass on Tuesday with a near-perfect start to the Birmingham WTA tournament, a Wimbledon warm-up event. Her fine serving and deceptive flat hitting earned a 6-3, 6-2 victory over childhood friend and fellow Czech Lucie Safarova. Mentally the match was not much of a contest - even though Safarova ended 2015 in the world's top 10 for the first time - but it did become a stage for Kvitova to show she might still be a leading contender on this surface. Kvitova's speedy success also enabled her to finish before the arrival of the rain, which soon afterwards interrupted two other matches for lengthy periods.
China has about 500,000 equestrian enthusiasts, mainly in the economically-developed areas, according to Zhang Kai, an official in charge of equestrian competition at the State General Administration of Sport.
Zhang spoke at Tuesday's launch ceremony for the FEI Equestrian Endurance Race to be held in Fengning, Hebei province, on June 25. The event will feature an international race field, national eventing and three-day championships as well as the China national endurance race. Zhang said the competition provides a great chance for the Chinese athletes because the points they gain in Fengning will add to their international rankings. The organizing committee for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup was officially established in Beijing on Tuesday. Teams from 140 countries and regions will play 682 games over 15 months to decide the 32 teams for the FIBA flagship event in eight Chinese cities: Beijing, Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan and Dongguan.
The event, the 18th FIBA Basketball World Cup for men's national teams, will also serve as a qualifying competition for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.
It will be Beijing's second world championships event after the 2015 IAAF world athletics championships and before the capital hosts the 2022 Winter Olympic Games.
Beijing native Zhang Jie holds the Guinness world record for non-stop swimming in fresh water, covering 74 kilometers in 21 hours. The triathlon is the first race on the Chinese mainland that brings mountaineering with an elevation of some 2,000 meters into a running course, posting a huge challenge for more than 100 athletes from home and abroad.
A source with direct knowledge of the National Hockey League's decision said on Tuesday the league has settled on Las Vegas as the home for its next expansion franchise, provided organizers can come up with a $500 million fee. The source spoke on condition of anonymity because details of the plans have not been released by the league ahead of its board of governors meeting on June 22. Miami Marlins outfielder Ichiro Suzuki is on the verge of passing Pete Rose for most hits in baseball history. Suzuki was one hit behind Rose entering Tuesday's game against the San Diego Padres - but his total includes the hits he accumulated in Japanese professional leagues before coming to MLB.
Superstar Cristiano Ronaldo slammed Iceland for proverbially "parking the bus" in front of its goal as the upstart islanders from the north Atlantic held Group F favorite Portugal to a 1-1 draw on Tuesday. A superb finish by Nani gave Portugal the lead before Iceland's industrious midfielder Birkir Bjarnason volleyed the equalizer on one of only four shots his team managed. Portugal is now under pressure to beat Austria, which lost its opening game 2-0 to Hungary in the other pool match in Bordeaux. The scoreline may have been 1-1, but level-headed Iceland coach Heimir Hallgrimsson was unable to prevent the word "victory" passing his lips as the Nordic side held Portugal at Euro 2016 on Tuesday in their first appearance in the finals of a major tournament. An early second-half goal from Birkir Bjarnason canceled out Nani's first-half strike, and the Icelanders withstood long periods of intense pressure to come away with the draw. A visibly frustrated Cristiano Ronaldo was effectively reined in by a disciplined joint effort from the Icelanders, with central defenders Kari Arnason and Ragnar Sigurdsson repeatedly cutting out crosses and hoofing the ball upfield. The team was cheered on by hordes of fans in blue shirts, many of them wearing Viking horns. He said Iceland would take a confidence boost into its next game, against Hungary on Saturday in Marseille.
Portugal's Cristiano Ronaldo reacts as Iceland players celebrate at the end of Tuesday's Group F match at Geoffroy Guichard stadium in St. The Hungary goalkeeper set an age record at the tournament on Tuesday and helped his team beat Austria 2-0 with several good stops. Kiraly, famous for his grey tracksuit trousers, eclipsed the old mark set by Germany's Lothar Matthaus, who was 39 when he played at Euro 2000. Adam Szalai gave Hungary the lead at Stade de Bordeaux with his first goal in 12 appearances. It was the first European Championship match for Hungary in 44 years and the first tournament the country has qualified for since the 1986 World Cup. Kiraly dove to block a shot from Zlatko Junuzovic in the 35th minute and smothered a shot from David Alaba in the 10th. Austria was favored in the match and was an outsider for the tournament title after going through qualification unbeaten and finishing at the top of its group, eight points above Russia. Szalai scored in the 62nd minute after playing a one-two with teammate Laszlo Kleinheisler.
Austria thought it had equalized moments later when Martin Hinteregger put the ball in the back of the net, but it was waved off for a foul and Dragovic was sent off with a second yellow card. Stieber made it 2-0 in the 87th, bursting down the right flank from inside his own half and lifting a long ball over the onrushing Almer.
Alaba, a defender who plays for Bayern Munich, was at the heart of most of Austria's attacking moves. David Alaba was quiet as Austria's Euro 2016 campaign got off to a poor start with a 2-0 loss to Hungary on Tuesday, leaving coach Marcel Koller to suggest the player's versatility might be hurting him. The 24-year-old has been tipped to be one of the standout performers in France but, while he impressed in the early stages, he failed to make a decisive contribution as Hungary took control of the Group F opener.
Koller said that playing Alaba in the middle, when he plays at leftback with Bayern Munich, might explain why he struggled to make the right sort of impact. Hungary goalkeeper Gabor Kiraly celebrates after beating Austria 2-0 in their Euro 2016 Group F match on Tuesday in Bordeaux, France. The Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF) said in a statement it decided to fire Dunga and "dissolve the Brazilian national team's coaching staff" following its latest debacle. The news came after CBF officials met with Carlos Caetano Bledorn, alias Dunga, earlier on Tuesday. The exit from the Copa America centennial edition in the United States was the latest blow to demoralized, recession-hit Brazil. The country is still recovering from the national team's 7-1 World Cup semifinal thrashing by Germany on home soil in 2014. After an opening 0-0 draw with Ecuador was followed by a 7-1 win over Haiti, Brazil needed a draw with Peru on Monday to reach the quarterfinals of the Copa. Instead, it crashed out of the tournament after losing 1-0 on a disputed goal when Peru's Raul Ruidiaz appeared to bundle in a cross with his arm to score late in the second half. Brazilian media speculated Dunga would be replaced by Tite, coach of Sao Paulo side Corinthians.
The 55-year-old led the club to a double of the regional Copa Libertadores and Club World Cup in 2012.
Speculation had swirled that Dunga was on his way out, although he said he was not afraid of being fired.
He had called for patience, insisting the five-time World Cup champion was in the early stages of a transitional period. But as of Tuesday, Brazil was searching for a new coach just weeks away from hosting the Olympics in August. Dunga, 52, won the Copa America twice as a player and was captain of Brazil's 1994 World Cup-winning squad.
After months of sharp recession and political turmoil, Brazilians were looking to at least lay to rest the trauma of the 2014 World Cup. Dunga had an earlier stint managing Brazil from 2006 to 2010 and took over again from Luiz Felipe Scolari after the 2014 defeat. Brazil is currently in sixth place in its regional group, which is too low to qualify for the 2018 World Cup in Russia.
Brazilian media branded Sunday's loss a national disgrace, with newspaper O Dia describing it as "another humiliation". Head coach Antonio Conte said the 'open wound' of Italy's 2014 World Cup failure should inspire the Azzurri to success at Euro 2016 after an impressive 2-0 win over Belgium on Monday.
Goals in either half from Emanuele Giaccherini and Graziano Pelle capped the triumph at Stade de Lyon. Italy sent a message in showing it plans to be a force to be reckoned with at this tournament.


But Conte said the Azzurri's failure at the 2014 World Cup, where an opening win over England followed by losses to Uruguay and Costa Rica sent them home after the group stages, must inspire the squad at Euro 2016.
Conte, who will leave to take over Chelsea after the finals, said the opening Group E win is not enough to make his team a favorite for the title in France.
The tight spirit in the Italy camp was demonstrated when the entire squad celebrated on the pitch after Pelle's stunning tally late in the second half. Veteran goalkeeper and Italy captain Gianluigi Buffon sprinted nearly the length of the pitch to join in the celebrations. Italy's Emanuele Giaccherini takes the aerial route in battling Belgium's Eden Hazard for the ball in their Euro 2016 Group E match at Stade de Lyon in Lyon, France, on Monday. Spain, crowned European champion in 2008 and 2012, is looking to become the first team to win three consecutive Euro titles. But on a rain-soaked pitch in windy Toulouse, 'La Roja' were frustrated until Gerard Pique headed Andres Iniesta's prefect back-post delivery past Arsenal goalkeeper Petr Cech in the 87th minute.
Having lost the chance for Spain to defend its World Cup crown in 2014 when it exited at the first hurdle, Del Bosque was more than happy with a result that he said positions his squad for further group games against Turkey and Croatia.
Having been booed by Spain fans earlier this season following anti-Real Madrid comments, Pique was the unlikely hero, although it was his Barcelona teammate Iniesta's superb delivery on top of an all-round, customary brilliant performance that won him the man-of-the-match award. Del Bosque preferred to concentrate on his side's display as a whole, adding: "Iniesta played well, but this is not the time to speak about individuals. But the wily Spaniard was quick to comment on Casillas, who in spite of helping Spain to its previous two titles and a World Cup trophy in 2010, spent the game on the substitutes bench. Del Bosque instead gave the nod to Manchester United keeper David De Gea, a gesture that was regarded as a show of support after reports last week linked the 25-year-old to a sex scandal.
Yet, apart from a last-gasp try by Vladimir Darida that De Gea did well to save, Spain's backline came under little threat during an outrageously one-sided encounter. Cech was kept on his toes throughout, producing a string of saves on Alvaro Morata, David Silva and Jordi Alba in the first half alone.
He hardly had time to warm up for the second half before Spain laid siege to his goal again. Cech blocked a drive from Sergio Ramos before seeing Alba miss an easy chance and then Silva fire just wide of the target. Cech was finally left helpless when Iniesta floated in a cross for Pique, who headed home from just inside the six-yard box to send the Spanish fans into wild celebration. Vrba, who led Viktoria Plzen into the group stages of the Champions League on two occasions, said Spain was simply too strong. Vrba said his side set out to "keep the Spanish out of our area, but there is no single way of breaking down this team.
He said no draw for a FIFA event was fixed during his 18 years at the helm of world soccer's governing body, but he claimed to have seen it done for European competitions.
Blatter, 80, defended himself and FIFA against the corruption accusations that have thrown the organization into turmoil and led to the arrest of a long list of global soccer officials. Pressed by his interviewer, who said Argentines "think Grondona would be in prison" if he were alive, Blatter said he had fond memories of the powerful South American soccer honcho - except for the fact he used to fall asleep during meetings.
He also recalled Grondona's reaction when Argentine superstar Diego Maradona was randomly selected for doping tests during the 1994 World Cup - which he failed. Booed every time he touched the ball, LeBron James sliced through Golden State's defense and made layups look easy. King James and Irving thoroughly overpowered the defending champions from every spot on the floor, and the Cavaliers are still alive to chase that elusive championship. The unflappable, determined-as-ever James had 41 points, 16 rebounds and seven assists, Irving also scored 41 points and Cleveland capitalized on the absence of suspended star Draymond Green, staving off NBA Finals elimination with a 112-97 victory in Game 5 on Monday night.
James and Irving became the first teammates to score 40 points in an NBA Finals game as the Cavaliers pulled within 3-2 and sent the best-of-seven series back to Ohio. James will have much more to say about these playoffs before he's done - and not with his mouth, even as the criticism came from all directions following his Game 4 tussle with Green and reaction to what he considered the Golden State forward's inappropriate words.
James was booed again as the Cavs left the court for their locker room, but thousands of fans had already made for the exits minutes earlier. Cleveland handed the Warriors just their fourth loss all season at sold-out Oracle Arena, denying MVP Stephen Curry and company a chance to celebrate another championship with their golden-clad "Strength In Numbers" supporters. Now Golden State must try to win on the road - like last year and in its only other championship season out West, in 1975. Banned from the arena, Green watched from a baseball suite in Oakland Coliseum next door, joined by Golden State general manager Bob Myers. The All-Star forward was suspended on Sunday for his fourth flagrant foul of the postseason. Tied 61-61 at halftime on Monday, the Warriors missed 14 of their first 20 shots after the break and were just 7 for 24 in the third as James and the Cavs grabbed command by doing all of the little things at both ends of the floor - the very intangibles Golden State desperately missed without Green's high-energy presence. James jumped in the passing lanes to create defensive havoc, flipped passes around and consistently got open.
Klay Thompson scored 37 points with six 3-pointers and Curry added 25 points with five 3s, seven rebounds, four assists and two blocked shots.
But as the game wore on, the Splash Brothers shot airballs and clanked 3-point tries off the front rim. James and Irving combined to shoot 33 for 54, while the Warriors went cold and finished 36.4 percent from the field. Andre Iguodala had 15 points, 11 rebounds and six assists starting in place of Green, but Oakland must hold off in planning another victory parade for now. Irving's three-point play with 7:30 remaining put Cleveland ahead 102-92, and the Cavs kept pushing. Former Orlando Magic star Grant Hill spoke on behalf of the NBA in offering support, thoughts and prayers to victims in the Orlando mass shooting before a moment of silence ahead of the tipoff. The sides are close to reaching agreement on a three-year contract extension, three sources with direct knowledge of the situation told Associated Press. Kidd is entering the last year of a three-year deal with Milwaukee initially signed in 2014. Kidd also coached in Brooklyn for one season, guiding the Nets to a 44-38 record and a playoff appearance in 2013-14. Bucks co-owner Wes Edens has said the team does not talk about contracts during the season.
But there is hope for the future, starting with young core forwards Jabari Parker and Giannis Antetokounmpo. In particular, the 6-foot-11 Antetokounmpo flourished under Kidd after the All-Star break as Milwaukee's primary ball-handler. Guard Khris Middleton has also developed into an all-around player and crunch-time shooter. The Bucks plan to open a new downtown arena in 2018, in time for the second season of the potential three-year extension with Kidd.
Golden State Warriors' Klay Thompson dunks against Richard Jefferson of the Cleveland Cavaliers during the second quarter of Monday's Game 5 of the NBA Finals at Oracle Arena in Oakland. Brazil needed only a draw to qualify for the quarter-finals but lost after Peru's Raul Ruidiaz appeared to bundle in a cross with his arm to score the only goal late in the second half.
After months of sharp recession and political turmoil, Brazilians were looking to lay to rest the trauma of their 7-1 World Cup semifinal loss to Germany at home in 2014.
The Brazilian coach called for patience, insisting the team was at an early stage of a transitional period. Meanwhile, US coach Jurgen Klinsmann on Monday called on authorities to introduce video technology after Brazil's controversial exit. The German World Cup winner said the use of instant replay technology was long overdue and had left soccer decades behind sports such as basketball and American football, which had already embraced it.
The International Football Association Board (IFAB), which governs the rules of the game, approved in March the testing of technology to help match officials. FIFA president Gianni Infantino said the technology could be ready for use in the 2018 World Cup in Russia. The IFAB-sanctioned trials will allow referees to call on video assistance to help determine four categories of game-changing moments - goals scored, red cards, penalties and mistaken identity.
In the experiments, a video assistant referee will have access to video replays during matches and will either review an incident on request or communicate with the referee about an incident that may have been missed by the officials on the field of play.
The National Basketball Association, National Football League, National Hockey League and Major League Baseball have all embraced video technology to assist in adjudicating disputed calls. The agreement frees Bartomeu and his predecessor Sandro Rosell from possible criminal proceedings that could have landed them in jail. Neymar's arrival in 2013 has been a huge success for Barca on the pitch but a judicial nightmare off it.
The 24-year-old is being investigated in Brazil and Spain over his shady transfer from Brazilians Santos to Barca. Catalans Barcelona originally published the transfer figure as 57.1 million euros, with 40 million of that total given to the player's family. Brazilian investment fund DIS, which held 40 percent of Neymar's sporting rights when he played at Santos, claims it was cheated out of its real share of the transfer due to parallel contracts that Barcelona and Santos allegedly used to hide the true cost. But Spanish judicial authorities believe another 26 million euros from the parallel contracts were shared between Neymar, his family and Santos, with DIS and the taxman missing out on their cuts. Barcelona had already made a voluntary 13.5 million euros tax payment after being indicted for alleged tax fraud. Sidney Crosby let out a triumphant yell as he hoisted the Stanley Cup, then he broke into a wide smile. The seven years of adversity since the 28-year-old Canadian last held the oldest trophy in North American pro sports were firmly in his past. The Pittsburgh Penguins surround captain Sidney Crosby in posing with the Stanley Cup after beating the San Jose Sharks 3-1 in San Jose, California, on Sunday night. A kid no more and surrounded with new talent, Crosby set up both Kris Letang's go-ahead goal midway through the second period and Patric Norqvist's late clincher into an empty net as Pittsburgh won its fourth Stanley Cup in franchise history by beating the San Jose Sharks 3-1 in Game 6 on Sunday night. Brian Dumoulin opened the scoring with a powerplay goal for Pittsburgh while Matt Murray made 18 saves to give the Penguins the Cup seven years to the day after they beat Detroit for their third title. Three nights after squandering a chance to become the first Pittsburgh sports team to win a title in front of home fans in 56 years, the Penguins finished the job on the road just like they did in Minnesota (1991), Chicago (1992) and Detroit (2009) in past title runs. The championship in Detroit was supposed to be the first of many for a team led by players like Crosby and Russian star Evgeni Malkin, but a series of concussions cost Crosby almost an entire season and a half.
Then there was a string of playoff disappointments that included twice blowing 3-1 series leads. This didn't seem like it would be a season to remember back in early December when the Penguins were near the bottom of the standings in the Eastern Conference and coach Mike Johnston was fired. But led by coach Mike Sullivan, the Penguins recovered to make the playoffs as the second-place team in the Metropolitan Division after some shrewd moves by general manager Jim Rutherford, who put together the 'HBK line' of Carl Hagelin, Nick Bonino and Phil Kessel over the past year as well as other key acquisitions.
Pittsburgh knocked off the New York Rangers in the first round, the Presidents' Trophy-winning Washington Capitals in round two and then rallied from a 3-2 series deficit to beat the Tampa Bay Lightning in a grueling Eastern Conference final. They did not trail until Game 5 at home and responded to a strong push from San Jose in the clincher to avoid a decisive seventh game. Pittsburgh held San Jose to just one shot on goal in the first 19 minutes of the third period to preserve the one-goal lead.
Logan Couture scored the lone goal for the Sharks, who were making their first trip to the final in their 25-year history.
The evolution of sport demands Darwinian natural selection in determining the all-time greats.
Pure talent and big numbers are obviously important, but longtime physical dominance combined with intangibles like showmanship and charisma also factor into the equation. Look at it this way: If prodigious numbers were the truest measure of athletic immortality, Barry Bonds would be as revered as Mickey Mantle, Wayne Rooney would inspire Maradona-like rapture and Wladimir Klitschko would be mentioned in the same breath as Joe Louis.
But history has a way of elevating a chosen few, bestowing upon them an almost indefinable constant that survives long after their records are broken. In hockey, for my money the greatest of the great was Gordie Howe, who died on June 10 at age 88. Like Ruth, Pele and Ali, at the peak of his powers Howe was bigger than the sport that made him famous.
Over the course of 32 seasons in the National Hockey League and the World Hockey Association he rewrote the record book, putting up numbers that stood for decades until Wayne Gretzky eclipsed them in the diluted NHL of the 1990s.
A farm boy from the hamlet of Floral, Saskatchewan, Howe debuted with the Detroit Red Wings as a teenager in 1946, and from 1950 to 1971 he never finished lower than 10th in league scoring. He retired at age 44 in 1971 and was immediately inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame, which waived its usual five-year wait rule. In six WHA seasons, Howe twice broke the 100-point plateau and led the Aeros to a pair of championships. What sets Howe apart from Gretzky, Bobby Orr, Bobby Hull and Maurice Richard in the pantheon of hockey's all-time greats was the way he played the game - with an edge.
Gretzky and Orr had more pure talent and Hull and Richard were more electrifying to watch, but Howe was the ultimate combination of sublime natural ability, physical strength and cold-blooded tenacity. As Sports Illustrated once observed: "Despite an even temperament and a genuine distaste for combat, there is a part of Howe that is calculatingly and primitively savage. I had the pleasure of interviewing Howe several times, and he once invited me to join him on an autograph tour of Western Canada.
Nico Rosberg apologized for his language on Sunday after saying on live television he was "pissed off" after a first-corner tussle with Mercedes teammate Lewis Hamilton in the Canadian Grand Prix. The 30-year-old German leader of this year's drivers' world championship made the comment on Sky Sports after a clash with Hamilton saw him drop to 10th at the end of the opening lap.
Mercedes driver Lewis Hamilton strikes a pose after winning the Canadian Formula One Grand Prix in Montreal on Sunday. Hamilton survived the skirmish and went on to win the race, his second successive victory, fifth in Canada and the 45th of his career. Rosberg recovered, endured a slow tire puncture, a lack of fuel and another late off-track skirmish to finish fifth. For Rosberg, the season has been turned upside down since he and Hamilton collided in Spain. In his first four races, he scored 100 points to move 43 clear at the top of the championship. In the three that followed, he has scored 16 and now leads his teammate by only nine points.
Hamilton won the Canadian Grand Prix for the fifth time and paid tribute to the late boxing great Muhammad Ali after cutting Rosberg's championship lead to just nine points.
After exiting his ride, Hamilton did an 'Ali shuffle' in another show of respect for the former world heavyweight champion whose funeral was last Friday. Ferrari's Sebastian Vettel finished second and Finland's Valtteri Bottas was third for Williams, but 46.4 seconds behind the winner. Vettel made a lightning start from third on the grid to blast past both Mercedes and grab the lead of the 70-lap race at the first corner.
Rosberg got alongside Hamilton, who made another sluggish start, but he refused to yield as they fought for the tight space and their wheels banged, forcing Rosberg onto the grass.
The collision was not on the scale of their crash in Barcelona last month, which took both of them out.
Just weeks after he had doubts about even making it to the European Championship, a faultless performance by Jerome Boateng at the heart of Germany's defense helped the world champion make a winning start to Euro 2016 on Sunday. Having just recovered in time from a January leg muscle injury that put his entire season in doubt, the Bayern Munich defender proved his class in a hard-fought 2-0 win over Ukraine. Germany's Bastian Schweinsteiger celebrates after notching his team's second goal against Ukraine in their Group C match in Lille, France, on Sunday. Rarely caught out of position, Boateng saved Germany on several occasions and impressed with his accurate passing - keeping an eye open for teammates and almost always making the right choices.
Although playing in central defense, Boateng also stepped in when Germany backs Jonas Hector and Benedikt Hoewedes failed to stop versatile Ukraine wingers Andriy Yarmolenko and Yevhen Konoplyanka. The highlight of Boateng's 60th international game for Germany was his acrobatic save in the 37th minute.
Konoplyanka beat goalkeeper Manuel Neuer from close range, only for Boateng to kick the ball off the line while falling backward into the net.
For Ukraine, it rekindled unhappy memories of an incident that marred its game against England as co-host of Euro 2012. Back then, striker Marko Devic was denied what appeared to be a goal when his brilliant effort was hooked away by defender John Terry. Referee Martin Atkinson didn't need the technology on Sunday, immediately waving aside protests from Ukraine's sideline.
Loew was full of praise for Boateng, who was a key factor in Germany's victory at the 2014 World Cup. Boateng's inspired performance on the pitch came two weeks after he found himself in the middle of a racism controversy off the field. A top member of a German nationalist party reportedly told a national newspaper many people wouldn't want to live next to Boateng, whose was born in Berlin to a father from Ghana. The remarks drew widespread protests and prompted fans to unfurl a banner reading "Jerome be our neighbor!" at Germany's friendly against Slovakia the same day. Defiant Brazil manager Dunga on Sunday brushed off suggestions that early elimination from the Copa America would cost him his job, telling reporters that he feared "only death" and not unemployment. There was immediate speculation over Dunga's future after Peru's contentious 1-0 win eliminated Brazil in the group stage, but the former World Cup-winning captain expects to be leading Brazil at its home Olympics in Rio de Janeiro in August. Peru's Raul Ruidiaz scores past Brazil goalkeeper Alisson in the second half of their Copa America Group B match on Sunday in Foxborough, Massachusetts.
Dunga bemoaned the impatience of his critics at home and repeated his mantra that restructuring the game in Brazil would take time after a painful 2014 World Cup campaign. The former Internacional, Fiorentina and Stuttgart midfielder was given the task of reviving Brazilian soccer after a humiliating 7-1 loss to Germany in the semifinals of the tournament it hosted two years ago.
However, after a bright start to his second spell in charge, Brazil was knocked out of last year's Copa America at the quarterfinal stage and currently sits sixth in South America's 10-team qualifying group for the 2018 World Cup.
Dunga has failed to make many friends with his combative approach, and the knives are being sharpened after the eight-time Copa America champion failed to make the second round for the first time in 29 years.
Substitute Raul Ruidiaz's hotly disputed goal was the difference in Foxborough, Massachusetts on Sunday.
The Peruvian forward appeared to use his hand to score from close range with 16 minutes remaining and after a long delay while the referee consulted with his assistant while taking advice through an earpiece, the goal was allowed to stand. Television images showed Ruidiaz grinning after the goal was awarded, but the Brazilian players were seething with anger at a decision that sent them tumbling out of the tournament before the knockout stages for the first time since 1987. Dunga blamed the loss on the officials and appealed for time to revamp the national side, which is widely held to be one of the weakest Brazil teams in decades. If you need words of wisdom to decide on your New Year resolution or quotes to motivate someone this New Year, this is your lucky day as you have come to the right page. So, if you want to stay motivated, and welcome the New Year with a positive attitude, fresh start and open arms and hearts to new opportunities and beginnings continue reading as I have collected awesome New Year quotes.


Feel free to leave me a comment or follow me on Twitter and i'll follow you back or connect with me viaGoogle+ as I love to hear from my readers. Find Famous Quotes and Sayings about Christmas, New Year, Love, Inspirational Quotations and more.
Love was born even before mankind was born and it still exists in all kinds of organism, including humans. The now lost map by Strabo represented the sum total of cartographic knowledge before the Christian era. It is generally accepted, however, that he must have compiled much of this information in the great library at Alexandria, where he had access to many earlier texts now lost.
His motives for writing such a geography (so he tells us) were that he felt impelled to describe the inhabited world because of the considerable strides in geographical knowledge that had been made through the numerous campaigns of the Romans and Parthians. The first stage was to locate the portion of the terrestrial globe that was known to be inhabited. And, as to these stretches, it makes no difference whether they are bounded by sea or by uninhabited land; for the geographer undertakes to describe the known parts of the inhabited world, but he leaves out of consideration the unknown parts of it - just as he does what is outside of it. Although PythA¦s, Eratosthenes, and perhaps Posidonius had fixed its northern limit on the parallel through Thule [Iceland ? He recommended that it be at least ten feet (approximately three meters) in diameter and mentions Crates (#113) in this regard.
Nevertheless, apart from the reduced size of the inhabited world, the map Strabo envisaged was similar in its overall shape to that drawn by Eratosthenes (#112). He treats Homer (#105) as the first writer on geography, and defends the Homeric picture of the known world as substantially true. Thus he says that the legend of the Golden Fleece brought back from Colchis by the Argonauts reflects the search for gold by early Greeks in areas of the Black Sea.
What did Homer mean by saying they were a€?divided in two, some where Hyperion rises and some where he setsa€?? Thus, accepting Eratosthenesa€™ measurement of 252,000 stades for the circumference of the earth, the geographer ought not to include the equatorial zone, since that in Straboa€™s view is uninhabitable. This suggests that the eastern and western extremities of the oikumene were thought of as tapering and convex. But one needs a large globe, so that the section mentioned, being only a fraction of it, may clearly show the appropriate parts of the oikumene, which win present a recognizable shape to users. But his seventeen volumes -vastly important to his contemporaries - read like a romance to us today, and a glance at the map laid down according to his descriptions is like a vague and distorted caricature of the real thing.
A wall-map had already been designed by order of Augustus (#118) to hang in a public place in Rome - the heart of the Empire - so that the young Romans might realize the size of their inheritance, while a list of the chief places on the roads, which, radiating from Rome, formed a network over the Empire, was inscribed on the Golden Milestone in the Forum.
It is astonishing to think that in the days of Strabo the silver mines employed forty thousand workmen, and produced the modern-day equivalence of approximately $1,800 a day!a€?But we cannot follow Strabo over the world in all his detail.
Some had told him it was a third of the whole habitable world, some that it took four months to walk through the plain only.
21, and a century passed before Pliny wrote An Account of Countries, Nations, Seas, Towns, Havens, Mountains, Rivers, Distances, and Peoples who now Exist or Formerly Existed. It is astonishing to think that in the days of Strabo the silver mines employed forty thousand workmen, and produced the modern-day equivalence of approximately $1,800 a day!But we cannot follow Strabo over the world in all his detail. You know you're going to be put under a lot of pressure on basically every single shot you hit out there. That trip covered 2,400 miles, but this time Mickelson might want to leave a little earlier. The US Open that year was also the last for Arnold Palmer, who learned the game at nearby Latrobe Country Club and whose swashbuckling style and winning ways took golf from a niche sport for the country-club set to a TV audience in the millions.
It's one flight the Warriors surely would have preferred not to take at this road-weary stage of another extra-long season, but it will be well worth it if they hoist a second straight trophy when these Finals finally end. Free Draymond!" and large cutouts of his face waved from all corners of Oracle Arena as he watched from a baseball suite next door in the Oakland Coliseum.
If you're taking any medication it's your responsibility as the athlete to check and make sure that what you're taking is legal.
But Rose doesn't want to hear any suggestion that his record of 4,256 career hits is being broken, because they were all made in Major League Baseball.
Iceland's dogged defense was capped by an outstanding display by goalkeeper Hannes Halldorsson. We were on top, we were the better team and we played better football, but Iceland is a good team and played a lot of long balls, which caused us problems. Apart from one or two situations, we were really focused and it was a total team victory for us," Hallgrimsson said. It's unfair to put a player to mark him, so it has to be a team effort," Hallgrimsson said.
Substitute Zoltan Stieber added the other after Austria was reduced to 10 men when Aleksandar Dragovic was shown a second yellow card. He ran into the box and latched onto the return pass before blasting a shot under Austria goalkeeper Robert Almer. He nearly scored in the opening minute but his 25-yard effort hit the bottom of the right post.
He led the national team to victory in the Copa America in 2007, the Confederations Cup in 2009 and a bronze medal at the 2008 Olympics. But he hopes the victory will boost confidence for upcoming games against Sweden and the Republic of Ireland. They tried to find something on me, but they won't find any (evidence) I violated any Swiss law," said the ex-FIFA boss, who has been suspended from soccer for six years over a payment of two million Swiss francs ($2 million) to Michel Platini, the former head of European soccer governing body UEFA. He was assessed a retroactive flagrant-1 for his swipe at James in the fourth quarter of Friday's Game 4. He is 74-90 over his first two seasons with the Bucks, including 41 wins and a playoff appearance in 2014-15. If that comes up some time this summer, then we'll address it," Kidd said before Milwaukee's season finale in April. It was sealed when Crosby blocked a shot from Marc-Edouard Vlasic that set up Hornqvist's empty-netter. Mantle, Maradona and Louis achieved that level of reverence - but they in turn can't hold a candle to the greatest of the great in their respective sports: Babe Ruth, Pele and Muhammad Ali.
And because today's version of the game has sadly become so civilized, we will never see the likes of him again. He transcended the boundaries of athletics to become one of the most famous Canadians to ever stride the international stage. Throw in four Stanley Cup championships, six Hart Trophies as league MVP, six scoring titles and an astonishing 23 All-Star selections, and it only tells half the story. Two years later he made a comeback with the Houston Aeros of the WHA, becoming the first athlete in major pro sports to play alongside his sons. When the rebel league merged with the NHL in 1979, he played one more season with the Hartford Whalers before finally hanging up his skates for good at the ripe old age of 52. He even had a statistic named for him, the 'Gordie Howe hat-trick' (a goal, an assist and a fight).
Soft-spoken and unfailingly polite with fans, he was the polar opposite of his on-ice persona. That's for Muhammad Ali," the triple world champion said over the radio after taking the checkered flag at a cold Circuit Gilles Villeneuve.
The incident gave new impetus to the discussion about goal-line technology, which is now in place at Euro 2016. Though love is expressed in various forms and between different relationships, eternal love is accomplished between a man and a woman.
They stand evergreen and are suitable for all ages of time, whatever is the advancement in technology and science. All his writings were firmly set in, if not direct extensions of, the work of his predecessors. The world map had to be adjusted to take account of these facts, and thus Strabo almost certainly proceeded by taking Eratosthenesa€™ map - and the criticism of it by Polybius, Crates, Hipparchus, and Posidonius - as the basis for his own work. Strabo reasoned that it lay in a northern quadrant of a globe, in a quadrilateral bounded by the frigid zone, the equator, and two meridians on the sides. And it will suffice to fill out and complete the outline of what we term a€?the islanda€? by pining with a straight line the extreme points reached on the coasting-voyages made on both sides of the inhabited world.
66A° N], Strabo, like Polybius, refused to believe that human life was possible so far north, and he blamed Pytheas for having misled so many people by his claim that the a€?summer tropica€? becomes the a€?arctic circlea€? at the island of Thule. On the other hand, if a globe of this size could not be constructed, Strabo was familiar from Eratosthenes with the transformation necessary to draw it on a plane surface.
In describing its detailed geography, however, Strabo did not employ, at least overtly, Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into irregular quadrilaterals or sphragides, but he often used geometric figures or comparisons to everyday objects to describe the general outline of a country. In some cases, where alternative descriptions are provided, he may have been attempting to collate the outlines of more than one map.
But within the Homeric chapters he has a section in which he attempts to analyze navigation of the oceans over the ages. When Homer made Hera say: a€?For I shall see the bounds of fertile earth and Oceanus, father of the godsa€?, what he means, says Strabo, is that the Ocean touches all the extremities of the land. Instead he should start his analysis with the Cinnamon Country [near the mouth of the Red Sea, Somaliland], about 8,800 stades north of the equator, in the south, and with Ireland in the north. Again, he estimated the length of the oikumene as 70,000 stades and its width as less than 30,000. He tells us of a people living north of the Tagus, who slept on the ground, fed on acorn-bread, and wore black cloaks by day and night.
It seems to have been Cratesa€™ idea that the eartha€™s surface, when represented on a sphere, should appear as divided into four island-like habitable regions. Henderson's victory pushed her over $1 million for the year, the third player this year to cross that mark.
At one stop, an elderly woman gently chided him for being "too rough" in the 1974 Friendship Series between the WHA and the old Soviet Union's national team. Love is one trait that never diminishes as long as you give it to others and keeps on growing. Thus his Historical Memoirs in forty-seven books, now lost, was a continuation of Polybius. For a graticule, Strabo adopted the straight forward rectangular network of parallels and meridians. It is also probable that students were expected to consult the text of the Geographia with the help of maps, so that the shapes thus enumerated may have served as a simple mnemonic.
Or again, when Homer describes Odysseus as seeing land as he was on the crest of a great wave, he must have been referring to the curvature of the earth, a phenomenon familiar to sailors. He categorizes regions from south to north according to greatest length of day in equinoctial hours. If one cannot make it as big or not much smaller, one should construct a map of the oikumene on a plane surface at least seven feet long. He does not think Britain is worth conquering - Ireland lies to the north, not west, of Britain; it is a barren land full of cannibals and wrapped in eternal snows - the Pyrenees nun parallel to the Rhine - the Danube rises near the Alps - even Italy herself runs east and west instead of north and south. On the one hemisphere, which is formed by a meridional plane cutting the sphere, lies our own oecumene or habitable world, and that of the Antoecians in corresponding longitude and in opposite latitude; on the other hemisphere lies the oecumene of the Perioecians in our latitude and in opposite longitude, and that of the Antipodes in latitude and longitude opposite to us. You have to be prepared for how mentally demanding it's going to be, how much concentration you're going to need out there. A new year hoping to be successful and hoping all your efforts and hard work to be paid off.
The Geographia is of key importance to our whole knowledge of the history of Greek cartography as well as to the history of science in general. The so-called quadrilateral, bounded by half of this arctic circle, half of the equator, and segments of two meridians, is a spherical quadrilateral, a portion of a sphere. He defended his projection on the ground that it would make only a slight difference if the circles on the earth were represented by straight lines, a€?for our imagination can easily transfer to the globular and spherical surface the figure or magnitude seen by the eye on a plane surface.a€? The dimensions of this flat map were also to be generous.
Similarly, Strabo compares the shape of Iberia to an ox-hide, the Peloponnese to a plane-leaf; and the northern part of Asia, east of the Caspian, to a kitchen knife with the straight side along the Taurus range and the curved side along the northern coastline. Yet if such suggestions must remain speculative, there can be little doubt that by the early Roman period world maps and globes drawn by Greek scholars were encouraging a distinctively geographical way of thinking about the world. The problems of the armchair geographer are revealed in the journalistic trick of quotes from quotes on an important exploration: a€?Posidonius, says Herodotus, thinks that certain men sent by Neco completed the circumnavigationa€™. Some of this was polemic against Eratosthenes, who would not have if that early epic poetry could contribute anything to scientific theory. Cratesa€™ view was based upon an unorthodox view that the division was north-south rather than the obvious interpretation of east-west.
This list, starting at Meroe with thirteen hours and ending at an area north of the Sea of Azov with seventeen hours, is similar to that given by the elder Pliny. A vast number of people dwell along the Guadalquivir, and you may sail up it almost a hundred and twenty miles from the sea to Cordova and the places a little higher. Through the formulation and expression of such a theory the idea of the existence of an antipodal people was put forth as a speculative problem, an idea frequently discussed in the middle ages, and settled only by the actual discovery of antipodal regions and antipodal peoples in the day of great transoceanic discoveries. But he gives us a fuller account of Great Britain, based on the fresh discovers of Roman generals.
Armando CortesA?o states that as a source it was a€?second to none in the history of geography and cartographya€? of this period. In this design Strabo had been influenced not only by Eratosthenesa€™ measurement of the earth but also by the concept of the four inhabited worlds, known and unknown, expounded by Crates (#113), to whom he refers explicitly. He estimated the latitudinal extent of the inhabited world as less than 30,000 stades (compared with Eratosthenesa€™ 38,000 stades) and reduced its length to 70,000 stades instead of Eratosthenesa€™ 78,000 stades [one mile = 9 to 10 stades; there has always been some controversy over the equivalent modern length of a stade as used by various authors]. Strabo envisaged that it would be at least seven feet long and presumably three feet wide, which would suit the length of the inhabited world (70,000 by 30,000 stades), one foot being equivalent to 10,000 stades. India, with two adjacent sides (south and east) much longer than the two others, he described as rhomboidal; Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, he saw as being like a boat drawn in profile, with the deck on the Tigris side and the keel near the Euphrates. And it is likely, among the educated group at least, that an increasingly standard image of the inhabited world had come to be more widely accepted through the use of these maps. This is all he reports, so that we have to beware of using all his work as scientifically worthy material. As mentioned earlier, in the extreme north, Strabo denied the existence of a Thule Island [Iceland?]. A considerable quantity of salted fish is exported, not only from hence, but also from the remainder of the coast beyond the Pillars.
That Strabo, at a later date, had this Pergamenian example in mind when stating certain rules to be observed in the construction of globes seems probable, since he makes mention of Cratesa€™ globe. Many of the earlier treatises that touch upon maps are known to us only through Strabo, while the interest of his commentary on these writers is in its critical handling of their theories, albeit he sometimes fails to advance truth by this process. Strabo repeats that the river Nile was described by Eratosthenes as a reversed N, and that its mouth was named after the Greek capital letter delta. Perhaps because he is drawing on an account at second hand, he is afraid to support what may have seemed like science fiction. To him the most northerly inhabited area was Ierne [Ireland], itself a€?only wretchedly inhabitable because of the cold, to such an extent that regions beyond it are regarded as uninhabitablea€?. Let the equator be conceived as a circle on it, and let a second circle be conceived parallel to it, delimiting the frigid zone in the northern hemisphere, and through the poles a circle cutting these at right angles. The eye is also delighted with groves and gardens, which for this district are met with in the highest perfection. Formerly they exported large quantities of garments, but they now send the un-manufactured wool remarkable for its beauty.
Strabo alone among ancient writers, so far as we at present know, treats of terrestrial globes, practically such as we find in use at the present day. He does not deal extensively with Hanno the Carthaginian, instead spending much effort on questioning the explorations of Eudoxus of Cyzicus, who must have added to the accumulation of knowledge about the remote parts of Africa. Straboa€™s own view is that there were two groups of Ethiopians, one living in Asia and one in Africa; and that Homer thought likewise, though not to the extent of placing the eastern group in India, of which he had no knowledge. Likewise, if one were to go not more than 4,000 stades [500 Roman miles] north from the center of Britain, one would find an area near Ireland, which like the latter would be barely inhabitable.
For fifty miles the river is navigable for ships of considerable size, but for the cities higher up smaller vessels are employed, and thence to Cordova river-boats. He thought that a globe to be serviceable should be of large size, and his reasoning can readily be understood, for what at that time was really known of the eartha€™s surface was small indeed in comparison with what was unknown. However, this idea of eastern Ethiopians living in some area of India and resembling Indians in appearance and customs persisted throughout antiquity. These are not constructed of planks pined together, but they were formerly made out of a single trunk. There is a superabundance of cattle and a great variety of game, while on the other hand there are certain little hares which burrow in the ground (rabbits). Should one not make use of a sphere of large dimensions, the habitable regions, in comparison with the eartha€™s entire surface, would occupy but small space. In a five-week span, the schedule goes from New Jersey to the Seattle area to Michigan, Arkansas and then Oregon. A chain of mountains, rich in metal, runs parallel to the Guadalquivir, approaching the river, sometimes more, sometimes less, toward the north.
Surprisingly, though, it seems not to have been read in Rome in the first century, judging from the fact that it is not even mentioned by the elder Pliny.
Whoever would represent the real earth, he says, as near as possible by artificial means, should make a sphere like that of Crates, and upon this draw the quadrilateral within which his chart of geography is to be placed.
It is said that formerly the inhabitants of Majorca and Minorca sent a deputation to the Romans requesting that a new land might be given them, as they were quite driven out of their country by these animals, being no longer able to stand against their vast multitudes.
For this purpose however a large globe is necessary since the section mentioned, though but a very small portion of the entire sphere, must be capable of containing properly all the regions of the habitable earth and of presenting an accurate view of them to those ho wish to consult it. But it should have a diameter of not less than ten feet; those who cannot obtain a globe of this size, or one nearly as large, had better draw their charts on a plane surface of not less than seven feet. They feed on the fruit, of stunted oak, which grows at the bottom of the sea and produces very large acorns. We can easily imagine how the eye can transfer the figure and extent (of these lines) from a plane surface to he that is spherical. So great is the quantity of fruit, that at the season when they are ripe the whole coast on either side of the Pillars is covered with acorns thrown up by the tides. The meridians of each country on the globe have a tendency to unite in a single point at the poles; nevertheless on the surface of a plane map there would be no advantage if the right lines alone which should represent the meridians were drawn slightly to converge. The tunny fish become gradually thinner, owing to the failure of their food as they approach the Pillars from the outer sea.



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