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Author: admin, 16.01.2014. Category: The Power Of Thinking

The Power of the Human Mind Optical Illusion is amazing when anyone can read this gibberish.
Taht is waht I tlel tohse anoniyng modretaors on irc evrey tmie tehy get on my csae abuot splelnig erorrs. We know that Jacques RanciA?re speaks about the relation between politics and aesthetics in terms of a€?the distribution of the sensible.a€? Tonight I want to speak about the distribution of the insensible. But I also want to register an implicit critical dimension of this argument, a critique of RanciA?re and of his presently immense influence, which I view as unwarranted. By way of a first approach to what I mean by a€?the distribution of the insensible,a€? leta€™s recall some basic passages from Volume One of Capital on the transformation of materials. Labor is, first of all, a process between man and nature, a process by which man, through his own actions, mediates, regulates and controls the metabolism between himself and nature.
What distinguishes capitalism as a mode of production, however, is the peculiar manner in which the transformation of materials through the labor process is shadowed by the process of valorization.
We can thus view the process of production either from the perspective of the labor process or the valorization process. So, this brief summary of Marxist fundamentals is our first approach to the distribution of the insensible. In Intellectual and Manual Labor, Alfred Sohn-Rethel argues that the social abstraction of the value form and the exchange relation gives rise to our abstract forms of thought. The exchange abstraction excludes everything that makes up history, human and even natural history. In Sohn-Rethela€™s account, the exchange relation gives rise to a social genesis of the transcendental (the forms of intuition and the categories of the understanding). In the act of exchange, the natural and material physicality of the product is negated by the abstract value of the commodity, and this negation constitutes the a€?positive realitya€? of the social physicality of the exchange process. The history of modernity, which is to say the history of capitalism, is also the history of modern technology. And thena€”in the discourse network of 2000, spawned by the cybernetic systems, information theories, and encryption technologies of World War II, digital technology draws media differentiation back together through the synthetic resources of digital code, a universal medium traversing audio, video, and textual recording. However (fourth approach)a€”we should recognize that just as Kittlera€™s media theory offers a necessary supplement to Sohn-Rethela€™s account of the social genesis of conceptual abstraction, it is also necessary to submit Kittlera€™s own work to a Marxist inversion. What Marx calls a€?formal subsumptiona€? is the initial subsumption of labor under the value form, through wage labor and exploitation (the extraction of surplus value from surplus labor time). This contradiction bears upon the history of technology, because it is by revolutionizing the means of production that capital attempts to overcome this contradiction.
The same process also generates a different problem: as automation increases, less labor power is required. Automation, which is at once the most advanced sector of modern industry and the epitome of its practice, confronts the world of the commodity with a contradiction that it must somehow resolve: the same technical infrastructure that is capable of abolishing labor must at the same time preserve labor as a commoditya€”and indeed, as the sole generator of commodities. We could rephrase this by saying that Fordism both requires and paves the way for post-Fordism. At the same time, however, we know that a commodity like an Apple computer is, in fact, produced by processes quite clearly identifiable as a€?labor.a€? Despite the fact that every effort is made to keep this fact out of sight and out of mind, we know it because we read about it on Apple computers. Composed of aluminum, nickel, steel, glass, vinyl, and fluorescent, the production of Vanitas involves a virtuosic performance of mimetic exactitude.
In a dark room, the viewer looks at the object, sees into it, and sees nothing of herself (like a vampire in front of a mirror, Baier says) while the object reflects its own interior infinitely in all directions. The first thing we might note about this piece is its complex engagement with relational aesthetics. Second, we can say that if Vanitas is a captivating work of art, much of what makes it so is money.
Baiera€™s piece instantiates the problem of the relation between materials and money, captured in the art object.
Behind Vanitas, a glass reproduction of Baiera€™s eyeball at the center of a projected disc of light, gazing without seeing across the room at a mirrored box which does not reflect its image. Beside Vanitas, a fond de scA?nea€”a reflector used in the background of photo shootsa€”which Baier placed in a template with a circular hole and left in a window for nine months.
Around the corner, a piece called Projet A‰toile (Noir), consisting of a graphite painting titled Monochrome (Black) and a sculptural replica of a meteorite recovered from Death Valley. These are photographic pieces and sculptural objects which Baier would have worked on at the computer in the center of Vanitas.
At the crux of materials and moneya€”through the complex history that crux containsa€”the subject of Baiera€™s installation is the relation between memory, recording, mimesis.
Baiera€™s problem is not only the remembrance of things past, but, more specifically, the reminiscence of that which has never been sensed, the distribution of the insensible, recalled. By way of a first approach to what I mean by a€?the distribution of the insensible,a€?A  leta€™s recall some basic passages from Volume One of Capital on the transformation of materials.
If you can not read it that means you have not developed good reading skills for one reason or another. And I want to argue that it is the specificity of this problem which allows us to think the relation between the history of capital and the history of mimesis.
I could summarize this critique as follows: if RanciA?re were more inclined to focus his attention upon the distribution of the insensible, perhaps he might think more perspicuously not only about the relation between politics and aesthetics, but also the relation between political economy and aesthetics. Marx analyzes the process of production from two perspectives: the labor process and the valorization process.
Moreover, we transform materials into tools, instruments of labor, with which we transform materials. The transformation of materials produces objects with use value, but it also produces commodities with exchange value.
But insofar as it is specifically capitalist, what the process of production produces is value, and a particular kind of value: surplus value and its reintegration into the production process as capital.
The entire empirical reality of facts, events and description by which one moment and locality of time and space is distinguished from another is wiped out. And this social genesis is at once material and abstract, since the exchange value of a commodity is borne by its use value, and since exchange (like the labor process) is a physical act which also requires abstraction from all physicality. Hence the exchange process presents a physicality of its own, so to speak, endowed with the status of reality which is on a par with the material physicality of the commodities which it excludes.
This is what Sohn-Rethel, following Marx, calls a€?the real abstractiona€? of the value form as a social process of exchange.
In a materialist inversion of the Kantian transcendental, media technologies constitute the a priori conditions of possibility for the sensible, such that the distribution of the sensible already operates within these conditions.
From the industrial revolution to the production and networking of digital information technologies, the history of modern technology emerges from and responds to the demands and internal contradictions of capitalist accumulation. This early period of subsumption is merely a€?formala€? because the production process itself (the labor process which is subsumed) remains primarily pre-capitalist. New technologies of production, and new techniques of production (assembly lines, for example) make it possible to increase productivity, and thus increase the amount of surplus value that can be extracted in a certain period of time. If automation, or for that matter any mechanisms, even less radical ones, that can increase productivity, are to be prevented from reducing socially necessary labor-time to an unacceptably low level, new forms of employment have to be created. Essentially, Society of the Spectacle is a book about the consequences of real subsumption, about the contradictions that it bears within its history and about the new regime of accumulation necessary to defer and compensate for the crises those contradictions contain.
A corporation like Foxxcon, the largest manufacturer of electronic components in the world, is something like a distillation of the entire history of the contradiction between capital and labor, the great movements of the industrial revolution, Taylorism, Fordism, the off-shoring of manufacturing labor, and the simultaneity of deindustrialization and post-Fordist cognitive capitalism with the persistence of the most traditional forms of miserable factory work. The main piece is the sculptural object we have been looking at, titled Vanitas, a reproduction of the artista€™s office. Every component of the artista€™s desk and of his tools is precisely rendered as either a three dimension drawing or a three dimensional scan.
It mimics one of the primary gestures of that movement or style, bringing the artista€™s studio and living space into the museum.
Obviously it is expensive to reproduce onea€™s office in nickel-plated aluminum and to display it so dramatically.
The content of his piece is nothing other than that relation, a reflection upon that relation. Baiera€™s piece should be considered as part of an installation, not merely a sculptural object, insofar as it does, in fact, come into relation with its surroundings, surroundings composed of digitally produced images and objects.
In front of Vanitas, a meticulously composed compound photograph of the stone wall beside the earliest cave paintings, titled Canvas. Not a reflection of the sun but an indexical image of its absorption, marked by the circular discoloration of the black tissue.
Having held this meteorite in the palm of my hand, three years ago, I can testify to the strangeness of encountering its inexistence, distributed between these two art of objects.
Instantiated as digital code, they were a€?ina€? that computer, stored in its memory banks, transformed on its screen.
At and through the limits of modernity, of capital, of mimesis, of thought, of sensation, and within their outside, his work draws us into that distribution.
Crucially, I want to show how the relation between those two histories is mediated by another: the history of technology. That is: focusing on the specific problem of the distribution of the insensible turns out to be the key to thinking about the relation between aesthetics and politics in a materialist way, in a manner properly responsive to the exigencies of Marxist historical materialism. He sets in motion the natural forces which belong to his own body, his arms, legs, head and hands, in order to appropriate the materials of nature in a form adapted to his own needs. For example, according to Sohn-Rethel, the purely formal character of the Kantian forms of intuitiona€”space and timea€”can be understood as genetically related to the abstract formalism of the value form and the exchange relation. Time and space assume thereby that character of absolute historical timelessness and universality which must mark the exchange abstraction as a whole and each of its features. Thus the negation of the natural and material physicality constitutes the positive reality of the abstract social physicality of the exchange processes from which the network of society is woven. This real abstraction constitutes a kind of a€?second nature,a€? and Sohn-Rethel argues that this second nature is a€?the arsenal from which intellectual labor through the eras of commodity exchange draws its conceptual resources.a€? We can situate this analysis more broadly at the level of the whole process of valorization, or the accumulation of capital through circulation. We need to supplement Sohn-Rethela€™s materialist critique of epistemology with a history of media technologies like that carried out by Friedrich Kittler. Thus, without further increasing the length of the working day, one can increase surplus value (this called a€?relative surplus valuea€?).
But Marx makes clear that the part of capital invested in constant capital does not undergo any alteration in the process of production, it does not increase (this is why it is called constant).
This means that less money is being paid out on the labor market for the consumption of commodities.

A happy solution presents itself in the growth of the tertiary or service sector in response to the immense strain on the supply lines of the army responsible for distributing and hyping the commodities of the moment.
And behind the passage I just read, we can also read a commentary on the history of technology. The conditions of possible experience are themselves conditioned by the moving contradiction between capital and labor.
Indeed, bearing the conditions of its production in mind, one might view a device like an Apple computer as a distillation of the entire history of modernitya€”of the manner in which modernity acts upon external nature and changes it, and in this way simultaneously changes its own nature, from the printing press to the steam engine to the silicon chip. Each of these objects is then reproduced, at exact scale, by either machining in aluminum (in the case of objects that were drawn) or stereolithography (in the case of objects that were scanned). But in doing so it forecloses the primary content of that gesture, radically separating this space from that of the viewer, encasing it within a mise-en-abyme in which only images interact with one another.
A tour de force of concept, design, and execution, the piece is also nothing if not resourceful.
As he did with the objects reproduced in Vanitas, Baier made a three dimensional scan of the meteorite and then reproduced ita€”at a much larger scalea€”through stereolithography. The relation between the history of capital and the history of mimesis is mediated by the history of technics.
Through this movement he acts upon external nature and changes it, and in this way his simultaneously changes his own nature. It is independent because the exchange value of a commodity is entirely determined by the average socially necessary labor time required to produce it, not by the materials of which it is composed.
We can view the process of production from two sides, but what it produces are commodities that are sold for money, which is reinvested in the production process and thereby becomes capital.
He does not think the distribution of the insensible, the movement of valorization, and thus he misses entirely the dimension of political economy in his thinking of politics. The social process of valorization is the very medium in which we think, and to which thinking is applied through intellectual labor (such as management). And indeed, Kittlera€™s media-theoretical analysis of discourse networks should also be understood as a materialist critique of Kantian idealism.
It communicates with itself, through its own data channels, and consciousness is the epiphenomenon of communication.
Thus, during the period of formal subsumption, the extraction of surplus value is primarily correlated to the length of the working day and the cost of labor power.
This is what automation and capitalist management techniquesa€”Taylorism and Fordisma€”are for.
So labor has to be reabsorbed into the labor market to support consumption and prevent overproduction. The development of industrial automation both necessitates and creates the conditions of possibility for the invention of new media apparatuses, especially digital information technologies and networks. The history of the sensible, the transformations undergone in the media-technological conditions of sensation and experience, is also the history of the insensiblea€”the history of the process of valorization as it develops in relation to contradictions in the labor process.
This process includes every electric or electronic plug and cord connecting Baiera€™s computer, his monitors, his speakers, and his scanner. Although it draws the space within which the artist works and thinks into the space of the museum, the artist is pointedly absent. It patently shows off the artista€™s mastery of that form of technA“ so crucial to contemporary art practice: the capacity to get funding.
At his desk, thinking, communicating, representing, the artist enters into the circuits of capital, the movement of valorizationa€”as do we all, one way or another. He then melted the meteorite down and used the graphite of which it was composed to paint the surface of Monochrome (Black).
And it is through this history, this mediation, that art takes up techniques which throw us back outside the history of capital, outside the history of mimesisa€”indeed, outside the history of the human, the history of thought, and the history of sensationa€”within and through the technical means to which the linked histories of capital, mimesis, and technics give rise.
Labor time is that abstract, universal equivalent which will find its answer in the universal abstraction of the money form, and value is not a material thing but a social relation. Production produces both surplus value and capital, and capital produces expanded cycles of accumulation. One consequence of this failure is that he has no rigorous means of accounting for the relation of his history of art and artistic regimes to the history of capital, to structural changes of the contradiction between capital and labor. Insofar as intellectual labor is subsumed by capital, as is manual labor, the forms of thought themselves enter into a relation of dialectical genesis with the value form. For Kittler, it is not transcendental categories but media technologies which determine the conditions of any possible experience. The capitalist wants to extend the working day as much as possible, and to reduce wages as much as possible.
What Marx calls a€?real subsumptiona€? is this revolutionizing of the production process such that it becomes properly capitalist.
Thus, as relatively more capital is invested in constant capital and relatively less capital is invested in variable capital, relatively less capital is available for conversion into surplus value.
The process of real subsumption thus also requires the growth of the tertiary service sector, which produces both a new labor market and new fields of commodity production and consumption. These not only enable the growth of the tertiary service sector and its forms of communicative labor and consumption, they also themselves produce new markets of goods and services.
Shortly after he coined the term a€?immaterial labor,a€? Maurizio Lazzarato renounced it, for the good reason that the term was impossible to reconcile with a materialist position.
It includes the crumpled pieces of paper in his trash can and a book lying open beside his keyboard.
The piece is something like an anti-humanist negation of relational aesthetics: perfectly finished, enclosed, complete, pristine, it subtracts the participation of the viewer precisely through the viewera€™s gaze, which is drawn into and lost within the reflexive auto-mimesis of the object. The distribution of the insensible: the movement of capital, the structural transformation of the contradiction between capital and labor, the circuitous courses of the process of valorizationa€”all this is how a digital information system ends up inside a mirrored box in the company of fluorescent lighting and minimalist furnishings, installed on the distressed concrete floors of an art gallery.
The matter of the object thus remains, and so does its form, but the object itself has disappeared into an uncanny splitting of their formerly integral relation. Canvas shows us the primordial matter of mimesis: the substrate of inaugural images carved in stone, with stone. As Marx tells us in Chapter 8 of Volume One, a€?the means of production on one hand, labor-power on the other, are merely the different forms of existence which the value of the original capital assumed when it lost its monetary form and was transformed into the various factors of the production process.a€? Both the means of production and labor power are different elements of capital in its own valorization process. In my opinion, this is a problem substantial enough to render his history of aesthetics more or less irrelevant.
For Sohn-Rethel, the Kantian transcendental subject is the representative modern figure of this dialectic (though its status as such is occluded by the idealism of transcendental philosophy). The rate of surplus value extraction depends upon these factors (this is called a€?absolute surplus valuea€?). It is not only that labor is subsumed under the value form, but that the very constitution of labor itself changes. Capital needs to invest more in technology in order to increase productivity and sustain the valorization process. The new regime of accumulation that accompanies this structural transformation is what Guy Debord theorizes as the Spectacle. And more importantly, they are the technological ground for the massive growth of speculative markets we call a€?financialization,a€? which is predicated (in its contemporary form) upon the exchange of digital information.
He should have referred instead to a€?insensible labor.a€? Information and cognition are not immaterial, but they are insensible. Each of these reproduced objects is then plated in mirrored nickel before being rearranged, in in a reproduction of their configuration, within a parallelepiped encased on all six sides in one-way mirrored glass and illuminated by overhead fluorescent light.
His studio is something like the Platonic form of so-called a€?immaterial labora€?a€”designer furniture and designer devices, neatly arrayed with the precision of an architectural firm blessed with a particularly fastidious custodial staff.
This movement, this transformation, this process is what we are looking at, though we cannot see it.
But we can also recognize, as Catherine Malabou argues in What Should We Do With Our Brain?, that there is a structural homology between post-Fordist management discourse emphasizing non-hierarchical networks, self-organization, flexibility, and innovation, and contemporary neurological theory, which views the brain as a decentralized network of neuronal assemblies and emphasizes neurological plasticity as the ground of cognitive flexibility and adaptation.
In the discourse network of 1800, the book is the site of an encounter between reading and writing, wherein the romantic imagination produces a projection of the soul into what Novalis calls a€?a real, visible world,a€? written into and read off of printed signifiers, emerging from the text as synaesthetic phantasmagoria in which all the senses are drawn together by the hallucinatory experience of Literature.
Importantly, then, real subsumption requires and depends upon technological innovation: the capitalist process of production both needs and produces new machines because these increase productivity within a given period of time and thus compensate for limits on the length of the working day. But by doing so, it also decreases the amount of capital which can be converted into surplus value. The tech boom and its implosion are the logical and necessary outcome of real subsumption, pushing beyond its limits into the society of the Spectacle.
And the forms of affective labor which precisely are sensed are premised upon the indistinction of labor and leisure, the impossibility of distinguishing them under conditions of post-Fordist accumulation. Star (Black) confronts us with an extra-terrestrial outside, encountered, vanished, recordeda€”at once absent and yet uncannily present as residue and reproduction.
The concrete process of transforming materials through labor, aided by tools, is subsumed by the abstract process of valorization. In the discourse network of 1900, gramophone, film, and typewriter effect an analytic separation of this sensory synthesis, constituting distinct technologies of recording and transmission for sound, the moving image, and the written word.
Thus, due to forces of competition and technological innovation driving increased productivity, the rate of surplus value extraction tends to decline. It is labor itself that becomes insensible under these conditions, dispersed into networks linking neurons and screens and indistinguishable from the most intimate gestures of our affective lives.
These are images of the deep time of human and cosmological history, outside the limits of modernity, of capital and its enabling technologies of representation.
Such would be a historical materialist account of conceptual abstraction following from Sohn-Rethela€™s critical of idealist epistemology.
What Kittler calls a€?media differentiationa€? carves up the Romantic imagination, sutured to the book, and parcels out its capacities among discrete technologies addressed to a segmented perceiver: an ear, an eye, a minda€”a modernist collage of the formerly integral subject.
Thus, it is only possible to extend the working day so much, or to reduce wages to so little, because the reproduction of capital depends upon the reproduction of labor.
What the installation asks us to think, however, is the manner in which it is these technologies of representation which record this outside, which draw our attention to it and make it manifest.
The precise transformations of materials it enablesa€”its retentional exactitudea€”precisely negate all transformation. Simply put, the way we thinka€”the form of thinkinga€”is dialectically intertwined with the structure and the historical movement of capitalist accumulation.
Like Malicka€™s The Tree of Life, Baiera€™s meteorite indexes a cosmological time and an inhuman history which never was sensed, which was prior to sensationa€”though, like Malicka€™s film, Baier makes this history manifest through the most sophisticated technological means of representation.

The labor of the artist is the transformation of money, through materials, into its own image.
Baiera€™s Canvas, a meticulous photographic recording of the bare stone wall beside the first recorded images, situates this indexical effort within the whole history of representationa€”again, carrying us outside the modern technics of mimetic exactitude which make the digital rendering of this stone wall possible in the first place. But this is also to transform them into an art object: neither tool nor raw material, neither instrument nor that to which it is applied. Rather, a worked form, presented, apparently useless and withdrawn from exchangea€”though of course it has its uses and cannot help but find its way back to market. 689-692 (1962)A Human Perception of Illumination with Pulsed Ultrahigh-Frequency Electromagnetic Energyby Allan Frey, Science, Vol. Baker, Youth Action Newsletter, Dec 1994.A "A nation can survive its' fools, and even the ambitious. An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and he carries his banners openly. But the traitor moves among those within the gate freely, his sly whispers rustling through all the galleys, heard in the very hall of government itself. For the traitor appears not a traitor--He speaks in the accents familiar to his victims, and wears their face and their garment, and he appeals to the baseness that lies deep in the hearts of all men. He rots the soul of a nation--he works secretly and unknown in the night to undermine the pillars of a city--he infects the body politic so that it can no longer resist.
The CIA also claims it is not obligated to provide the veterans with medical care for side effects of the drugs. Its the CIAs third attempt to get the case dismissed.In a 2009 federal lawsuit, Vietnam Veterans of America claimed that the Army and CIA had used at least 7,800 soldiers as guinea pigs in Project Paperclip.
They were given at least 250 and as many as 400 types of drugs, among them sarin, one of the most deadly drugs known to man, amphetamines, barbiturates, mustard gas, phosgene gas and LSD.Among the projects goals were to control human behavior, develop drugs that would cause confusion, promote weakness or temporarily cause loss of hearing or vision, create a drug to induce hypnosis and identify drugs that could enhance a persons ability to withstand torture. The suit was filed in federal court in San Francisco against the Department of Defense and the CIA. The plaintiffs seek to force the government to contact all the subjects of the experiments and give them proper health care. Department of Veterans Affairs released a pamphlet said nearly 7,000 soldiers had been involved and more than 250 chemicals used on them, including hallucinogens such as LSD and PCP as well as biological and chemical agents. According to the lawsuit, some of the volunteers were even implanted with electrical devices in an effort to control their behavior. Rochelle, 60, who has come back to live in Onslow County, said in an interview Saturday that there were about two dozen volunteers when he was taken to Edgewood. They were told that the experiments were harmless and that their health would be carefully monitored, not just during the tests but afterward, too. The doctors running the experiments, though, couldnt have known the drugs were safe, because safety was one of the things they were trying to find out, Rochelle said. The veterans say they volunteered for military experiments as part of a wide-ranging program started in the 1950s to test nerve agents, biological weapons and mind-control techniques, but were not properly informed of the nature of the experiments.
They blame the experiments for poor health and are demanding the government provide their health care.
In virtually all cases, troops served in the same capacity as laboratory rats or guinea pigs, the lawsuit states. The suit contends that veterans were wrongfully used as test subjects in experiments such as MK-ULTRA, a CIA project from the 1950s and 60s that involved brainwashing and administering experimental drugs like LSD to unsuspecting individuals. The project was the target of several congressional inquiries in the 1970s and was tied to at least one death.
Harf said that MK-ULTRA was thoroughly investigated and the CIA fully cooperated with each of the investigations. The plaintiffs say many of the volunteers records have been destroyed or remain sealed as top secret documents.
They also say they were denied medals and other citations they were promised for participating in the experiments. They are not seeking monetary damages but have demanded access to health care for veterans they say were turned away at Department of Veterans Affairs facilities because they could not prove their ailments were related to their military service. It grew out of the Agencys Operation BLACKBIRD and was a forerunner to the Agencys MKULTRA. Project ARTICHOKE also known as Operation ARTICHOKE was run by the CIAs Office of Scientific Intelligence. ARTICHOKE offensive mind control techniques experiments attempted to induce amnesia and highly suggestive states in its subjects. ARTICHOKE focused on the use of hypnosis, forced morphine addiction, forced morphine addiction withdrawal, along with other drugs, chemicals, and techniques. The main focus of the program was summarized in a January 1952 CIA memo, Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature, such as self-preservation?One program experiment attempted to see if it was possible to produce a Manchurian Candidate.
In Richard Condons 1959 novel The Manchurian Candidate an American soldier, who has been placed into a hypnotic state by Communist forces, returns home to assassinate on command.
A January 1954 CIA report asks the question, Can an individual of [redacted] descent be made to perform an act of attempted assassination involuntarily under the influence of ARTICHOKE? Argued December 4, 1984 Decided April 16, 1985 .Between 1953 and 1966, the Central Intelligence Agency financed a wide-ranging project, code-named MKULTRA, concerned with the research and development of chemical, biological, and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior.
159, 162] program consisted of some 149 subprojects which the Agency contracted out to various universities, research foundations, and similar institutions.
Because the Agency funded MKULTRA indirectly, many of the participating individuals were unaware that they were dealing with the Agency.MKULTRA was established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing and interrogation techniques. Over the years the program included various medical and psychological experiments, some of which led to untoward results. These aspects of MKULTRA surfaced publicly during the 1970's and became the subject of executive and congressional investigations. Argued April 21, 1987 Decided June 25, 1987 Respondent, a serviceman, volunteered for what was ostensibly a chemical warfare testing program, but in which he was secretly administered lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) pursuant to an Army plan to test the effects of the drug on human subjects, whereby he suffered severe personality changes that led to his discharge and the dissolution of his marriage. Upon being informed by the Army that he had been given LSD, respondent filed a Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) suit. The District Court granted the Government summary judgment on the ground that the suit was barred by the doctrine of Feres v. 135 , which precludes governmental FTCA liability for injuries to servicemen resulting from activity incident to service. Although agreeing with this holding, the Court of Appeals remanded the case upon concluding that respondent had at least a colorable constitutional claim under the doctrine of Bivens v. 388 , whereby a violation of constitutional rights can give rise to a damages action against the offending federal officials even in the absence of a statute authorizing such relief, unless there are special factors counselling hesitation or an explicit congressional declaration of another, exclusive remedy. Respondent then amended his complaint to add Bivens claims and attempted to resurrect his FTCA claim. Although dismissing the latter claim, the District Court refused to dismiss the Bivens claims, rejecting, inter alia, the Governments argument that the same considerations giving rise to the Feres doctrine should constitute special factors barring a Bivens action.In February 1958, James B. Stanley, a master sergeant in the Army stationed at Fort Knox, Kentucky, volunteered to participate in a program ostensibly designed to test the effectiveness of protective clothing and equipment as defenses against chemical warfare. He was released from his then-current duties and went to the Armys Chemical Warfare Laboratories at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland. Four times that month, Stanley was secretly administered doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), pursuant to an Army plan to study the effects of the drug on human subjects. According to his Second Amended Complaint (the allegations of which we accept for purposes of this decision), as a result of the LSD exposure, Stanley has suffered from hallucinations and periods of incoherence and memory loss, was impaired in his military performance, and would on occasion awake from sleep at night and, without reason, violently beat his wife and children, later being unable to recall the entire incident. One year later, his marriage dissolved because of the personality changes wrought by the LSD.
December 10, 1975, the Army sent Stanley a letter soliciting his cooperation in a study of the long-term effects of LSD on volunteers who participated in the 1958 tests.
669, 672] This was the Governments first notification to Stanley that he had been given LSD during his time in Maryland.
2671 et seq., alleging negligence in the administration, supervision, and subsequent monitoring of the drug testing program.
Ewen Cameron): The man who I had thought cared about what happened to me didnt give a damn. Ewen Cameron conducted CIA-funded experiments on troubled Canadian patients he was meant to help MacIntyre: the CIA caved in the day before the trial was to begin.
They settled out of court for $750,000 at the time it was the largest settlement the CIA had ever awarded.
28, 1984 (digital clip) It sounds like a science fiction plot or a horror movie: A front organization for the American CIA sets up shop in Canada to engage in mind control experiments. But its no fiction, its the discussion on the floor of the House of Commons and among lawyers for the Department of External Affairs.
Canadians caught up in the research, including a member of Parliaments wife, may finally get some action from the government in their pursuit of answers and compensation. Recruited Ex-Nazis By SAM ROBERTS December 11, 2010 After World War II, American counterintelligence recruited former Gestapo officers, SS veterans and Nazi collaborators to an even greater extent than had been previously disclosed and helped many of them avoid prosecution or looked the other way when they escaped, according to thousands of newly declassified documents. Men who were classified as ardent Nazis were chosen just weeks after Hitlers defeat to become respectable U.S. Reinhard Gehlen (middle) and his SS united were hired, and swiftly became agents of the CIA when they revealed their massive records on the Soviet Union to the US.
The men designed the CIAs interrogation program and also personally took part in the waterboarding sessions. But to do the job, the CIA had to promise to cover at least $5 million in legal fees for them in case there was trouble down the road, former U.S. For the simple reason that it would inexorably lead to the covert biological war programmes of the 1950's. According to CIA documents, K indicates both knockout and kill, depending upon the circumstances under which researched biological products were employed by CIA operatives in the field operations conducted under Project Artichoke and later programs.

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  2. Simpoticniy_Tvar writes:
    What I need and artwork in this blog are copyright of the and require different strategies.
  3. Ledy_MamedGunesli writes:
    Experience teaches us a good lesson don't want the.
  4. kursant007 writes:
    Even if a modern day person would benefit.