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Author: admin, 08.12.2013. Category: Understanding The Law Of Attraction

About the author: Andy Trainer works for Silicon Beach Training, leading providers of resources and courses in business skills including Six Sigma, Lean and project management techniques like PRINCE2. Here at Silicon Beach Training we regularly run Six Sigma courses for all levels as well as a range of Lean courses. In this post I’m going to share 3 of my favourite Lean tools and provide you with exercises to try them yourself.
We ask our Black Belt delegates to bring their own SIPOC diagram to the course so they can work on an example appropriate to their role. The SIPOC diagram is relatively straightforward and can be used by anybody to break down a process.
Exercise: Choose a business process and run through the steps to create your own SIPOC diagram.
Inputs can be anything from physical items to data and tools, and you should have a supplier for every input.
After establishing the inputs, define the outputs of the process, along with the customers who will receive the outputs. The Customer Requirements Tree (also known as the Critical to Quality Tree) is a Lean tool that allows you to break down hard to measure customer needs into easy to measure requirements. The final stage of the tree involves defining upper and lower limits for requirements, which are easier to measure and maintain. Exercise: Choose an important customer requirements and run it through the Customer Requirements Tree.
Start by establishing the drivers – what the customer might use to decide on what makes a good coffee. Once completed you will have a better idea of what your customer wants, and will be able to measure your product or service so that it meets the customer requirements. These can be applied to specific processes or to the business as a whole (more likely if you are an SME).
Once you have completed the table, you can run through your wastes and work out which are the priorities to reduce or eliminate. Decisions are at the heart of leader success, and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult, perplexing, and nerve-racking. Declaration of Independence in American Revolution contains the beauty and cogency of the preamble, reaching back to remotest antiquity and forward so an indefinite future, have lifted the hearts of millions of men and will continue to do. The total effect of the culture and industry is one of anti-enlightenment that is the progressive technical domination of nature, becomes mass deception and is turned into a means for fettering consciousness. The unrealistic expectations of freedom and rights to make your own decisions will destroy a person unless it is recognized that these ideals are privileges and not necessities and therefore they are accompanied by responsibilities. Fear is not in the habit of speaking the truth; when perfect sincerity is expected, perfect freedom must be allowed. Decisions are at the heart of success, and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult, perplexing, and nerve racking. Decision-making is about facing a question, such as, "To be or not to be?", i.e., to be the one you want to be or not to be? Unlike deterministic models (risk-free decisions), the outcome of some decisions depends on the second party, as is the case in any advertising campaign strategic decisions in a competitive market. So aside from that, we see that making the correct decisions is not only what we want to do, but includes what we have to do. Management Science can help reduce or eliminate the fear of making wrong decisions by providing help with the decision-making process. Drucker P., Managing knowledge means managing oneself, a Leader to Leader, Vol No 16, Spring 2000.
Recourse to someone or even something else: Examples are astrology (not astronomy which is a science), palm readings, looking up at stars, dialing 1-900 psychic friends, telepathy, telekinesis, the aura, crystals, dreams, colors, Feng Shui, numerology, fortune-tellers, etc.
For example, in contrast to astrology, one must accept the fact that success is not due to a fortuitous concourse of stars at our birth, but due to a steady trail of sparks from the grindstones of hard work, determination, good planning, and perseverance. In all these popular avoidance strategies, you are better off taking advice from Kermit the Frog.
False hopes: Hoping for something to happen over which we have no control over its outcome. Do not think about it: The decision-makers who are waiting for something to turn up, might start with their shirt sleeves. Do anchoring: Give disproportional weights to some information instead of waiting as long as possible, to have all the information. Failure to reflect on the problem: Reflection before action is often resisted by some managers. Look for confirming-evidence: Seek out the information to support an existing preselection and discount opposing ones. Have second thoughts: Second thoughts have aborted more useful decisions than all the difficult circumstances, overwhelming obstacles, and dangerous detours fate ever could throw at you. Succumb to failure: Believe that the choices you will make are predestined and you are bound to fail (one gets used to failure) versus the result of hard work and thought. Set up a committee: To make decisions, try to set up a committee not necessarily consisting of experts. False decentralization:Decentralization could take place when an authoritative manager delegates accountability to a new "director of…" for every new decision-making problem, but not delegating any authority. Common Sense-based decisions: If you start making decisions on the basis of conventional wisdom or chatter in the hall, generally speaking, you will make the wrong decision.
Failure to understand the problem: This is caused, among others, by subjectivity, irrational analysis, lateness or procrastination, lack of sensitivity, and lack of focus.
False alternative: It attempts to box the decision-maker into a corner from which there is no escape except to accept the alternative. Decision is only symbolic: One will fight hard for a policy and then be indifferent to its implementation.
The Decision maker has obligations: Sometimes decision makers act against integrity to meet some critical personal obligations.
Best of all, decline responsibility: Some shrugged their shoulders as if to shake off whatever chips of responsibility might have lodged there.
Post-decision anxieties: The more highly desirable the alternatives that must be rejected and the faster the decision must be made, the greater are these anxieties (also known as cognitive dissonance).
Misattribution of causes: Attribute your own success to your skills and hard work and your failures to unavoidable external forces. Your anxiety is directly proportional to your mental modeling process of reality, for you bring on yourself unlimited fears and unrealistic desires. Do not make any serious decisions because you are angry, hurt, depressed, desperate, or frightened. The following sets of situations for avoiding decision-making are legitimate and appropriate.
Coercive decision-making: Coercive persuasions are Mind Control tactics which are part of a Brainwashing practice.
The most effective propaganda and indoctrination system is one where its victims do not think they are being propagandized and indoctrinated.
Solving a problem by creating a new one: Often, because of deep frustrations in facing a difficult problem, one may unfortunately solve it by creating a bigger problem. Being in a revelation state: Whenever you are feeling an extremely pleasant or very deep sadness state, characterize a revelation state of being. Unlike the strategies used in the previous section which tell you what to do, it is possible to learn how to make good decisions.
Each problem has hidden in it an opportunity so powerful that it literally dwarfs the problem. A deliberate effort to broaden your experiences is the single most helpful effort in making good decisions. Search process approach by diagramming: Most of your decisions can be made using your past experiences and some strategic thinking. Subjective and Objective Decision-Making: Your decisions might be categorized in two groups with possible overlaps in some cases.
In the decision-making modeling process we must investigate the effects of presenting different decision alternatives retrospectively; that is, "as if" you have implemented your strategy. Value and the Objective: Consider the full range of objectives to be fulfilled and the values implicated by your action. Set of Actions: Thoroughly consider a wide range of possible alternative courses of action. Evaluate the Consequences: Carefully weigh whatever you know about the costs and risks of negative as well as positive consequences that could flow from each alternative. Gathering Information: Intensively search for new information relevant to further evaluation of the alternatives. Information Processing: Correctly assimilate and take account of any new information or expert judgment, even when the information does not support the course of action initially preferred.
Action Assessment: Re-examine positive and negative consequences of known alternatives, including those originally regarded as unacceptable, before making a final decision. Implementation of Your Decision: Make detailed provisions for implementing and executing the chosen course of action, including contingency plans for known risks and adjustments. Other Widely Used Decision Analysis Methods Selection of an appropriate decision technology depends mostly on the type of information available and the technical working knowledge of the decision analyst.
Paired comparison analysis: Paired Comparison Analysis helps you to work out the importance of a number of options relative to each other.

Pros-Cons-Interesting implications method: Prior to the science of the making decision era most managers relied on the "Pros-Cons-Interesting implications method". Weighing the pros and cons: To use the weighing pros and cons, draw up a table headed up 'Plus', 'Minus', and 'Implications'. The Force field analysis is a useful technique for looking at all the forces for and against a decision. Six thinking hats: Multi-perspective analysis Six Thinking Hats is used to look at decisions from a number of important perspectives.
A variant of this technique is to look at problems from the point of view of different professionals (e.g. Total quality begins with total personal quality, organizational empowerment begins with individual empowerment, and managing information system (MIS) means managing your life.
Business decision-making is a simple arena of choices expressed in dollar terms, and that simplicity is the reason for discussing the decision-making process in the context of business, though it can apply elsewhere just as well. Many people believe that predetermined destiny rather than their own decisions govern the affairs of their lives. Of all the gifts that a parent can give a child, the gift of learning to make good choices is the most valuable and long lasting. It takes education and courage to gain more self-esteem to be positive or confident in decision-making. The more amiability and esprit de corps among the members of a policy-making in-group, the greater is the danger that independent critical thinking will be replaced by groupthink, which is likely to result in irrational and dehumanizing actions directed against out groups. Finally, in personal decision-making there is no one better to talk to than yourself if you really want to get things worked out. Safety Needs: After physiological needs, the second most compelling needs that individuals face are safety and security.
Belongingness and Love Needs: When physiological and safety needs have been addressed, the next set of needs -- those related to belongingness, affection and love -- can emerge. Esteem Needs: If the first three needs are fulfilled, the need for esteem may become dominant.
Self-Actualization Needs: The highest level of needs, those that individuals are able to satisfy when all other more basic needs have been met, is the need for self-actualization. Popular Strategies in Avoiding Personal Decisions: Decisions shape our personal lives, however decision-making can be a stressful, bewildering personal responsibility. The following strategies or combination of them enable decidophobes to avoid making their own decisions.
Every religion too, is a model for questions such as: How should I live, What should I believe?
The source of all religion and metaphysics is the recognition of a higher power, such as a god(s), or "the-thing-in-itself", respectively. Metaphysics are the concepts that empirical investigation is unable to tackle such as the nature of time and gravity, space and the purpose of our beings.
Believing in God, while is sometimes advantageous health-wise, can have the reverse effect: it can predict mortality. Drifting: Instead of choosing how to live and what to believe, The drifting person simply follows the "status quo". Allegiance to a Movement: This strategy identifies the people who are dissatisfied both with traditional life styles and with being adrift, so they join a movement.
Exegetical Thinking: In this strategy one reads in the text, assumes that the text that one reads is right and therefore, treats it as an authority. Moral Rationalization: The idea is that the moral rationalist, through rational thought, can make decisions. The Wave of the Future: Although this strategy overlaps with religion, allegiance to a movement or to a school, and to ignore other alternatives and, like other strategies, there is a fear of standing alone and unsupported.
Know Your Values and Preferences: Value refers to how desirable a particular outcome is, the value of the alternative, whether in dollars, satisfaction, or other benefit. Axiological Rationality: Axiological rationality was studies by Weber in distinction between axiological rationality and instrumental rationality. The above chart represents the needs and values causal connections in both space and time, by bring isolated facts from two primary and secondary sources together and help us construct a coherent understanding of the external world. With respect to decision-making, instead of saying that man is the creature of circumstance, it would be more accurate to say that man is the architect of circumstance. As my reader noticed by now, the major problems for the scientists are the problem of determination of values and the assignment of ranks among the values. The ultimate goal of human decisions is always the satisfaction of the acting man's desire, which is almost always "growth". A potential problem is deciding the importance of the things you think about most of the time. The first task in making private and personal decisions is to find out what the "values" are, for what?
Group A: This most important group includes all the things that you can do for yourself and no one else can do for you. Speechless thought moves over the fibers of our brain like water over the face of the deep. Our senses furnish the mind only with materials of information; it is our thinking that converts information we receive to our useful knowledge for decision making. Following the above thinking process with its many loops, then it is very likely that good ideas spring into being in response to your analytical probing. Over the years we have noticed that certain tools are more popular than others, and that our delegates enjoy using our custom diagrams and examples! Then define an upper and lower limit for each driver – these are your critical to quality requirements.
This tool will help you actively decide on your business wastes so that you can reduce them.
This site is dedicated to sharing lessons and experiences along the Lean Journey in the Quest for True North. These words are more explosive and revolutionary than anything written ever those are a continual inspiration to the entire oppressed individuals around the world.
It impedes the development of autonomous, independent individuals who judge and decide consciously for themselves. Nor does anyone who is apt to get angry when hearing the truth should wonder why he does not hear it. Our minds perform a series of information processing in order to form strategies needed to live our daily lives. Science fiction is a form of fiction that was developed in the 20th century and deals principally with the impact of imagined science upon society or individuals.
The questions must first be identified as problems or opportunities, verified; scaled into mathematical models for which an answer will abound, and then controlled by updating the solutions because of the dynamic nature of business decisions.
Mann, Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice and Commitments, Free Press, 1977. For example, hoping your airplane lands safely while you are just a passenger and not the pilot of the plane.
As Henri Poincare said, "Doubt everything or believe everything: these are two equally convenient strategies.
If you are too careful, you are so occupied in being careful that you are sure to stumble over what you are going to decide.
Decisions are often made first and information sought to support the solution, or much of the information gathered is irrelevant to the decision-making. Most people accentuate the positive in their decision and deny or ignore the positive aspect of the rejected alternatives.
They are designed to greatly modify a person's self-concept, perception of reality, and interpersonal relations.
This strategy tries to get rid of a present problem with the unfortunate byproduct of forming a new problem. You should never make decisions based on whatever you said or committed yourself that you will do while being in a revelation state. Graham, When Self-Consciousness Breaks: Alien Voices and Inserted Thoughts, MIT Press, 2000. The environment you fashion out of your decisions is the only climate you will ever live in. The above decision-making process includes the study of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision-maker.
It is most effective where you have a number of good alternatives and many factors to take into account.
In the column underneath 'Plus', write down all the positive results of taking the action, then underneath 'Minus' write down all the negative effects. This forces you to move outside your habitual thinking style, and helps you to get a more rounded view of a situation. For the expert or beginner, this is a self-learning aid, instant checklist, and an ongoing source of ideas and practical help. Another freshly formatted and updated BUSINESS SUCCESS book, this volume shows managers how to train the mind to free up its problem-solving capabilities. Sutton, The Knowing-Doing Gap: How Smart Companies Turn Knowledge Into Action, Harvard Business School Press, 2000.
Schoemaker, Decision Traps: Ten Barriers to Brilliant Decision-Making and How to Overcome Them, Fireside Press, London, 1990.

The same decision-making process one faces in business arises in all other aspects of one's life, but they are obscured in other parts of life because they are not overlaid with as many complexities that arise in business. When you are facing a decision, then you are sounding-out the depth of your own strengths and the richness of your resources. The leaders have to wonder if the followers will follow them faithfully and the followers wonder if the leader will bring them to the "promised land". Some people easily pressured into doing things by others are easily told what to do because they have very low self-esteem. It is the nature, and the advantage, of courageous people that they can take the crucial questions and form a clear set of alternatives.
They include such things as the need for adequate nutrition, shelter, warmth and medical care. A study of 600 older hospital patients, 95% of whom were believers, found that people who felt alienated from God, or who blamed the devil for their illness, had a 19% to 28% increased risk of dying over the following two years. On the opposite end of the spectrum is the person who has no ties, no code of conduct, or purpose. This enables the exegete to read his own ideas into the text and get them back endowed with authority. Thompson, Dumped!: A Survival Guide for the Woman Who's Been Left by the Man She Loved, Harpercollins, 1999. Strangely enough, many decision-makers collect a set of alternatives (say cars to buy or person to marry) and then ask, "Which should I choose?" without thinking first of what their goals are, what overall objective they want to achieve. However, a question that has inspired many theories conveys the impression that the numerous theories of values and valuation are deeply heterogeneous, some being rational and some irrational, some seeing values as the mere effect of social inculcation, others the effect of emotional factors, as resentment.
Naturalistic Theories: The interest and limits of these theory deal with the question of which values should be considered as the emanation of singular cultures and, for this reason, vary from one culture to another.
The instrumental rationality deals with the relations between means and ends, the notion of axiological rationality introduces the idea of a non-consequential type of rationality. It implies that some irrational people can be interpreted rationally, provided the notion of rationality is adequately defined. There is no standard of greater or lesser satisfaction other than individual judgments of "values" and determination of "ranks" among those values.
The solution to this problem is to come-up with some criteria in evaluating the degree of the values you hold dear for achieving living well. They make models of reality that are more beautiful than reality itself in order to make our existence bearable. Reflection time must be built into the decision process allowing ample time to ponder and rethink.
I got tempted with the SIPOC diagram, and wanted to share this free PowerPoint template with SIPOC illustration, in case it helps someone in the future.
The blog also serves as the source for learning and reflection which are critical elements in Lean Thinking.
For the first time - literally - substantial and rapidly growing numbers of people have choices. Our doubts are traitors and make us lose the opportunities, by fearing to make our decision. For example using alcohol instead of facing the difficulties of the problem courageously will only result in the realization that if alcohol kills germs it also removes personal dignity. Therefore making a decision implies that there are alternative choices to be considered, and in such a case we want not only to identify as many of these alternatives as possible but to choose the one that best fits with our goals, desires, lifestyle, values, and so on.
The explicit information can be explained in structured form, while tacit information is inconsistent and fuzzy to explain. This makes it easy to choose the most important problem to solve, or select the solution that will give you the greatest advantage. The first step is to list your options and then the factors that are important for making the decision.
In the 'Implications' column write down the implications and possible outcomes of taking the action, whether positive or negative. By carrying out the analysis you can plan to strengthen the forces supporting a decision, and reduce the impact of opposition to it.
It is the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it. A pocketful of proven tips, tools, and techniques to master the organizational and people skills for efficient and effective task management. Advice is offered on how to lead a "brainstorming" group, stimulate thinking and help generate new ideas.
The market for business knowledge is booming as companies looking to improve their performance pour millions of pounds into training programmes, consultants, and executive education. It shows how and why people are blocked in their thinking, how this impairs the creative problem solving process and how creative problem solving techniques can help overcome these difficulties. If you expect people who do not treat themselves well to treat the world well, you will be sorely and surely disappointed.
A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately at peace with himself.
Moreover some theories attempt to derive values from self-interest, others from the constraints imposed by society on individuals. These models are dominant today because they defend a relativistic view of values and treat the perception people have of the reasons as to why they endorse such and such values as illusory.
The values and their ranks are different for various people and for the same people at various times.
Moreover, one must decide about the "ranks" among these values and their relation to the other values.
Therefore, in order not to think about what is not worthy one must start thinking about something else immediately.
Again, this process is of a three-fold origin that encapsulates doctrines of computer integration, mathematical scaling and modeling and finally re-entering new data transformations that will occur as time ticks onward.
Decision-making process must include the reduction of uncertainty and doubt about the uncontrollable inputs. Paired Comparison Analysis helps you to set priorities where there are conflicting demands on your resources. Lay these out in a table, with options as the row labels, and factors as the column headings. When running into difficulties because ideas are running dry, they may direct activity into Green Hat thinking.
Why then, are there so many gaps between what firms know they should do and what they actual do? Some people prefer excitement to calmness, taking too much risk to a calculable risk, efficiency to esthetics, quality to quantity, and so on. Even at these states of mind you must decide whether making any decision is necessary or desirable. Often, though, they may fail to look at a problem from an emotional, intuitive, creative or negative viewpoint. This volume confronts the challenge of turning knowledge about how to improve performance into actions that produce measurable results. However, moralizing and morals are two entirely different things and are always found in entirely different people. Decisions are either a consensus of the two or there is a disagreement and one ends up "going along" with the other.
The moment a question comes to your mind, see yourself mentally taking hold of it and disposing of it.
Moreover, fear of judgement by others is a sure path to unhappiness which is a state of mind.
This is the absolute core of Management Science approach to decision-making, which is the science of decision-making. Spend some careful thought before acting, so that you will not end up making unnecessary problems. Although the uncertainty cannot be eliminated in most cases, however the more useful information reduces certain amount of risk. This can mean that they underestimate resistance to plans, fail to make creative leaps and do not make essential contingency plans. Therefore, this approach may not help you in defending yourself if the outcome of your decision is undesirable to those whom you are accountable. Often the most elegant solution is the first: just trying to force change through may cause its own problems.
While you are making these decisions, you feel for the time being that your life is your own.
If one can master management science applications, then no problem is too big nor any decision too overwhelming. In meetings it has the benefit of blocking the confrontations that happen when people with different thinking styles discuss the same problem.
The measure of success is not whether you have a tough decision to deal with, but whether it's the same decision you had before.

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