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Jensen McBryde has been enthusiastically researching the huge wealth of advice and wisdom offered by Bill Bartmann, a self-made billionaire who has succeeded in many industries. Have your students complete this precious memory booklet at the close of the year to reflect back on all of the fun and interesting activities and memories of their school year!!! Follow A to Z Teacher Stuff's board {shop.atoz} A to Z Teacher Stuff Downloads Shop on Pinterest. Once you place your order, you can access your download links and order history from your My Account area. The introduction of the Linnaean sexual system of plant classification in 1737 and its almost universal acceptance gave a tremendous impetus to the production of illustrated botanical books. IN the art of botanical illustration, evolution was by no means a simple and straightforward process.
There are a number of other manuscript herbals in existence, illustrated with interesting figures. This work contains coloured drawings of exceptional beauty, which are smaller than those in the Vienna manuscript, but quite equally realistic. It is however with the history of botanical figures since the invention of the printing press that we are here more especially concerned.
Botanical wood-engravings may be regarded as belonging to two schools, but it should be understood that the distinction between them is somewhat arbitrary and must not be pressed very far. The first school, of which we may take the cuts in the Roman edition of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius Platonicus (?
The illustrations of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius were copied from pre-existing manuscripts, and the age of the originals is no doubt much greater than that of the printed work.
Colouring of the figures was characteristic of many of the earliest works in which wood-engraving was employed. The engravings in the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius are executed in black, in very crude outline. The figures in the ` Herbarium' are characterised by an excellent trait, which is common to most of the older herbals, namely the habit of portraying the plant as a whole, including its roots. We now come to a series of illustrations, which may be regarded as occupying an intermediate position between the classical tradition of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius, and the renaissance of botanical drawing, which took place early in the sixteenth century. Das puch der natur' of Konrad von Megenberg occupies a unique position in the history of botany, for it is the first work in which a wood-cut representing plants was used with the definite intention of illustrating the text, and not merely for a decorative purpose.
A wood-cut, somewhat similar in style to that just described, but more primitive, occurs in Trevisa's version of the medi?val encyclop?dia of Bartholomaeus Anglicus, which was printed by Wynkyn de Worde before the end of the fifteenth century. The illustrations to the Latin 'Herbarius' or ` Herbarius Moguntinus,' published at Mainz in 1484 (Text-figs. A more interesting series of figures, also illustrating the text of the Latin ` Herbarius,' was published in Italy a little later. In 1485, the year following the first appearance of the Latin `Herbarius,' the very important work known as the German `Herbarius,' or ' Herbarius zu Teutsch,' made its appearance at Mainz.
A pirated second edition of the `Herbarius zu Teutsch' appeared at Augsburg only a few months after the publication of the first at Mainz. In the `Ortus Sanitatis' of 1491, about two-thirds of the drawings of plants are copied from the ` Herbarius zu Teutsch.' They are often much spoiled in the process, and it is evident that the copyist frequently failed to grasp the intention of the original artist.
The use of a black background, against which the stalks and leaves form a contrast in white, which we noticed in the Book of Nature,' is carried further in the ` Ortus Sanitatis.' This is shown particularly well in the Tree of Paradise (Text-fig. An edition of the `Ortus Sanitatis,' which was published in Venice in 151 I, is illustrated in great part with woodcuts based on the original figures.
During the first three decades of the sixteenth century, the art of botanical illustration was practically in abeyance in Europe. Brunfels' illustrations represent a notable advance on any previous botanical wood-cuts, so much so, indeed, that the suddenness of the improvement seems to call for some special explanation.
The engravings in Brunfels' herbal and the fine books which succeeded it, should not be considered as if they were an isolated manifestation, but should be viewed in relation to other contemporary and even earlier plant drawings, which were not intended for book illustrations. In Italy, Leonardo da Vinci's exquisite studies of plants, of which Plate XVI I I is an example, must also have pointed the way to a better era of herbal illustration. We are thus led to the conclusion that, though the engravings in Brunfels' herbal are separated from previous botanical figures by an almost impassable gulf, they should not be regarded as a sudden and inexplicable develop-ment. The illustrations in Brunfels' herbal were engraved, and probably drawn also, by Hans Weiditz, or Guiditius, some of whose work has been ascribed to Albrecht Durer.
The title ` Herbarum vivae eicones'—` Living Pictures of Plants '—indicates the most distinctive feature of the book, namely that the artist went direct to nature, instead of regarding the plant world through the eyes of previous draughtsmen. In one respect the welcome reaction from the conventional and generalised early drawings went almost too far. Our chronological survey of the chief botanical wood-cuts brings us next to those published by Egenolph in 1533, to illustrate Rhodion's ' Kreutterbuch.' These have sometimes been regarded as of considerable importance, almost comparable, in fact, with those of Brunfels.
It is interesting to notice that, as the third part of Brunfels' great work had not appeared when Egenolph's book was published, the latter must have been at a loss for figures of the plants which Brunfels had reserved for his third volume. In the third volume of Brunfels' herbal (which appeared after his death) there is a small figure, that of Auricula muris, which differs conspicuously in style from the other engravings, and which appears to represent a case in which the tables were turned, and a figure was borrowed from Egenolph. In his later books, Egenolph used wood-cuts pirated from those of Fuchs and Bock, which we must now consider. In the work of Leonhard Fuchs (Frontispiece) plant drawing, as an art, may be said to have reached its culminating point. Fuchs' figures are on so large a scale that the plant frequently had to be represented as curved, in order to fit it into the folio page. Sometimes in Fuchs' figures a wonderfully decorative spirit is shown, as in the case of the Earth-nut Pea (Text-fig. The figures here reproduced show how great a variety of subjects were successfully dealt with in Fuchs' work.
We have so far spoken, for the sake of brevity, as if Fuchs actually executed the figures himself. The drawing and painting of flowers is sometimes dismissed almost contemptuously, as though it were a humble art in which an inferior artist, incapable of the more exacting work of drawing from the life, might be able to excel. As far as concerns the pictures themselves, each of which is positively delineated according to the features and likeness of the living plants, we have taken peculiar care that they should be most perfect, and, moreover, we have devoted the greatest diligence to secure that every plant should be depicted with its own roots, stalks, leaves, flowers, seeds and fruits.
How dull and colourless the phrases of modern scientific writers appear, beside the hot-blooded, arrogant enthusiasm of the sixteenth century! Fuchs' wood-cuts were extensively pirated, especially those on a reduced scale, which were published in his edition of 1545. In general character, Bock's illustrations are neater and more conventional than those of Brunfels or Fuchs.
In point of time, the illustrations to the early editions of Mattioli's Commentaries on the Six Books of Dioscorides follow fairly closely on those of Fuchs, but they are extremely different in style (Text-figs. Another remarkable group of wood-engravings consists of those published by Plantin in connection with the work of the three Low Country herbalists, Dodoens, de l'Ecluse and de l'Obel.
There is little to be said about de l'Obel's figures, which partook of the character of the rest of the wood-cuts for which Plantin made himself responsible. The wood-cuts illustrating the comparatively small books of de l'Ecluse are perhaps the most interesting of the figures associated with this trio of botanists. The popularity of the large collection of blocks got together by the publishing house of Plantin is shown by the frequency with which they were copied. Professor Treviranus, whose work on the use of wood-engravings as botanical illustrations is so well known, considered that some of the drawings published by Camerarius in connection with his last work (` Hortus medicus et philosophicus,' 1588) were among the best ever produced. A number of wood-blocks were cut at Lyons to illustrate d'Alechamps' great work, the ' Historia generalis plantarum,' 1586-7.
Among less important botanical wood-engravings of the sixteenth century we may mention those in the works of Pierre Belon, such as `De arboribus' (1553).
Some specimens of the quaint little illustrations to Castor Durante's `Herbario Nuovo' of 1585 are shown in Text-figs. The engravings in Porta's 'Phytognomonica' (1588) and in Prospero Alpino's little book on Egyptian plants (1592) are of good quality.
Passing on to the seventeenth century, we find that the ` Prodromos' of Gaspard Bauhin (162o) contains a number of original illustrations, but they are not very remarkable, and often have rather the appearance of having been drawn from pressed specimens.
Parkinson's ` Paradisus Terrestris' of 1629 contains a considerable proportion of original figures, besides others borrowed from previous writers. Among still later wood-engravings, we may mention the large, rather coarse cuts in Aldrovandi's `Dendrologia' of 1667, one of which, the figure of the Orange, or Mala Aurantia Chinensia, is reproduced in Text-fig. In the present chapter no attempt has been made to discuss the illustrations of those herbals (e.g. This brief review of the history of botanical wood-cuts leads us to the conclusion that between 1530 and 1630, that is to say during the hundred years when the herbal was at its zenith, the number of sets of wood-engravings which were pre-eminent—either on account of their intrinsic qualities, or because they were repeatedly copied from book to book—was strictly limited.
At the close of the sixteenth century, wood cutting on the Continent was distinctly on the wane, and had begun to be superseded by engraving on metal. In the seventeenth century, a large number of botanical books, illustrated by means of copper-plates, were produced.
In 1615 an English edition of Crispian de Passe's work was published at Utrecht, under the title of `A Garden of Flowers.' The plates are the same as those in the original work. The purchaser of ` The Garden of Flowers' receives detailed directions for the painting of the figures, which he is expected to carry out himself. As we have already mentioned, it is not our intention to deal with the books published in the latter part of the seventeenth century. In the plates which illustrate Blankaart's herbal, a landscape and figures are often introduced to form a back-ground, and the low horizon, to which we referred in speaking of the ` Hortus Floridus,' is a very conspicuous feature. Etching and engraving on metal are well adapted to very delicate and detailed work, but from the point of view of book-illustration, wood-engraving is generally more effective. The History of Botanical Prints  What is a Botanical Print?
The first school, of which we may take the cuts in the Roman edition of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius Platonicus (?
The illustrations of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius were copied from pre-existing manuscripts, and the age of the originals is no doubt much greater than that of the printed work. The engravings in the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius are executed in black, in very crude outline. The figures in the ` Herbarium’ are characterised by an excellent trait, which is common to most of the older herbals, namely the habit of portraying the plant as a whole, including its roots. We now come to a series of illustrations, which may be regarded as occupying an intermediate position between the classical tradition of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius, and the renaissance of botanical drawing, which took place early in the sixteenth century. Das puch der natur’ of Konrad von Megenberg occupies a unique position in the history of botany, for it is the first work in which a wood-cut representing plants was used with the definite intention of illustrating the text, and not merely for a decorative purpose. A wood-cut, somewhat similar in style to that just described, but more primitive, occurs in Trevisa’s version of the medi?val encyclop?dia of Bartholomaeus Anglicus, which was printed by Wynkyn de Worde before the end of the fifteenth century.
A more interesting series of figures, also illustrating the text of the Latin ` Herbarius,’ was published in Italy a little later. A pirated second edition of the `Herbarius zu Teutsch’ appeared at Augsburg only a few months after the publication of the first at Mainz. An edition of the `Ortus Sanitatis,’ which was published in Venice in 151 I, is illustrated in great part with woodcuts based on the original figures.
Brunfels’ illustrations represent a notable advance on any previous botanical wood-cuts, so much so, indeed, that the suddenness of the improvement seems to call for some special explanation.
The engravings in Brunfels’ herbal and the fine books which succeeded it, should not be considered as if they were an isolated manifestation, but should be viewed in relation to other contemporary and even earlier plant drawings, which were not intended for book illustrations.
In Italy, Leonardo da Vinci’s exquisite studies of plants, of which Plate XVI I I is an example, must also have pointed the way to a better era of herbal illustration.
We are thus led to the conclusion that, though the engravings in Brunfels’ herbal are separated from previous botanical figures by an almost impassable gulf, they should not be regarded as a sudden and inexplicable develop-ment. The illustrations in Brunfels’ herbal were engraved, and probably drawn also, by Hans Weiditz, or Guiditius, some of whose work has been ascribed to Albrecht Durer.
Fuchs’ figures are on so large a scale that the plant frequently had to be represented as curved, in order to fit it into the folio page. Sometimes in Fuchs’ figures a wonderfully decorative spirit is shown, as in the case of the Earth-nut Pea (Text-fig. DESCRIPTION: This is a map from the a€?Balkhi School of Geographya€? that possesses climate boundaries. The maps accompanying these texts seem at first sight to be a not entirely necessary supplement to the texts, the text being so complete in itself.
Map historian Konrad Miller has attributed four manuscripts to al-Balkhi, on what grounds is not known. Their work is based on a series of maps covering the Islamic Empire together with a text which consists mainly of notes on the maps. It is obvious that the maps are conceived as a set covering the Muslim Empire with reasonable detail, and there is no attempt to cover non-Islamic areas in the same way. The Balkhi maps cannot be connected together like the sectional maps of al-Idrisi (#219) to form one large map of the known world. Al-Muqaddasia€™s text is based on the same principles but is a considerable improvement over that of his predecessors. The works of these authors were reproduced continually throughout the centuries not only in Arabic but also in Persian or Turkish translation.
Living in the mid-10th century, this new generation of geographers witnessed the gradual breakup of the Islamic world into separate political entities that acknowledged the religious, but not the political, authority of the caliph in Baghdad.
Some contemporaries continued to follow much earlier traditional methods of geography that portrayed the world as a landmass in the shape of a bird with China as its head. The image of the world consists of five parts: the head, two wings, breast, and tail of a bird.
At the same time, other geographers including members of the Balkhi School maintained their scientific taste and sought to advance geography beyond this folkloristic method in order to create a more accurate geography of the world. In fact, the Balkhi School maps became a prototype for most maps made by later Muslim geographers. Later Muslim geographers like al-Masa€™udi testify to the world map that the scholars under Caliph al-Maa€™mun created in the early ninth century. Despite their reliance on precedent, the Balkhi School geographers of the 10th and 11th centuries certainly incorporated new features and updated information in their geographic and cartographic works. Thus I became acquainted with men of standing who were born and bred there a€” shipmasters, cargo masters, coastguards, commercial agents, and merchants a€” and I considered them among the most discerning people with regard to this sea and its anchorages, its winds, and its islands. This episode shows how the geographers tapped new information circulating among merchants and travelers in order to update the geographic and cartographic works they published for a broader readership. On surviving Balkhi School world maps the labels refer almost exclusively to regions or provinces. Early Islamic scholars knew that the world is a sphere, and as they assumed that only one hemisphere was inhabited, they usually chose to present the Earth as a circle or disc.
A map displayed on a€?Old Manuscripts and Maps from khorasana€? by Abu Zaid Ahmed idn Sahl al-Balkhi (850-934), a disciple of al-Kindi and founder of the Balkhi School of terrestrial mapping in Bagdad.
Map historian Konrad Miller has attributed four manuscripts to al-Balkhi, on what grounds is not known.A  It is known, however, that al-Balkhi significantly influenced subsequent works by Ibn Hawqal and al-Istakhri (#213 and #211), so much so that European scholars refer to the genre as the a€?Balkhi School of Geographersa€?. Clinton, a former Arkansas governor, became the youngest president since Kennedy upon his election in 1993. Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act into law with Moynihan’s approval and they also tackled the thorny issue of welfare reform, a matter of special interest to Moynihan on which he and Clinton came to disagree. Prior to his Congressional career, Moynihan served President Nixon as his counselor on urban affairs. The Allied armies, through sacrifice and devotion and with God’s help, have wrung from Germany a final and unconditional surrender.
The western world has been freed of the evil forces which for five years and longer have imprisoned the bodies and broken the lives of millions upon millions of free-born men. The power of our peoples to defend themselves against all enemies will be proved in the Pacific war as it has been proved in Europe. For the triumph of spirit and of arms which we have won, and of its promise to peoples everywhere who join us in the love of freedom, it is fitting that we, as a nation, give thanks to Almighty God, who has strengthened us and given us the victory. Icall upon the people of the United States, whatever their faith, to unite in offering joyful thanks to God for the victory we have won and to pray that He will support us to the end of our present struggle and guide us into the ways of peace.
Ialso call upon my countrymen to dedicate this day of prayer to the memory of those who have given their lives to make possible our victory. In witness whereof,I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed. Truman, who had been commander-in-chief barely a month, dedicated the Allied victory to the recently deceased Franklin Roosevelt. After becoming a millionaire selling the metal from World War I surplus shell casings, Levine invested in the Columbia Aircraft Company, which designed an aircraft Levine hoped could win the $25,000 Raymond Orteig prize for the first non-stop flight between New York and Paris. Levine lost a substantial amount of money in the 1929 stock market crash, and his fortune further declined when he was sued for back taxes; some of his planes had to be auctioned off to pay back rent.
Ambrose Bierce’s macabre stories reflect the adventure and mystery of his turbulent life. Our letter was written two months before Bierce’s May 1910 return to California and five months before his legendary August 1910 drinking contest with young author and Hearst correspondent Jack London.
Penned on the first three pages of a folded sheet, the last page of which is written vertically. After the war, Hood moved to New Orleans where he raised funds for war widows and orphans while working as a cotton broker and in the life insurance business. Although he did not have a military background, Sickles, a congressman from New York, became a prominent officer during the Civil War.
Prior to his checkered military career, Sickles’ personal life had been rife with scandal.
After the war, Sickles oversaw aspects of Reconstruction and resumed his congressional career during which he helped preserve the battlefield at Gettysburg. Born into slavery in Maryland, Douglass tried several times to escape bondage before gaining his freedom in a successful 1838 flight north. Douglass was a Women’s Rights advocate and the only African American present at the 1848 Seneca Falls convention. Gatling was a merchant and, later, trained doctor who invented a screw propeller for steamboats, machines to sow rice and wheat, and several tractors, before turning his interest to firearms. In 1887, the year these lines were penned, Fremont published the first -- and what proved to be the only -- volume of his above-mentioned Memoirs of My Life, and his wife, Jessie Benton, published Souvenirs of My Time.
Prior to studying law at Harvard, Holmes fought for the Union during the Civil War (including at Antietam) and was wounded several times. Cornelia Bryce Pinchot was the wife of Progressive politician Gifford Pinchot, an ally of Theodore Roosevelt and was herself admired by TR for her political acumen. Pinchot actively campaigned for her husband’s election as governor of Pennsylvania, and, later, pursued her own political career, running for Congress numerous times.
Grant not only distinguished himself during the Civil War but also excelled in his post-war duties as he supervised Reconstruction, protected the western frontier and liquidated the surpluses of war.
The grandson of a Revolutionary War soldier and son of an infantry officer and West Point graduate, Hunt was raised on the American frontier. Our photograph was taken by the studio of Matthew Brady (1822-1896), one of America’s first successful photographers, whose Civil War portraits and battlefield scenes brought him fame. Daggett, a staunch abolitionist and native of Maine, enlisted in the 5th Maine Volunteers in April 1861. Gates, a well-respected Civil War and Abraham Lincoln amateur historian, devoted 50 years to researching his subjects and reviewing books for the Lincoln Herald and contributing to the Lincoln for the Ages anthology. After President Kennedy’s assassination, RFK was intimately involved in preserving his legacy. White House was a plantation on the Pamunkey River that belonged to the widowed Martha Dandridge Custis before she married George Washington.
Upon the Union’s retreat, Secretary of War Stanton ordered that all the supplies should be burned, but the house spared.
A touching, if brief letter, acknowledging Lee’s loss and exemplifying his determination to move forward. After the war, Pillow was active in politics, supporting Franklin Pierce in the 1852 election in his successful run again Scott.
As a major general, Pillow was instrumental in organizing the Army of the Tennessee and successfully repulsed Union forces at the 1861 Battle of Belmont in Missouri. In 1861, the Brooklyn Sunday School Union organized the first parade to commemorate the 32nd anniversary of its founding. In 1891, Peary, accompanied by his wife and his team, set off for Greenland to prove by inland exploration that the icy wilderness was in fact an island. Although he did not have a military background, Sickles, a New York congressman, became a prominent officer during the Civil War.
After the war, Sickles oversaw aspects of Reconstruction and resumed his Congressional career during which he helped preserve the battlefield at Gettysburg.
Woolson enlisted in the Union Army in October 1864, following the death of his father who had been gravely wounded at the Battle of Shiloh. Churchill distinguished himself as a soldier, author and statesman, rising to the height of fame as England’s prime minister during World War II. Our letter mentions Churchill’s son Randolph Churchill (1911-1968), who held a seat in the House of Commons from 1940-1945. Folded into quarters with a single file hole in the upper left corner and nominal creasing along the top edge; otherwise in excellent condition. At the end of the 19th century, as Spain grappled to hold on to its few remaining colonies, accounts of its fight against rebel forces in the Philippines and Cuba and its heavy handed, often-violent control were exaggerated in the competing newspapers of William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer. In May, Theodore Roosevelt resigned as assistant secretary of the navy in order to lead the First U.S. Although a ceasefire was not signed until August, Santiago surrendered on July 13 and Wood became Cuba’s military governor, serving from 1899-1902, during which time he implemented numerous social and political reforms. Petit was an 1878 graduate of West Point whose early military service was mostly on the American frontier. Born on Long Island, the second of nine children, Whitman worked as a teacher, printer, newspaper editor, government clerk, and war-time nurse while writing poetry. Warren served as California’s attorney general from 1939 until his election as Republican governor in 1943. French theologian, philosopher, physician, organist, and music scholar Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) was known for his interpretation of Bach’s chorale preludes as well as instigating a movement toward baroque sensibilities in both organ performance and construction. Our manuscript was offered in response to a request by music scholar, conductor and founder of the Esterhazy Orchestra, David Blum. DESCRIPTION: During the Middle Ages the Greek tradition of disinterested research was stifled in Western Europe by a theological dictatorship which bade fair, for a time, to destroy all hope of a genuine intellectual revival. Most Arab cartographers also used Ptolemya€™s instructions in the construction of their own maps. Over the years, these enlightened Arabs injected new life and a storehouse of knowledge into the relatively backward science of Western Europe, and, for centuries, Arab culture actually dominated the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily.
In the year 1138, the royal palace at Palermo, Sicily was the scene of a long-awaited meeting between an unusual Christian king and a distinguished Muslim scholar. The monarch was Roger II, King of Sicily; his distinguished guest the Arab geographer Abu Abdullah Mohammed Ibn al-Sharif al-Idrisi [Edrisi]. Al-Idrisia€™s writings tell us less about his own character and personality than about those of the man who became his host and patron.
Sicily in particular was an ideal meeting ground for the two civilizations a€“ Christian Europe and the Muslim Middle East. Early in the 11th century a band of Norman adventurers, the Hautevilles, had ridden into southern Italy to wrest it from the Byzantine Greeks and the Muslims, and in 1101 Count Roger da€™Hauteville capped his career by conquering Sicily. Tall, dark-haired, bearded and corpulent, Roger, from a magnificent palace in Palermo, ruled his kingdom with a balanced mixture of diplomacy, ruthlessness, wisdom and skill that has led many historians to term his kingdom the best-governed European state of the Middle Ages. Rogera€™s interest in geography was the expression of a scientific curiosity just awakening in Europe, but inevitably he turned to a Muslim for help.
A few practical maps did exista€”marinersa€™ charts showing coastlines, capes, bays, shallows, ports of call and watering and provisioning placesa€”but in a typical medieval divorce of science and technology, these remained in the hands of navigators.
To carry out the project, Roger established an academy of geographers, with himself as director and al-Idrisi as permanent secretary, to gather and analyze information. The academy began by studying and comparing the works of previous geographersa€”principal among them 12 scholars, 10 of them from the Muslim world. Al-Idrisia€™s two geographers from the pre-Islamic era were Paulus Orosius, a Spaniard whose popular History, written in the fifth century, included a volume of descriptive geography; and Ptolemy, the greatest of the classical geographers, whose Geography, written in the second century, had been entirely lost to Europe, but preserved in the Muslim world in an Arabic translation. After examining at length the geographical works they had collected, the king and the geographer observed that they were full of discrepancies and omissions, and decided to embark on original research.
During this research, al-Idrisi and Roger compared data, keeping the facts on which travelers agreed and eliminating conflicting information.
Finally, however, the long 15-year geographical study was finished and the task of map making began. Al-Idrisi explained that the disk merely symbolized the shape of the world: The earth is round like a sphere, and the waters adhere to it and are maintained on it through natural equilibrium which suffers no variation. By al-Idrisia€™s time, Muslim astronomers had made great strides in methods of reckoning latitude.
Al-Idrisi himself gave three figures for the eartha€™s circumference, without deciding among them: Eratosthenesa€™ approximately correct estimate, a slightly smaller figure arrived at by Indian astronomers, and a still smaller numbera€”though larger than Ptolemya€™sa€”which was apparently agreed on by Sicilian scholars. On the disk, according to al-Idrisia€™s own account, were incised a€?by skillful workersa€? lines marking the limits of the seven climates of the habitable world, arbitrary divisions established by Ptolemy running east and west and bounded by parallels of latitude, from the Arctic to the Equator.
The map, written in Arabic, shows the Eurasian continent in its entirety, but only shows the northern part of the African continent.
The resulting book and associated maps which took 15 years to amass are, for this and the above reasons, unquestionably among the most interesting monuments of Arabian geography. Modern geographers have attempted to reconstruct the features of the silver planisphere by using a combination of the maps of Rogera€™s Book, which has survived in several texts, and its tables of longitudes and latitudes. Distortions, omissions, and misconceptions notwithstanding, the superiority of al-Idrisia€™s map over the world maps of medieval Europe is striking.
The first division of the first climate commences to the west of the Western Sea, which Idrisi called the Sea of Darkness.
Following the Nile, still eastward, we find the nomadic Berbers who pasture their flock on the borders of a river flowing from the east, debouching into the Nile stream. It is clear that the part of southern Africa which is extended far to the east is a legacy from Ptolemy, but Arabian seafarers had taught Idrisi that the sea was open in the east, and in his own commentaries he writes: a€?The Sea of Sin [China] is an arm of the ocean which is called the Dark Sea [the Atlantic]a€?.
To the south al-Idrisi pictured a great river, the Nile of the Negroes, a composite of the Senegal and the Niger Rivers that flowed from Central Africa west to the Atlantic. Sicily, naturally, came in for special praise; it was a pearl of the age, and al-Idrisi told the story of the Norman conquest of the island by Roger da€™Hauteville, the greatest of Frankish princes, followed by the succession of the great king who bears the same name and who follows in his footsteps. Idrisi was not, however, able to put the countries around the Baltic into proper shape, even though his notes show him to have been familiar with a great many places there, as in the rest of Europe. The impressive assemblage of facts from travelersa€™ accounts and geographical writings was interrupted now and then by fables, some taken directly from Ptolemy, some from popular folklore. Al-Idrisia€™s Rome had an oriental magnificence; ships with their freight sailed up the Tiber to be drawn thus loaded right up to the very shops of the merchants. The Arabs knew these islands through Ptolemy, and called them Jazaa€™ir al-Khalidat [The Eternal Isles], presumably a version of the Greek name. After telling us that the Canaries had been visited by Alexander the Great and that the tomb of a pre-Islamic South Arabian king, made of marble and colored glass, can be seen on one of them, al-Idrisi gives the names of two of the islands. Even more interesting is al-Idrisia€™s account of an actual voyage of exploration into the western Atlantic, undertaken by 80 brave men from Lisbon whom he calls the mugharrirun, best rendered as a€?intrepid explorers.a€? The expedition must have taken place before 1147 - the date Lisbon fell to the Christians - but it is impossible to be more precise.
It was from the city of Lisbon that the mugharrirun set out to sail the Sea of Darkness in order to discover what was in it and where it ended, as we have mentioned before. The inhabitants of the island of al-Sua€™ali are shaped like women and their canine teeth protrude. The island of Qalhan is inhabited by animal-headed people who swim in the sea to catch their food.
Al-Ghawr makes sense; it means a depression surrounded by higher land, and occurs elsewhere in the Arab world as a place name. Al-Idrisi gives the names of 13 islands in the western Atlantic; a 14th, visited by the mugharrirun, is nameless. On his map, Idrisi shows a long string of islands in the Western Ocean reaching north from the equator to Brittany.
However, Arab geographers and astronomers were much too accurate in their latitude calculations to mistakenly spread the Canary Islands so widely over the ocean. The three intermediate islands in the chain may be the first cartographic representation of the Azores. Idrisia€™s description of other islands in the Atlantic appear to have more to do with fanciful legends than with reality. Some of these islands resemble the islands of Irish legend, and the Arabs may have incorporated parts of the Celtic tradition into their own legends. At the latitude of Tangier, in the Grand Sea, there are situated islands named a€?The Fortunate Islands.a€? These are spread in the sea, not far away from the west coast [of Africa], the Barbary Coast. Al-Idrisi presented the planisphere, a silver celestial sphere and the book to his patron in 1154, just a few weeks before Roger died at 58, probably of a heart attack; he went on to compose another geographical work for William I, Rogera€™s successor.
According to Arab sources, Idrisi composed yet another more detailed text and map in 1161 for Rogera€™s son William II. In 1160, however, Sicilian barons rose in rebellion against William and during the disorders looted the palace; in a great fire in the courtyard, they burned government records, books and documentsa€”including a new Latin edition of Rogera€™s Book which al-Idrisi had presented to William.
Since the barons had attacked the Muslims of Sicily with particular ferocitya€”killing, among many others, a famous poet named Yahya ibn al-Tifashia€”al-Idrisi fled to North Africa where, six years later, he died.
As he had brought the Arabic text with him, however, his great work lived on, winning widespread fame, serving as a model for Muslim geographers and historians for centuries and providing the great Muslim historian, Ibn Khaldun, with practically all his geographical knowledge. It is a curious thought that had Columbus been aware of the true distancea€”from al-Idrisia€™s estimatesa€”he might have hesitated to undertake his epoch-making voyage and might never have discovered that new world which came to light one morning on the far side of the Sea of Darkness. Idrisia€™s works are of exceptional quality when considered in comparison with other geographical writings of their period, partly by reason of their richness of detail, but mainly because of the afore mentioned a€?scientific methoda€™ that was employed, a procedure which was indeed unlike that adopted by most Latin scholars of that era. There is, however, a markedly retrograde character to certain portions of his work, such as East Africa and South Asia; despite his narrative of the Lisbon Wanderers (see above and Beazely, vol. In view of its modernity and high intrinsic worth, it is difficult to understand why Idrisia€™s work, composed as it was at the chronological and geographical point of contact between the Islamic and Christian civilizations, remained so long un-utilized by Christian scholars in Sicily, Italy, or other Christian countries, until we remember that the primary - we might even say the sole - interest of the Latin West in Arabic literature centered on the preparation of calendars, star tables and horoscopes, and, to some extent, the recovery of ancient lore. Al-Idrisia€™s map places Gog and Magog in northern China, behind a great wall with a tower and a door; at the wall is an inscription, translated as a€?belongs to the Kufaya mountain range which encloses Gog and Magoga€?. The first translation known of Idrisia€™s work was published in Rome only in 1619, and then in a very much shortened form (the translator did not even know the authora€™s name).
On the other hand, there is no question but that the Sicilo-Norman enthusiasm for geography exerted an indirect influence on the evolution of geographical knowledge, an influence that was to make itself felt more especially after the close of the Crusades period. Detail of the a€?The large Idrisi Mapa€? showing Europe and North Africa,a€? re-oriented with North at the top. Reproduction and re-orientation of a map of the world adapted from the Muqaddimah [Introduction] to Ibn Khalduna€™s monumental work, The History of the World, 1381; derived from the 1154 al-Idrisi map. With careful planning however, small businesses can offer plenty of rewards, internally as well as on a financial scale. Investing in expensive business planning software for instance will only end up wasting money, when planning can easily be done with spreadsheets that you have created yourself.
The reality is that without fellow investors it is best to start small and grow only when the time is right. It can be all too tempting for people who have some extra capital to invest to put their money into something that seems exciting and alluring, but if others are not willing to spend money on the product, it is a wasted effort. Get the best advice on how you can benefit from investment opportunities and other strategies to help you succeed in business. It will keep them busy as they write, draw, and color on the different pages..just adorable! Benefiting from improved printing techniques, botanical depiction in the latter half of the 18th century saw the marriage of beauty and scientific accuracy.
This period saw the publication of many botanical magazines modeled on the success of William Curtis's Botanical Magazine. The transfer of the artist's image to the printing plate was now achieved by mechanical processes, rather than the plate being worked on directly by the artist or craftsman.
The quality of the printmaking techniques used (now associated with fine art prints) and the quality of the papers will soon make apparent to the beginning collector the reason genuine antique prints (as opposed to modern reproductions) are sought after.
We do not find, in Europe, a steady advance from early illustrations of poor quality to later ones of a finer character. The Library of the University of Leyden possesses a particularly fine example', which is ascribed to the seventh century A.D. From this epoch onwards, the history of botanical illustration is intimately bound up with the history of wood-engraving, until, at the extreme end of the sixteenth century, engraving on metal first came into use to illustrate herbals. One of these may perhaps be regarded as representing the last, decadent expression of that school of late classical art which, a thousand years earlier, had given rise to the drawings in the Vienna manuscript. 1484) as typical examples, has, as Dr Payne has pointed out, certain very well-marked characteristics. Those here reproduced are taken from a copy in the British Museum, in which the pictures were coloured, probably at the time when the book was published. In cases where uncoloured copies of such books exist, there are often blank spaces in the wood-cuts, which were left in order that certain details might afterwards be added in colour. Figures of the animals whose bites or stings were supposed to be cured by the use of a particular herb, were often introduced into the drawing, as in the case of the Plantain (Text-fig. This came about naturally because the root was often of special value from the druggist's point of view. These include the illustrations to the ` Book of Nature,' and to the Latin and German Herbarius,' the ` Ortus Sanitatis,' and their derivatives, which were discussed in Chapters II and III. It was first printed in Augsburg in 1475, and is thus several years older than the earliest printed edition of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius Platonicus which we have just discussed. 57) there is an attempt to represent the tuberous roots, which are indicated in solid black. As we pointed out in Chapter II, its illustrations, which are executed on a large scale, are often of remarkable beauty. The figures, which are roughly copied from those of the original edition, are very inferior to them. They have, however, a very different appearance, since a great deal of shading is introduced, and in some cases parallel lines are laid in with considerable dexterity. The oft-repeated set of wood-cuts, ultimately derived from the ` Herbarius zu Teutsch,' were also used to illustrate Hieronymus Braunschweig's Distillation Book (Liber de arte distillandi de Simplicibus, 1500). On taking a broader view of the subject, we find that, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, there was a marked advance in all the branches of book illustration, and not merely in the botanical side with which we are here concerned. Some of the most remarkable are those by Albrecht Durer, which were produced before the appearance of Brunfels' herbal, during the first thirty years of the sixteenth century. In his work, the artistic interest predominates over the botanical to a greater extent than is the case with D Durer's drawings. The art of naturalistic plant drawing had arrived independently at what was perhaps its high-water mark of excellence, but it is in Brunfels' great work that we find it, for the first time, applied to the illustration of a botanical book. This characteristic is best appreciated on comparing Brunfels' figures with those of his predecessors.
Many of Brunfels' wood-cuts were done from imperfect specimens, in which, for example, the leaves had withered or had been damaged by insects. A careful examination of these wood-engravings leads, how-ever, to the conclusion that practically all the chief figures in Egenolph's book have been copied from those of Brunfels, but on a smaller scale, and reversed.
It is true that, at a later period, when the botanical importance of the detailed structure of the flower and fruit was recognised, figures were produced which conveyed exacter and more copious information on these points than did those of Fuchs. 87) which fills the rectangular space almost in the manner of an all-over wall-paper pattern. The falsity of this view is shown by the fact that the greatest of flower painters have generally been men who also did admirable figure work. Furthermore we have purposely and deliberately avoided the obliteration of the natural form of the plants by shadows, and other less necessary things, by which the delineators sometimes try to win artistic glory : and we have not allowed the craftsmen so to indulge their whims as to cause the drawing not to correspond accurately to the truth. The crowns of the trees are often made practically square so as to fit the block (Text-fig. In the original edition of Dodoens' herbal (` Cruydeboeck,' published by Vanderloe in 1554), more than half the illustrations were taken from Fuchs' octavo edition of 1545. Many of these figures were taken from the herbals of Fuchs, Mattioli and Dodoens, but they were often embellished with representations of insects, and detached leaves and flowers, scattered over the block with no apparent object except to fill the space. In this book there are some graceful wood-cuts of trees, one of which is reproduced in Text-fig. Some curious examples of the former, which will be discussed at greater length in the next chapter, are shown in Text-figs.
We might almost say that there were only five collections of wood-cuts of plants of really first-rate importance—those, namely, of Brunfels, Fuchs, Mattioli, and Plantin, with those of Gesner and Camerarius, all of which were published in the sixty years between 1530 and 1590.
The earliest botanical work, in which copper-plate etchings were used as illustrations, is said to be Fabio Colonna's ` Phytobasanos' of 1592.


The majority of these were published late in the century, and thus scarcely come within our purview. The artist is particularly successful with the bulbous and tuberous plants, the cultivation of which has long been such a specialty of Holland. The book is divided into four parts, appropriate to the four seasons, and each part is preceded by an encouraging verse intended to keep alive the owner's enthusiasm for his task.
We may, however, for the sake of completeness, mention two or three examples in order to show the kind of work that was then being done. In the latter the lines are raised, and the method of printing is thus exactly the same as in the case of type, while in the former the process is reversed and the lines are incised. This period saw the publication of many botanical magazines modeled on the success of William Curtis’s Botanical Magazine. The transfer of the artist’s image to the printing plate was now achieved by mechanical processes, rather than the plate being worked on directly by the artist or craftsman.
This came about naturally because the root was often of special value from the druggist’s point of view. It was first printed in Augsburg in 1475, and is thus several years older than the earliest printed edition of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius Platonicus which we have just discussed. Some of the most remarkable are those by Albrecht Durer, which were produced before the appearance of Brunfels’ herbal, during the first thirty years of the sixteenth century. In his work, the artistic interest predominates over the botanical to a greater extent than is the case with D Durer’s drawings. The art of naturalistic plant drawing had arrived independently at what was perhaps its high-water mark of excellence, but it is in Brunfels’ great work that we find it, for the first time, applied to the illustration of a botanical book. This characteristic is best appreciated on comparing Brunfels’ figures with those of his predecessors.
Many of Brunfels’ wood-cuts were done from imperfect specimens, in which, for example, the leaves had withered or had been damaged by insects. A careful examination of these wood-engravings leads, how-ever, to the conclusion that practically all the chief figures in Egenolph’s book have been copied from those of Brunfels, but on a smaller scale, and reversed. 87) which fills the rectangular space almost in the manner of an all-over ” wall-paper pattern. Born in 850 CE in Shamistiyan, in the province of Balkh, Khorasan (in modern day Afghanistan), he was a disciple of al-Kindi.
Many copies of these works survive; the earliest surviving manuscript being a version by Ibn Hawqal dated 1086. AI-Istakhri and Ibn Hawqal show no interest in projection, scale, or mathematical geography and do not mention latitudes and longitudes at all. He also includes a section on astronomical geography and geodesy including a note on the Greek system of climates. Although contemporaries like al-Masa€™udi (#212) continued to show a broad interest in the world including China, the Balkhi School of geographers focused their agenda on the task of giving a full and detailed account of the Islamic regions, which they believed were most important and about which they received reliable information. Breaking from the tradition that simply arrayed place-names according to the longitudinal and latitudinal coordinates, Balkhi School cartographers created the first maps to portray physical features such as mountains and rivers, a feature that would influence later maps. As a member of the Balkhi School who concerned himself more with the Islamic lands than the wider world, al-Muqaddasi did not include China in his detailed regional maps.
The world maps of the Balkhi school, as noted by the historian of Islamic cartography Gerald Tibbetts, are a€?an arm-chair attempt to see all the provinces set down relative to each othera€?. This was the most obvious way of depicting the globe on the flat surface of a map, given that the other hemisphere was nothing but water.
Therefore the a€?Balkhi Schoola€? refers to a group of four authors who recognize the fact that their geographic work is interlinked. His re-election made him the first Democrat since FDR to serve a full second term, and he left office with the highest approval rating of any president in the second half of the 20th century. A former assistant secretary of labor under Kennedy and Johnson and director of the Harvard–MIT Joint Center for Urban Studies, Moynihan was chosen, in part, because of his academic background in social policy.
They have violated their churches, destroyed their homes, corrupted their children, and murdered their loved ones. Truman, President of the United States of America, do hereby appoint Sunday, May 13, 1945, to be a day of prayer. It was during this final engagement that Hitler committed suicide in his Berlin bunker on April 30, and the war officially ended with Germany’s unconditional surrender effective May 8.
A suspicious hangar fire that destroyed the planes led to a warrant for his arrest and between 1932 and 1942, Levine served time in prison for charges ranging from smuggling, counterfeiting, arson and violation of workman’s compensation laws. A Civil War veteran, Bierce settled in San Francisco, where his satirical and scathing observations soon appeared in several newspapers, including William Randolph Hearst’s influential San Francisco Examiner.
Four years later, the pair traveled together, visiting some battlefields and their mutual friend Howes, the letter’s recipient, in his native Galveston. The 1878-1879 yellow fever epidemic ruined his business, claiming his life and that of his wife and one of their 11 children, the remainder of whom received support from Texas Brigade Association until they were settled into several different adoptive homes.
He recruited many New York regiments including the Army of the Potomac’s Excelsior Brigade, but his insubordination at the Battle of Gettysburg and the loss of his leg ended his military career. In 1852, against the objections of both their families, he married the teenage Teresa Bagioli (granddaughter of Lorenzo da Ponte, Mozart’s librettist), who was half his age. He was a noted bibliophile and, despite the scandals associated with his name, Sickles served as minister to Spain from 1869-1874. His natural oratorical skills made him famous and the publication of his 1845 autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave and My Bondage and My Freedom, published in 1855 added to his notoriety. Arguably the most famous African-American during the Civil War, Douglass advised Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson on racial issues. His national prominence led him to be considered as a vice president and presidential candidate; Douglass served in several diplomatic positions. He applied the technology behind one of his mechanical sowers, and developed the prototype of the Gatling machine gun in 1861, which he patented the following year.
He became a prominent jurist in Massachusetts and was appointed to the Supreme Court by Theodore Roosevelt in 1902.
In her later years she was a conservation advocate and held several diplomatic appointments.
He visited his father during several campaigns during the conflict and, in 1866, entered West Point Military Academy, graduating in 1871. Bankers check bears a two-cent revenue stamp, several blue ink bank stamps and two perforated bank cancellations. After graduating from West Point, he served under Winfield Scott in the Mexican American War and fought in the Utah War against the Mormons.
He saw action at the First Battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Rappahannock Station, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, the Battle of the Wilderness, and was wounded twice. Kennedy (1917-1963), and as attorney general from January 21, 1961 until his resignation on September 3, 1964.
Plans for the JFK Library had just begun when the president was assassinated, prompting individuals from around the world to support the library’s construction. However, on June 28, 1862, the house was torched by a Union soldier prompting Confederate General J. Polk and brigadier general of the Tennessee Militia, Pillow rose to the rank of major general during the Mexican-American War but came into conflict with General Winfield Scott after he refused to revise an exaggerated report of his role in the Battles of Contreras and Churubusco and sent an anonymous letter to a New Orleans newspaper claiming responsibility for the victory. Two years later, he sailed on another expedition in an attempt to be the first to reach the North Pole. In 1852, against the objections of both their families, he married the teenage Teresa Bagioli of Brooklyn (granddaughter of Lorenzo da Ponte, Mozart’s librettist), who was half his age.
If the new book of speeches proves to be too lengthy I would certainly agree to reasonable cuts being made to the text. From 1945, when the Labor party regained power, until 1951, when a Conservative victory again made him prime minister, Churchill continued to write and champion the cause of British security and world peace. On several occasions the elder Churchill declined a peerage on the grounds that it might jeopardize his son’s political career, which ended, nevertheless, in 1945. Volunteer Cavalry which he organized with Leonard Wood, who became commander of the 1st U.S.
The Americans were unsuccessful in their first two attempts to clear the port of Spanish ships and blockade runners. Widely regarded as Roosevelt’s political heir, Wood campaigned for the presidency in 1920, but lost to Warren G. Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, he taught philosophy at West Point and military tactics at Yale. Leaves of Grass was published in numerous editions beginning in 1855 and drew much criticism and admiration. Enjoying wide bipartisan support, he was re-elected twice, and, in 1948, ran for vice-president on the Republican ticket with Thomas E.
With this basis the Muslims combined the accumulated knowledge gained through exploration and travel. As his visitor entered the hall, the king rose, took his hand and led him across the carpeted marble to a place of honor beside the throne. Born in Ceuta, Morocco, across the strait from Spain, al-Idrisi was then in his late 30a€™s.
Roger II, son of a Norman-French soldier of fortune who had conquered Sicily at the beginning of the 12th century, was an anomaly among Christian monarchs of his time. Captured by the Arabs in 831, the island had remained in Muslim control until the end of the 11th century.
Four years later, he passed the territory on to his son, Roger, who in 1130 was crowned king as Roger II. His energy was a legenda€”one commentator remarked that Roger accomplished more asleep than other sovereigns did awakea€”and his court boasted a collection of philosophers, mathematicians, doctors, geographers and poets who had no superior in Europea€”and in whose company he spent much of his time. Christian Europea€™s approach to map-making was still symbolic and fanciful, based on tradition and myth rather than scientific investigation, and used to illustrate books of pilgrimage, Biblical exegesis and other works. He wanted to know the precise conditions of every area under his rule, and of the world outsidea€”its boundaries, climate, roads, the rivers that watered its lands, and the seas that bathed its coasts. Sicilya€™s busy and cosmopolitan ports provided an ideal place for such an inquiry, and for years hardly a ship docked at Palermo, Messina, Catania or Syracuse without its crew and passengers being interrogated about the places they had visited. This process of collecting and assessing material took 15 years, during which, according to al-Idrisi, hardly a day passed when the king did not confer personally with the geographers, studying accounts that disagreed, examining astronomical coordinates, tables and itineraries, poring over books and weighing divergent opinions. First, under al-Idrisia€™s direction, a working copy was produced on a drawing board, with places sited on the map with compasses, following the tables that had already been prepared. Although Ptolemy had discussed several kinds of projection (Book I, #119), the problem of flattening out the surface of a sphere so that it could be represented on a flat map would not be solved until the 16th and 17th centuriesa€”the Age of Explorationa€”and none too satisfactorily even then. Zach states in 1806 that a€?the oldest terrestrial globe that is known was made for King Roger II of Sicily in the 12th century, and is especially remarkable for the value of the metal which was used in its construction, this being 400 pounds of silver. Below the Equator, an unexplored southern temperate zone was thought to be separated from the familiar northern one by an impassable area of deadly heat. Two are in the BibliothA?que Nationale de France, including the oldest, dated to about 1300 (MS Arabe 2221).
From this reconstruction it is evident that, like Ptolemy, al-Idrisi pictured the habitable world as occupying 180 of the 360 degrees of the worlda€™s longitude, from the Atlantic in the West to China in the East, and 64 degrees of its latitude, from the Arctic Ocean to the Equator.
Contrasted with the quaint and picturesque, but almost totally uninformative maps of the Christian scholars, the features of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East are easily recognizable in al-Idrisia€™s representationa€”Britain, Ireland, Spain, Italy, the Red Sea and the Nile.
He had no doubt met travelers and merchants from Scandinavia at the court of King Roger and received important information from them, but we know that the Arabs too had connections with the Baltic peoples and also those in Russia at that time.
In Russia, winter daylight periods were so short that there was hardly time for Muslim travelers to perform all five obligatory daily prayers.
Paris (Abariz) earned a condescending reference as a town of mediocre size, surrounded by vineyards and forests, situated on an island in the Seine, which surrounds it on all sides; however, it is extremely agreeable, strong, and susceptible of defense. The Strait of Gibraltar, according to Rogera€™s Book, did not exist when Alexander the Greata€”as medieval legend had ita€”invaded Spain. Discovered by Hanno in the fifth century BC, they were explored and colonized in 25 BC by Juba II, erudite king of Mauretania and husband of Cleopatra Selene, daughter of Antony and Cleopatra. Some sources speak of these islands as if they were legendary, telling us for example that on each of the six islands - there are in fact seven - there was a bronze statue, like the one in CA?diz, warning voyagers to turn back. The mugharrirun were so famous for their exploit that a street in Lisbon was named after them.
A street in Lisbon, near the hot springs, is still known as a€?The Street of the Intrepid Explorersa€?; it is named after them. It is hard to escape the impression that we owe the preservation of this account largely to the folk etymology in the last line.
The Azores are named after a kind of goshawk - in Portuguese, aA§or - prevalent there at the time of discovery. The inhabitants threw stones at the travelers and hurt several of Alexandera€™s companions. A small fresh-water river runs down from the foot of the mountain, where the inhabitants live. Al-Mustashkin is probably a corruption of al-mushtakin, meaning a€?the complainersa€? - appropriate enough for a population in thrall to a dragon. The Two Brothers could be the two small islands off Lanzarote in the Canaries, Alegranza and Graciosa, or indeed, any two prominent rocks off their coasts.
This unnamed island, together with Masfahan, Laghus, The Two Brothers and possibly Sawa, are almost certainly islands in the Canary group. After describing the Canary Islands, Idrisi refers to an island in the Western Sea named Raqa, which is the Isle of the Birds, Djaziratoa€™t-Toyour. Distinct from the Canary Islands were the Isle of Female Devils, the Isle of Illusion, the Island of Two Sorcerers, and the Isle of Lamentation [Gazirat al-Mustashkin], which was inhabited and fertile, with tilled fields, but controlled by a terrible dragon.
An exchange of ideas and reciprocal influences between the two cultures certainly took place. This work is said to have been even more extensive than his earlier one, but only a few extracts have survived. At the same time, the silver planisphere and celestial sphere disappeared, apparently cut up and melted down.
Although the Arabic text of Rogera€™s Book was published in Rome by the Medici press in 1592, it was not again available to Europeans in Latin until the 17th century. Certainly the influence of Idrisia€™s Geography could not have been great in the world of letters or else traces of it would more easily be detected in Western literature.
An explicit reference to Dul-Karnaia€™in (an Arabic name for Alexander, among others) by the gate, leaves no doubt as to Idrisia€™s source.
Displays a Ptolemaic construction with an arrangement of horizontal divisions into seven parallel climate zones, originally oriented with South at the top. As an excellent example, Billionaire Bill Bartmann made his fortune from buying bad debt during the Government Bailout of the 1980s.
You will have plenty of time to upsize once your business has begun to turn a profit, but starting small will allow you to grow your capital rather than put it into staffing or other areas that are not essential at the start. Consider investing in products or services that will require minimal advertising, not many employees to start with and simple operations.
Both black-and-white and color reproduction reached a standard that has never since been surpassed, largely owing to the skills developed by artists, engravers and printers, in response to the demands of the botanists.
While allowing for great accuracy, the aesthetic appeal of the manual printmaking processes (woodcut, wood-engraving, intaglio engraving, and lithography) is lacking in these process prints. On the contrary, among the earliest extant drawings, of a definitely botanical intention, we meet with wonderfully good figures, free from such features as would be now generally regarded as archaic. During the seventeenth century, metal-engravings and wood-cuts existed side by side, but wood-engraving gradually declined, and was in great measure superseded by engraving on metal. Probably no original wood-cuts of this school were produced after the close of the fifteenth century. The origin of wood-engraving is closely connected with the early history of playing-card manufacture. It is to be regretted that, in modern botanical drawings, the recognition of the paramount importance of the flower and fruit in classification has led to a comparative neglect of the organs of vegetation, especially those which exist underground. The single plant drawing, which illustrates it, is probably not of such great antiquity, however, as those of the ` Her-barium,' for its appearance suggests that it was probably executed from nature for this book, and not copied and recopied from one manuscript to another before it was engraved. The figures are much better than those of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius, but at the same time they are, as a rule, formal and conventional, and often quite unrecognisable.
Dr Payne considered some of them comparable to those of Brunfels in fidelity of drawing, though very inferior in wood-cutting. That the conventional figures of the period did not satisfy the botanist is shown by some interesting remarks by Hieronymus at the conclusion of his work.
But, in 1530, an entirely new era was inaugurated with the appearance of Brunfels' great work, the ` Herbarum viv? eicones,' in which a number of plants native to Germany, or commonly cultivated there, were drawn with a beauty and fidelity which have rarely been surpassed (Text-figs.
This impetus seems to have been due to the fact that many of the best artists, above all Albrecht Durer, began at that period to draw for wood-engraving, whereas in the fifteenth century the ablest men had shown a tendency to despise the craft and to hold aloof from it. In each of his coloured drawings of sods of turf, known as das grosse Rasenstuck, and das kleine Rasenstuck, a tangled group of growing plants is portrayed exactly as it occurred in nature, with a marvellous combination of artistic charm and scientific accuracy. It is strange to think that numerous editions of the ' Ortus Sanitatis' and similar books, with their crude and primitive wood-cuts, should have been published while such an artist as Leonardo da Vinci was at the zenith of his powers. It is true that the style of engraving is different, and that, as Hatton has pointed out, Egenolph's flowing, easy, almost brush-like line is very distinct from that of Weiditz. Nevertheless, at least in the opinion of the present writer, the illustrations to Fuchs' herbals (` De historia stirpium,' 1542, and ` New Kreziterbuch,' 1543) represent the high-water mark of that type of botanical drawing which seeks to express the . 30, 31, 32, 58, 69, 70, 86, 87, 88) do not give an entirely just idea of their beauty, since the line employed in the original is so thin that it is ill-adapted to the reduction necessary here. It must not be forgotten, when discussing wood-cuts, that the artist, who drew upon the block for the engraver, was working under peculiar conditions. 30) is realised in a way that brings home to us the intrinsic beauty of this somewhat prosaic subject. He employed two draughtsmen, Heinrich Fullmaurer, who drew the plants from nature, and Albrecht Meyer, who copied the drawings on to the wood, and also an engraver, Veit Rudolf Speckle, who actually cut the blocks.
Fantin-Latour is a striking modern instance, and one has but to glance at the studies of Leonardo da Vinci (e.g. Vitus Rudolphus Specklin, by far the best engraver of Strasburg, has admirably copied the wonderful industry of the draughtsmen, and has with such excellent craft expressed in his engraving the features of each drawing, that he seems to have contended with the draughtsman for glory and victory. 55, Hieronymus Bock [or Tragus] undoubtedly made use of them in the second edition of his `Kreuter Buch' (1546) which was the next important, illustrated botanical work to appear after Fuchs' herbal.
Details such as the veins and hairs of the leaves are often elaborately worked out, while shading is much used, a considerable mastery of parallel lines being shown.
Daydon Jackson has pointed out that the wood-cut of the Clematis, which first appeared in Dodoens' ` Pemptades' of 1583, reappears, either in identical form, or more or less accurately copied, in works by de l'Obel, de l'Ecluse, Gerard, Parkinson, Jean Bauhin, Chabr?us and Petiver. 92, Gesner's drawings were not published during his lifetime, but some of them were eventually produced by Camerarius, with the addition of figures of his own, to illustrate his ` Epitome Matthioli' of 1586 (Text-figs.
109 and i 1o, and the Glasswort, one of the best wood-cuts among the latter, is reproduced in Text-fig. They are poor in quality, and the innovation of representing a number of species in one large wood-cut is not very successful.
In the majority of such cases, the source of the figures has already been indicated in Chapter IV. The wood-blocks of the two botanists last mentioned cannot be considered apart from one another ; from the scientific point of view they show a marked advance, in the introduction of enlarged sketches of the flowers and fruit, in addition to the habit drawings.
Plate X I X is a characteristic example, but only part of the original picture is here re-produced.
The stanza at the beginning of the last section seems to show some anxiety on the part of the author, lest the reader should have begun to weary over the lengthy occupation of colouring the plates.
Paolo Boccone's Icones et Descriptiones' of 1674 was illustrated with copper-plates, some of which were remarkably subtle and delicate, while others were rather carelessly executed. As a result, there is a harmony about a book illustrated with wood-cuts which cannot, in the nature of things, be attained, when such different processes as printing from raised type, and from incised metal, are brought together in the same volume. The single plant drawing, which illustrates it, is probably not of such great antiquity, however, as those of the ` Her-barium,’ for its appearance suggests that it was probably executed from nature for this book, and not copied and recopied from one manuscript to another before it was engraved. The figures are much better than those of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius, but at the same time they are, as a rule, formal and conventional, and often quite unrecognisable.
8o), for instance, is lamentably inferior to that in the `Herbarius zu Teutsch’ (Text-fig. It is true that the style of engraving is different, and that, as Hatton has pointed out, Egenolph’s flowing, easy, almost brush-like line is very distinct from that of Weiditz. Each map is given a page or so of textual description, and each of these descriptions is planned in such a way that lists of routes, towns, mountains, rivers, etc., are given for each province. Both Ibn Hawqal and al-Muqaddasi are more up-to-date and are more at home in Europe and North Africa, having a preference for the western pan of the Empire rather than the Persian speaking areas.
For the first time, they employed geographic boundaries to differentiate one country from another. Although the Balkhi scholars did not write about the non-Islamic world extensively, their works suggest a basic interest in the world and understanding of it. The map is oriented along a northa€”south axis, and the south placed at the top in accord with the convention of Muslim geographers. Because the lost map was drawn based on new methods of astronomical measuring and mathematical calculations that were based on the Ptolemaic geographic tradition, it probably focused on presenting places in their accurate longitudinal and latitudinal positions. Although they did not draw their maps from firsthand observation, these geographers reported that they consulted travelers, sailors, and sea captains about the geographic features of distant regions and seas that they plotted and described. I also noticed navigation instructions in their possession, which they study together carefully and on which they rely completely, proceeding according to what is in them. However, he does give the Sea of China, which earlier writers identified as the seventh sea to the east, a prominent role in his portrait of the Indian Ocean.
For this reason, the surviving world maps of al-Istakhri and Ibn Hawqal carry labels designating the Islamic provinces, which are then illustrated in detail in the accompanying regional maps.
The world maps of the Balkhi School are shaped as circles, and so are practically all the non-plotted world maps in the later Islamic tradition.
Our Armies of Liberation have restored freedom to these suffering peoples, whose spirit and will the oppressors could never enslave.
Millionaire scrap dealer who was the first recorded airplane passenger on a transatlantic flight. American satirist, journalist and short-story writer whose literary legacy is somewhat overshadowed by the mysterious circumstances of his demise. During the next several decades, while working for Hearst, Bierce became one of the leading journalists of his time. He had read hungrily, enjoying chiefly those magical draughts of prose which linger in the mind: Bacon, Sir Thomas Browne, Pater, Thoreau, Conrad. Bierce met Christiansen in California and she became a close friend of the entire Bierce family. In the subsequent Congressional hearings on the battle, he defended his actions while disparaging those of Major General George G. While she was pregnant, he openly consorted with a prominent New York prostitute named Fanny White, presented her to Queen Victoria while impersonating a political rival and brought her into the New York State Assembly chambers, for which he was censured. African-American slave who became an influential abolitionist, reformer and one of the greatest orators of all time.
Douglas lecture tours throughout the United States increased the risk of recapture and so, on the advice of his friends, he spent two years in Ireland and Great Britain speaking out on the subject of abolition before he was able to buy his freedom with the passionate assistance of his supporters. It saw limited use during the American Civil War, having first been used in battle by Benjamin Butler’s troops during the siege of Petersburg, Virginia. American officer, explorer, and politician; Union Major general in the Civil War, he ran unsuccessfully against James Buchanan as the first Republican candidate for president of the United States in 1856.
American Civil War veteran and Supreme Court justice; son of the author Oliver Wendell Holmes.
She spoke out for birth control, women’s rights and educational reform and blasted sweat shops and those who abused child labor in the work place.
His skill in the area of artillery led to him co-authoring Instructions for Field Artillery, published in 1861 and much referred to by the Union Army. Daggett rose through the ranks attaining the rank of brigadier general of volunteers in 1865, and received purple hearts in both the Indian and Spanish-American Wars. Our letter discusses a gift of Civil War Commemorative Medals which were likely struck on the occasion of the American Civil War Centennial. In June 1864, Stanton established Arlington National Cemetery on its grounds, on which prominent Union officers had already been interned on choice plots of land and a mass grave and monument erected for unknown soldiers.
Influential Southern politician, Mexican-American War veteran and controversial Confederate brigadier general. Grant in 1862, including passing command to his subordinate and escaping just before the fort’s fall, resulted in his suspension by Jefferson Davis, casting a distinct shadow on his Civil War career. American admiral and explorer; widely recognized as the first person to reach the North Pole.
In the subsequent Congressional hearings on the battle he defended his actions while disparaging those of Major General George G. While she was pregnant, he openly consorted with a well-known New York prostitute named Fanny White, presented her to Queen Victoria while he impersonated a political rival and brought her into the New York State Assembly chambers, for which he was censured. However, he later acknowledged that his real birthdate was three years later, making him just 14 years old when he became the drummer boy for Company C of the 1st Minnesota Heavy Artillery Regiment. American army officer; military governor of Cuba and governor general of the Philippine Islands.
However, a third bombardment by American gunboats on July 18, 1898, the third largest naval engagement of the war, resulted in a Spanish defeat.
Almost at once the two men began to discuss the project for which the scholar had been asked to come from North Africa: the creation of the first accuratea€”and scientifica€”map of the entire known world. After studying in Cordoba, in Muslim Spain, he had spent some years in travel, covering the length of the Mediterranean, from Lisbon to Damascus. His co-religionists, commenting on his oriental life-style, complete with harem and eunuchs, disparagingly referred to him as the a€?half-heathen kinga€? and a€?the baptized Sultan of Sicily.a€? Educated by Greek and Arab tutors, he was an intellectual with a taste for scientific inquiry, and relished the company of Muslim scholars, of whom al-Idrisi was one of the most celebrated.
Like Muslim Spain, it was a beacon of prosperity to a Europe caught in the economic slow-down we call the Dark Ages.
In mathematics, as in the political sphere, al-Idrisi wrote of his patron, the extent of his learning cannot be described.
Picturesque and colorful, European maps showed a circular earth composed of three continents equal in sizea€”Asia, Africa and Europea€”separated by narrow bands of water. While medieval Europe had become fragmented and parochial, both politically and commercially, the Muslim world was unified by a flourishing long-distance commerce as well as by religion and culture. The commissiona€™s agents haunted the ports, and if they discovered a traveler who had visited any particularly exotic region, he was conducted to the palace at Palermo to be questioned by al-Idrisi or even by Roger. Then a great disk almost 80 inches in diameter and weighing over 300 pounds was fabricated out of silver, chosen for its malleability and permanence. The great geographer Gerardus Mercator commented, If you wish to sail from one port to another, here is a chart . A knowledge of this globe would not have come down to our day had not Idrisi, a famous geographer of that time, given an especial description of the same, under the title Nothatol mostak [Pleasure of the Soul].a€? According to other scholars it is more probable that the reference here is to a circular disc or planisphere made by Idrisi, or an armillary sphere, but not to a terrestrial globe. Following the rough sketch prepared by al-Idrisi, the silversmiths transferred the outlines of countries, oceans, rivers, gulfs, peninsulas and islands to the planisphere. The planisphere showed the sources of the Nilea€”not explored by Europeans until the 19th century, but evidently known to 12th century Muslim travelersa€”and the cities of central Sudan. Al-Idrisi described the lost city of Ghana (near Timbuktu, on the Niger) as the most considerable, the most densely peopled, and the largest trading center of the Negro countries. Few cities are comparable in the solidity and height of buildings, the beauty of the surrounding country, and the fertility of the lands watered by the Tagus.
The Norwegians had to harvest their grain when it was still green and dry it at their hearths since the sun shines very rarely upon them. Because the inhabitants of Africa and Europe waged continual warfare, Alexander decided to separate them by a canal, which he cut between Tangier and al-Andalus (southern Spain). A passionate art collector, Juba was also interested in science and technology, inventing a new method of making purple dye from the orchil plant - and the export of orchil from the Atlantic islands was of economic importance until early this century.
But al-Idrisi tells of an attempted expedition to the Canaries in the late 12th century, during the reign of the Almoravid amir Yusuf ibn Tashafin.
This is probably Tenerife, and the round mountain would be the 3,600-meter-high (12,000-foot) volcano called Pico de Teide.
Eighty men, all ordinary people, got together and built a large ship and stocked it with enough food and water for several months.
The sheep are a problem, for the Azores were uninhabited when settled in the 15th century, and even if we slightly stretch the meaning of the word ghanam, which can also mean a€?goats,a€? we are still left with the problem of the origin of the creatures. There are many rivers and pools, and thickets where donkeys and long-horned cattle take refuge.
There used to be a dragon in the area, and the people were forced to feed it with bulls, donkeys or even humans, according to the legend; when Alexander arrived, the people complained to him of the dragona€™s depredations.
Al-Sa€™ali is a word that refers to a kind of female demon or vampire; judging by al-Idrisia€™s description of the female inhabitants of the island, it is apt. This story of Alexander and the dragon echoes the Eleventh Labor of Hercules, the Golden Apples of the Hesperides, guarded by the dragon Ladon. It could be argued that the first six islands, spread over three entire climate zones between the equator and the Strait of Gibraltar, represent the six known Canary Islands, forced into this north-south alignment by the physical constraints of the circular map with its narrow band of the Surrounding Ocean. The first two islands are the Canary Islands, properly shown in the first climate zone and carried forward from Ptolemya€™s map as the Fortunate Islands or Islands of the Blest.
This story may be a borrowing from Greek mythology, where a dragon guarded the golden apples of the Hesperides. In the 1400a€™s, therefore, Christopher Columbus had to rely on other sources of information. Unlike a multitude of Arabic writings of far less intrinsic value, the Rogerian Description found no Gerard of Cremona (translator of Ptolemy into Latin) to put it into Latin, and the authoritative geographical knowledge of the Western world was destined to develop unenriched by the treasures which Roger and Idrisi together had amassed. Gog and Magog appeared on Arabian maps as Yajoj wa Majoj from the 10th century; they appear on Al-Idrisia€™s map of 1154 under the same names. The climate numbers are given along the vertical axis, and the ten longitudinal divisions are given across the top. The text was accompanied by 71 part maps, a world map and 70 sectional itinerary maps, representing the seven climates each divided longitudinally into 10 sections.
Bartmann managed to succeed yet again decades later when the same bailout situation presented further opportunity to profit from the huge level of bad debts at banks across the United States. The development of lithography in the early 1800s allowed many botanical artists to produce their own plates, which played no small role in this artistic burgeoning.
With every print in a collection there is the pleasure of establishing the name and origin of the plant, the artist and printmaker, the type of printing technique and the purpose of the publication. The finest period of plant illustration was during the sixteenth century, when wood-engraving was at its zenith. In the second phase, on the other hand, which culminated, artistically, if not scientifically, in the sixteenth century, we find a renaissance of the art, due to a more direct study of nature.
Playing-cards were at first coloured by means of stencil plates, and the same method, very naturally, came to be employed in connection with the wood-blocks used for book illustration. Brown appears to have been used for the animals, roots and flowers, and green for the leaves. In this figure the cross-hatching of white lines on black—the simplest possible device from the point of view of the wood-engraveris employed with good effect. The illustration in question is a full-page wood-cut, showing a number of plants, growing in situ (Plate III).
65) is remarkable for its rhizome, on which the scars of the leaf bases are faithfully represented.
They are distinctly more realistic than even those of the Venetian edition of the Latin ` Herbarius,' to which we have just referred. He tells the reader that he must attend to the text rather than the figures, for the figures are nothing more than a feast for the eyes, and for the information of those who cannot read or write.
If internal evidence alone were available, it might plausibly be maintained that the engravings in the ' Ortus Sanitatis' and the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci were centuries apart. 66), for example, contrasts notably with that of the same subject from the Venetian ` Herbarius' (Text-fig.
Regarded from the point of view of decorative book illustration, the beautiful drawings of the period under consideration sometimes failed to reach the standard set by earlier work.
If the drawings have any fault, it is perhaps to be found in the somewhat blank and unfinished look, occasionally produced when unshaded outline drawings are used on so large a scale. It was impossible for him to be unmindful of the boundaries of the block, when these took the form, as it were, of miniature precipices under his hand.
Fuchs evidently delighted to honour his colleagues, for at the end of the book there are portraits of all three at work (Text-fig. An examination of the wood-cuts in Bock's herbal seems, however, to show that his illustrations have more claim to originality than is often supposed. The figures in earlier works, such as the ` Ortus Sanitatis,' are recalled in Kandel's dis-regard of the proportion between the size of the tree, and that of the leaves and fruits. 41, 42, 93, 94), but in some later editions, notably that which appeared at Venice in 1565, there are large illustrations which are reproduced on a reduced scale in Text-figs. After this, Plantin took over the publication of Dodoens' books, and in his final collected works (` Stirpium historie pemptades sex,' 1583) the majority of the illustrations were original, and were carried out under the author's eye (Text-figs. The actual blocks themselves appear to have been used for the last time when Johnson's edition of Gerard's herbal made its final appearance in London in 1636. Treviranus pointed out that one of their great merits lay in the selection of good, typical specimens as models. 51, appears also in the illustrations of a book on Simples, by Joannes Mesua, published in Venice in 1581.
Plantin's set included those blocks which were engraved for the herbals of de I'Obel, de l'Ecluse, and the later works of Dodoens. In 1611 Paul Renaulme's 'Specimen Historia Plantarum' was published in Paris, but though this work was illustrated with good copper-plates, the effect was somewhat spoilt by the transparency of the paper. The soil on which the plants grow is often shown, and the horizon is placed very low, so that they stand up against the sky. Among slightly later works, we may refer to a quaint little Dutch herbal by Stephen Blankaart, and to the ' Paradisus Batavus' of Paul Hermann, both of which belong to the last decade of the century. As showing the complete revolution in the style of plant illustration in two hundred years, it is interesting to compare this drawing with that of the same subject in the German 'Herbarius' of 1485 (Text-fig. They are distinctly more realistic than even those of the Venetian edition of the Latin ` Herbarius,’ to which we have just referred. 66), for example, contrasts notably with that of the same subject from the Venetian ` Herbarius’ (Text-fig. Yet, copies of al-lstakhria€™s book were still being produced as recently as the middle of the 19th century AD. Thus they bear a certain resemblance to the work of Ibn Khurdadhhili, although the lattera€™s work was not accompanied by maps nor did he limit himself only to the Dar al-Islam. A world map derived from this school appears regularly in the works of Ibn al-Wardi (#214.1) and often in texts of al-Qazwinia€™s (#222) cosmography showing how popular these maps were in the Muslim world.
They mapped the entire known world, including China, before they composed regional geographic treatises and maps comparing different parts of the Islamic world. Behind this [country called] Wakwak are people whom no one except God counts [as one of his creatures].
Africa occupies much of the Southern Hemisphere, and the continent stretches eastward into the band of oceans that Islamic geographers thought encircled the world, with the southern part of the continent being terra incognita. In addition, it most likely incorporated new theories proposed by al-Maa€™muna€™s scholars that challenged Ptolemya€™s works, including al-Khwarizmia€™s conclusion that the Indian Ocean was not an inland sea (as Ptolemy claimed) but connected to the Pacific Ocean. Although it was outside the Islamic world, China lay within the Muslim geographera€™s realm of knowledge about the world. Moreover, in the Balkhi School, the delineation of the non-Islamic kingdoms is restricted to the world map, and plays no role in the rest of the treatise or maps. Abu Zaid Ahmad ibn Sahl al-Balkhi, who wrote Suwar al-aqalim, is the earliest of them and presumably the originator.
United, the peace-loving nations have demonstrated in the West that their arms are stronger by far than the might of dictators or the tyranny of military cliques that once called us soft and weak. However, Levine decided he wanted to fly in Bertaud’s place and a court battle ensued, delaying the trip. The American Ambassador to Germany met the fliers and presented a congratulatory cable from the President of the United States, Calvin Coolidge… In the ensuing weeks, Charles A.
Stints in London and Washington further enhanced his reputation as a writer of great precision and wit. Taking a special interest in her, Bierce sent her to Berkeley’s normal school and tutored her. However, he also earned acclaim for his exploits on the battlefield at the First Battle of Bull Run, Malvern Hill, Antietam, Fredericksburg, and most notably, Gettysburg, where his artillery famously repulsed Pickett’s Charge. Following his resignation, RFK continued his vigorous support of civil rights and led a tough and imaginative campaign against organized crime. In 1957, Congress passed an act creating the United States Civil War Centennial Commission. A native Virginian and West Point graduate, Lee worked as an army engineer before distinguishing himself during the Mexican-American War, where he fought alongside his future adversary Ulysses S.
Deprived of his properties, Lee threw himself into his new role as president of struggling Washington College (renamed Washington and Lee after his death), which he brought to prominence and restored to financial health. In retaliation, Pillow wrote to Polk accusing Scott of bribing Mexican general Antonio López de Santa Anna.


At the outbreak of war, Pillow was one of the state’s largest landholders and wealthiest citizens. Tennessee’s Fort Pillow, built by the Confederates in 1861 and named in his honor, was the site of the 1864 massacre of surrendering Union troops, most of whom were African-American. With each attempt he became more determined, enlisting the aid of the Peary Arctic Society [and] of congressmen,” (Great Explorers, Owen). Congress demanded Spanish withdrawal from Cuba and Spain responded by breaking off diplomatic relations; war was declared by the end of April. Volunteer Infantry and, from October 1898 to April 1899, served as military and civil governor of Manzanilla, Cuba. Whitman continued to recast and expand Leaves of Grass throughout his life, and while critics were often scornful, he slowly began to attract many sympathetic, sometimes fervent, admirers,” (The Hand of the Poet, Phillips). Their unexpected loss to Democrats Harry Truman and Alben Barkley was the only defeat of his career. As a young man with poetic pretensions he had written student verse celebrating wine and good company, but in the course of his journeys he had discovered his real passion: geography. The occupying Arabs had built dams, irrigation systems, reservoirs and water towers, introduced new cropsa€”oranges and lemons, cotton, date palms, ricea€”and exploited the islanda€™s mines and fishing grounds. Nor is there any limit to his knowledge of the sciences, so deeply and wisely has he studied them in every particular.
The Garden of Eden and Paradise were at the top and Jerusalem at the center, while fabulous monsters occupied the unexplored regionsa€”Sirens, dragons, men with dogsa€™ heads, men with feet shaped like umbrellas with which they protected themselves from the sun while lying down (see #205, #207, #224, #226). The mission he entrusted to al-Idrisi was intellectually Herculean: to collect and evaluate all available geographical knowledgea€”from books and from on-the-spot observersa€”and to organize it into an accurate and meaningful representation of the world. Muslim merchants, pilgrims and officials used so-called a€?road booksa€?, itineraries that described routes, traveling conditions and cities along the way. What was the climate of the country, its rivers and lakes, mountains, coastal configurations and soil? All creatures are stable on the surface of the earth, the air attracting what is light, the earth what is heavy, as the magnet attracts iron. The mathematician al-Khwarizmi reduced Ptolemya€™s estimate of the length of the Mediterranean Sea from 62 to 52 degrees; the Spanish Muslim astronomer al-Zarqali further adjusted the figure to the correct 42 degrees.
Roger II of Sicily had his world map drawn on a six-foot diameter circle of silver weighing about 450 pounds. The Baltic area and Poland were represented much more precisely than on Ptolemya€™s maps, showing the fruit of the geographersa€™ investigations. In the fourth section of the first climate, al-Idrisi located the sources of the Nile in their approximately correct position, though he pictured the Nile of the Negroes as joining the Egyptian Nile at that point. The gardens of Toledo are laced with canals on which are erected water wheels used in irrigating the orchards, which produce in prodigious quantity fruits of inexpressible beauty and quality.
Juba populated the Canaries with Berber-speaking colonists, perhaps the ancestors of the Guanches.
The admiral in charge of the expedition died just as it was about to set out, so the venture came to nothing. Then they set sail with the first gentle easterly and sailed for about eleven daya€™s, until they came to a sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little light. The a€?sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little lighta€? can probably be ignored, for the passage is influenced by the a€?land of darknessa€? thought to exist in the farthest West, and the reefs may echo a passage in Platoa€™s Timeus which speaks of the shallows in the Atlantic marking the site where Atlantis sank.
No large mammals are indigenous to the Azores, and sheep or goats could only have been brought to the island by previous mariners. In the Arabic-speaking world, popular legend transferred a number of the heroic deeds of Hercules to Alexander - including the building of a land bridge across the Pillars of Hercules. The wood is deep black, and merchants come to the island to harvest it and then sell it to the kings of the farthest West.
The same linear arrangement of islands appears on 14th century maps such as the 1351Laurentian portolano (Book III, #233), and, a full century later, on the Bartolomeo Pareto map (1455), since it was still impossible to determine longitude. The sixth island, shown opposite the entrance to the Mediterranean, would be al-Ghanam [Island of Sheep], Madeira. I think that Babcock comes close, but, rather than the cormorant, the bird referred to is the goshawk [Afar], a species of hawk that closely resembles an eagle and abounds in the Azores, and from which the entire archipelago gets its name. On the Island of Two Heathen Brothers, two pirates lived until they were turned into rocks, and the inhabitants of the Island of Kalhan had the bodies of men and the heads of animals. Using a globe prepared by a German cartographer named Martin Behaim (Book III, #258), based on Ptolemya€™s miscalculations, Columbus also added in Marco Poloa€™s equally misleading estimates of distances and concluded, incorrectly, that by sailing west from Spain he could reach Japan or India after no more than a 4,000 mile voyage.
The consecutive numbers sometimes used to refer to the sectional maps are shown in the upper right corner of each section. Practically every print will have a fascinating story attached to it, and the pleasure is of course in discovering these stories, while admiring the beauty of the object.
They show no sign of having been drawn directly from nature, but look as if they were founded on previous work. Sometimes the essential character of the plant is seized, but the way in which it is expressed is curiously lacking in a sense of proportion, as in the case of Dracontea (Plate X V I), one of the Arum family. 3), in which the leaves are represented as if they had no organic continuity with the stem. These drawings are more ambitious than those in the original German issue, and, on the whole, the results are more naturalistic. There is often a tendency, in the later work, to make the figures occupy the space in a more decorative fashion ; for instance, where the stalk in the original drawing is simply cut across obliquely at the base, we find in the ` Ortus Sanitatis' that its pointed end is continued into a conventional flourish (cf.
In some cases there seems to have been an attempt at the convention, used so successfully by the Japanese, of darkening the underside of the leaf, but, sometimes, in the same figure, certain leaves are treated in this way, and others not. It is interesting to recall that the date 1530 is often taken, in the study of other arts (e.g.
Killermann has been at pains to identify the genus and species of almost every plant represented, and has described the drawings as das erste Denkmal der Pflanzenukologie.
The artist's ambition was evidently limited to representing the specimen he had before him, whether it was typical or not.
The very strong, black, velvety line of many of the fifteenth century wood-engravings, and the occasional use of solid black backgrounds (cf. 88) the fruit and a dissection of the inflorescence are represented, so that, botanically, the drawing reaches a high level.
Plate XVII) to feel that the finest plant drawings can only be produced by a master hand, capable of achieving success on more ambitious lines.
Some of the drawings suggest that they may have been done from dried plants, and in others the treatment is over-crowded. These figures are very much more botanical than those of any previous author ; in fact—as Hatton has pointed out in ` The Craftsman's Plant-Book '—they are beginning to become too botanical for the artist !
In certain other wood-cuts in d'Alechamps' herbal, solid black is used in an effective fashion.
55 shows a twig of Barberry, which is but a single item in one of these large illustrations.
The details of the flowers and fruit are often shown separately, the figures, in this respect, being comparable with those of Gesner and Camerarius, though, owing to their small size, they do not convey so much botanical information.
Two years later appeared the `Hortus Eystettensis,' by Basil Besler, an apothecary of Nuremberg. This convention seems to have been characteristic, not only of the plant drawings of the Dutch artists, but also of their landscapes. The latter, which is an Elzevir with very good copper-plates, was published after the author's death, and dedicated, by his widow, to Henry Compton, Bishop of London. The artist’s ambition was evidently limited to representing the specimen he had before him, whether it was typical or not.
He was a scholar whose background, though not his geographical work, was well known in the Arab literary community.
There is so much material available that scholars have identified two separate editions of al- Islakhri, three of Ibn Hawqal and two of al-Muqaddasi. There is a likelihood that the Balkhi School material and the work of Ibn Khurdadhbih are based on Persian (Sassanid) materials which survived the Islamicization of the Persian home areas. He has however a different selection of maps, there being no world map nor one of the Caspian Sea and a completely new map of the Arabian desert. The right wing is India, and behind India is the sea; behind this sea there are no creatures at all. This feature can be clearly seen in the earliest extant Islamic maps, in other words, the Balkh School maps, in which the Indian Ocean links with the Encompassing Sea that surrounds the known world. I omit anything on which there is disagreement, and include only that on which there is complete accord. In this kind of non-plotted world map, which aims to give only a general overview of the landmasses, there is no place for individual localities such as cities. The other three authors are Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al Istakhri, Muhammad ibn Hawqal and Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Muqaddasi.
A hallmark of his long and impressive senatorial career was his ongoing interest in American poverty and the problem of welfare dependency. In the meantime, Charles Lindbergh flew from New York to Paris on May 20, 1927, and won the prize.
By 1909, Bierce, who had resigned from Hearst’s employ the previous year, was back in Washington, where he edited his Collected Works (1909-1912). He stepped down on January 12, 1932 at the age of 91, the oldest justice to serve the country’s highest court. However, he almost immediately took a leave of absence to work as a civil engineer for Union Pacific Railroad, and, on July 27th, President Grant traveled to Philadelphia to see his son off on his trip west. His wife continued her efforts to regain Arlington House, and the matter was debated on the floor of the Senate, to no avail.
The letter resulted in Scott being temporarily relieved from command from February to July 1848 and made the subject of an inquiry at which Pillow was one of the questioners. Although Pillow was not involved, it is yet one more dishonorable historical event linked to his name. In 1903, he was elected president of the American Geographical Society and that autumn he garnered the unexpected support of both the secretary of the navy and President Theodore Roosevelt. He worked as a carpenter in Duluth, and at 103 became senior vice commander in chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, the fraternal organization for Civil War veterans. He is responsible for singular innovations and for marvelous inventions, such as no prince has ever before realized. His purpose was partly practical, but mostly scientific: to produce a work that would sum up all the contemporary knowledge of the physical world.
Other Muslim scholars, like the Iraqi astronomer al-Battani and the Persian al-Biruni (#214.3), composed tables giving the latitudes of leading cities. The works of Al-Idrisi include Nozhat al-mushtaq fi ikhtiraq al-afaq - a compendium of the geographic and sociological knowledge of his time as well as descriptions of his own travels illustrated with over seventy maps; Kharitat al-`alam al-ma`mour min al-ard [Map of the inhabited regions of the earth] wherein he divided the world into seven regions, the first extending from the equator to 23 degrees latitude, and the seventh being from 54 to 63 degrees followed by a region uninhabitable due to cold and snow. The British Isles also were treated with a surprising insight, probably due to contacts between Norman England and Norman Sicily. It is a considerable island, whose shape is that of the head of an ostrich, and where there are flourishing towns, high mountains, great rivers and plains.
Gradually, knowledge of the location of the Canaries was lost, even though Lanzarote, the island nearest the North African coast, lies less than 100 kilometers [60 miles] west of the mainland. Al-ldrisi says the admirala€™s curiosity was aroused by smoke rising from the sea in the west, probably the result of volcanic activity. Neither name is Arabic, nor do they appear to be transcriptions of Greek, Latin or Romance - but the fact that these two islands had names at all means mariners must have visited them, and the names are either native designations or hark back to some lost, perhaps oral, source. They were sure they were about to perish, so they changed course to the south and sailed for twelve days, until they came to Sheep Island, There were so many sheep it was impossible to count them, and they ranged freely, with no one to watch them. The Azores lie almost 1,300 kilometers (about 800 miles) west of the coast of Portugal - one-third of the way to America. Some Greek mythographers thought the Islands of the Hesperides lay off the coast of North Africa, and we have already seen how al-Idrisi associates Alexander with two of the Atlantic islands. The island is said to have been inhabited in the past, but it fell to ruin and serpents infested the land.
Al-Sua€™ali and al-Mustashkin both sound completely legendary, but there is nothing legendary about Hasran and Qalhan, which sound as if they might belong together. During the period of rediscovery of the Azores under Prince Henry the Navigator, these birds were supposedly responsible for guiding the sailors to these distant islands. According to one historian, friendly relations were established between the Sultan of Spain and the invaders. It dates back to the end of the fifth, or the beginning of the sixth century of the Christian era. They have a decorative rather than a naturalistic appearance ; it seems, indeed, as if the principle of decorative symmetry controlled the artist almost against his will. For instance, in the first cut labelled Vettonia, each of the lanceolate leaves is outlined continuously on the one side, but with a broken line on the other.
Ranunculus acris, the Meadow Buttercup, Viola odorata, the Sweet Violet, and Convallaria majalis, the Lily-of-the-Valley) are distinctly recognisable. Some of the figures are wonderfully charming, and in their decorative effect recall the plant designs so often used in the Middle Ages to enrich the borders of illuminated manuscripts. The fern called Capillus Veneris, which is probably in-tended for the Maidenhair, is represented hanging from rocks over water, just as it does in Devonshire caves to-day (Text-fig. In some of the genre pictures, Noah's Ark trees are introduced, with crowns consisting entirely of parallel horizontal lines, decreasing in length from below upwards, so as to give a triangular form. In 1526, Durer carried out a beautiful series of plant drawings, among the most famous of which are those of the Columbine, and the Greater Celandine. In the former the artist has caught the exact look of the leaves and stalks, buoyed up by the water. The notion had not then been grasped that the ideal botanical drawing avoids the peculiarities of any individual specimen, and seeks to portray the characters really typical of the species. It may be that Fuchs had in mind the possibility that the purchaser might wish to colour the work, and to fill in a certain amount of detail for himself. It is not surprising, under these circumstances, that the artist who drew upon the block should often seem to have been obsessed by its rectangularity, and should have accommodated his drawing to its form in a way that was unnecessary and far from realistic, though sometimes very decorative. Fuchs' wood-cuts are nearly all original, but that of the White Waterlily appears to have been founded upon Brunfels' figure.
But, in spite of these defects, they form a markedly individual contribution, which is of great importance in the history of botanical illustration.
These wood-cuts resemble the smaller ones in character, but are more decorative in effect, and often remarkably fine. A few (namely those marked in the Pemptades, Ex Codice Caesareo ) are copied from Juliana Anicia's manuscript of Dioscorides to which we have more than once referred.
Camerarius often gives detailed analyses of the flowers and fruit on an enlarged scale (Text-fig.
In a later book of Colonna's, the ` Ekphrasis,' analyses of the floral parts are given in even greater detail than in the `Phytobasanos.' Colonna expressly mentions that he used wild plants as models wherever possible, because cultivation is apt to produce alterations in the form. In the paintings of Cuyp and Paul Potter, the sky-line is sometimes so low that it is seen between the legs of the cows and horses.
It must be confessed that the fifteenth-century wood-cut, though far less detailed and painstaking, seizes the general character of the plant in a way that the seventeenth-century copper-plate somewhat misses.
In some of the genre pictures, Noah’s Ark trees are introduced, with crowns consisting entirely of parallel horizontal lines, decreasing in length from below upwards, so as to give a triangular form. The left wing represents Khazar [of the Caspian], and behind Khazar are two nations each of which is called Manshak and Mashak.
China is located at the eastern edge of the Northern Hemisphere and its coastline in the south lies close to the eastern coast of Africa. Except for this new feature, other features of the Balkhi School maps resemble reconstructions of Ptolemya€™s longitudinal and latitudinal coordinates.
World maps with labels primarily designating regions rather than cities are also typical of later non-plotted maps, such as those of al-Idrisi (#219) and others. Undeterred, Levine and Chamberlin decided to set a distance record, and left on a non-stop flight from Roosevelt Field to Berlin, Germany in their Bellanca monoplane, Columbia. It was the first private audience granted to an American ever in the throne room… Levine met and amicably discussed flying with the prime minister of Italy, the founder of Italian Fascism, Benito Mussolini.
He was gravely wounded at Gettysburg, permanently losing the use of his left arm but returned to fight at Chickamauga where another wound required the amputation of his right leg.
Gatling had hoped that the machine gun’s effectiveness would limit casualties by reducing the size of armies who deployed it.
It was likely at this time that Grant gave his son some spending money (equivalent to about $4,000 in 2015).
Daggett was the last surviving Union general when he died one month shy of his 101st birthday.
Senator from New York and, in this role he became the chief spokesman for liberal Democrats and a harsh critic of the press. Celebrations, reenactments, dedications, and ceremonies continued through the 1965 anniversary of the surrender at Appomattox. In the days leading up to the Civil War, Lee commanded the militia raid on abolitionist John Brown at Harper’s Ferry. After the death of Robert and Mary Lee, their son Custis pursued the matter in a different way, claiming that the property had been taken improperly and seeking financial compensation rather than its return.
Scott was found innocent and reinstated – but only after he dropped charges against Pillow and his fellow conspirators. Others belonged to a later tradition of systematic geography, like the 10th century scholars Ibn Hawqal (#213) and al-Masa€™udi (#212), who produced books intended as something more than practical guides for the tax collector or the postman: as additions to the fund of human knowledge. An element of subjectivity entered into the fact that southern Italy was represented as larger than the north, and that Sicily occupied a substantial part of the Western Mediterranean, in contrast to Sardinia and Corsica, which shrank in scale. This country is most fertile; its inhabitants are brave, active and enterprising, but all is in the grip of perpetual winter.
The Greeks called the Canary Islands TA?n MakarA?n NA“soi [The Islands of the Blessed], and they were regarded as the furthest known land to the west. In another passage al-Idrisi gives more details of this island - incidentally showing that a longer account of the voyage of the mugharrirun must have existed. In the 19th century, Carthaginian coins were found on the most westerly of the islands, Corvo - 31A° west longitude - and although the find has been questioned, the origin of the coins has never been satisfactorily explained. But if the word is Arabic, one would expect it to be preceded by the definite article a€?ala€?.
Since the only inhabited islands in the western Atlantic just before the coming of the Europeans were the Canaries, Hasran may belong to that groupa€”unless, of course, it is to be sought in the Caribbean!
If the isle of Raqa is indeed one of the Azores, then the discovery of these islands occurred as early as the 10th century. It is illustrated with brush drawings on a large scale, which in many cases are notably naturalistic, and often quite modern in appearance (Plates I, II, XV).
These drawings are somewhat of the nature of diagrams by a draughtsman who generalized his know-ledge of the object. It has been suggested that the illustrations in the ` Herbarium' are possibly not wood-engravings, but rude cuts in metal, excavated after the manner of a wood-block. It is noticeable that, in two cases in which a rosette of radical leaves is represented, the centre of the rosette is filled in in black, upon which the leaf-stalks appear in white.
We may, I think, safely conclude that the draughtsman knew quite well that he was not representing the plant as it was, and that he intentionally gave a conventional rendering, which did not profess to be more than an indication of certain distinctive features of the plant.
The former is reproduced on a small scale in Plate XVI I ; it is scarcely possible to imagine a more perfect habit drawing of a plant.
Throughout the work, the drawing seems to be of a slightly higher quality than the actual engraving; the lines are, to use the technical term, occasion-ally somewhat rotten or even broken. 81) give a great sense of richness, especially in combination with the black letter type, with which they harmonise so admirably.
The existing copies of this and other old herbals often have the figures painted, generally in a distressingly crude and heavy fashion. This is exemplified in the figure of the Earth-nut Pea, to which we have just referred and also in Text-figs. Whereas in the work of Brunfels and Fuchs, the beautiful line of a single stalk is often the key-note of the whole drawing, in the work of Mattioli, the eye most frequently finds its satisfaction in the rich massing of foliage, fruit and flowers, suggestive of southern luxuriance.
Some are also borrowed from the works of de l'Ecluse and de l'Obel, since Plantin was publisher to all three botanists, and the wood-blocks engraved for them were regarded as, to some extent, forming a common stock. Trew published a collection of Gesner's drawings, many of which had never been seen before ; but even then, it proved impossible to separate the work of the two botanists with any completeness, since Gesner's drawings and blocks had passed through the hands of Camerarius, who had incorporated his own with them.
1o1, which is also interesting since two of the leaves bear the initials M and H, which were possibly those of the artist. The decorative border, surrounding each of the figures reproduced, was not printed from the copper. In the succeeding year, 1614, a book was published which has been described, probably with justice, as containing some of the best copper-plate figures of plants ever produced. This treatment was no doubt suggested by life in a flat country, but it was carried to such an extreme that the artist's eye-level must have been almost on the ground ! It has been suggested that the illustrations in the ` Herbarium’ are possibly not wood-engravings, but rude cuts in metal, excavated after the manner of a wood-block. These different texts can be associated with similar sets of maps, and these maps can be compared and relationships established which enable us to trace the development of a€?Balkhia€? cartography.
Behind Manshak and Mdshak are Gog and Magog, both of which are nations whom only God knows. Although rough, this is a quite accurate representation of Eurasia and the northern part of Africa as Muslim geographers knew them at that time.
All this evidence suggests that the earlier maps based on the Ptolemaic tradition under `Abladsid sponsorship continued to influence later geographic and cartographic works such as those made by the Balkh School. Such maps differ substantially from plotted maps, where the emphasis is on the location of individual cities. He was born and lived at the end of his life in Balkh in northeastern Iran, where he was supposed to have written his geographical treatise. Despite their differences, Clinton bestowed the Presidential Medal of Freedom on the senator in 2000.
This flight, though falling short of its goal, was the second non-stop transatlantic flight, longer than Lindbergh’s by 315 miles, and the first to carry a passenger. Notwithstanding these injuries, he fought in the Atlanta Campaign and attained the rank of general before his defeat at the Battle of Nashville in December 1964. Kennedy announced his candidacy for president on March 16, 1968, but less than three months into the race he was fatally shot in Los Angeles by Palestinian immigrant Sirhan Bishara Sirhan. Kennedy’s involvement in the centennial celebrations was recognized in 1960 when he was awarded a Centennial Medallion by the national Commission. In 1861, he was promoted to colonel and offered the rank of major general in the fight against the seceding states. The Supreme Court found in his favor in 1882, and the following year Congress awarded him $150,000. Finally after traveling hundreds of miles across ice in conditions more extreme than any previously encountered, Peary and his team reached the Pole on April 6, 1909. Roosevelt emphasized the democratic nature of the troops, composed of volunteers from Harvard and Columbia Universities, as well as cowboys, prospectors, native Americans, sharpshooters from Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show, and Texas Rangers.
In addition, scientific expeditions were dispatched to areas on which information was lacking. Contrary to a still popular misconception that up to the time of Columbus everyone believed the world was flat, many scholars and astronomers since at least the fifth century B.C. Not surprisingly, the best part of both map and text, accurate and detailed, dealt with Sicily itself. It forms an island 300 miles long by 150 miles wide: this is surrounded by the Nile on all sides and at all seasons .
Al-Idrisi gave the names of many English towns, principally ports, with the distances between them.
They caught some of the sheep and slaughtered them, but the flesh was so bitter they could not eat it. He says Sheep Island is large, shrouded in shadows, and filled with small sheep whose flesh is bitter and inedible. Corvo is marked on the Canterino map of 1351, where the name occurs as Corvini - considerably before its official discovery. The general habit of the plant is admirably expressed, and occasionally, as in the case of the Bean (Plate XV), the characters of the flowers and seed-vessels are well indicated.
In Dr Payne's own words, Such figures, passing through the hands of a hundred copyists, became more and more conventional, till they reached their last and most degraded form in the rude cuts of the Roman Herbarium, which represent not the infancy, but the old age of art.
Another delightful wood-cut, almost in the Japanese style, is that of an Iris growing at the margin of a stream, from which a graceful bird is drinking. This attitude of the artist to his work, which is so different from that of the scientific draughtsman of the present day, is seen with great clearness in many of the drawings in medi?val manuscripts. Among the original figures many, as we have already indicated, represent purely mythical subjects. A page bearing such illustrations is often more satisfying to the eye than one in which the desire to express the subtleties of plant form, in realistic fashion, has led to the use of a more delicate line. 89) show that the talents of the artists whom he employed were not confined to plant drawing, but were also strong in the direction of vigorous and able portraiture. 27), here reproduced, are markedly different from those of Fuchs, although, in the case of the first, Fuchs' wood-cut may have been used to some extent.
Many of his figures would require little modification to form the basis of a tapestry pattern. In fact it is often difficult to decide to which author any given figure originally belonged. A few wood-cuts however, which appeared as an appendix to Simler's Life of Gesner, are undoubtedly Gesner's own work.
This was the ` Hortus Floridus' of Crispian de Passe, a member of a famous family of engravers.
The breast of the world represents Mecca, Hijaz [the western shore of the Arabian Peninsula], Syria, Iraq, and Egypt.
Most of his life, however, he spent in Baghdad and Iraq, where his scholarly connections mostly belong. Although Moynihan and the Clinton White House did not always see eye-to-eye, upon leaving his seat in the Senate in 2001, Moynihan endorsed former First Lady Hillary Clinton who was elected to fill it.
Other titles of that series include The Great English Letter Writers and The Great English Essayists.
In 1870, Gatling sold the patents to Colt’s Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company, located in Hartford, Connecticut, but remained president of the Gatling Gun Company until a merger in 1897.
Our letter discusses the presentation of medals by New York’s Civil War Roundtable, of which Gates was president.
Even though three other men claimed to be Confederate veterans and the oldest surviving members of the conflict, each of these claims has been debunked.
Unlike many other volunteer companies, the Rough Riders saw action because of their outstanding preparedness. Additionally, during Warren’s years on the bench, the Supreme Court established the Miranda rights, made important decisions about school prayer, civil rights, and extended the power of the judiciary.
Draftsmen and cartographers accompanied these expeditions so that a visual record of the country could be made. The greater part of the country is only habitable on the borders of the Nile for the rest of the country .
Hastings was a considerable town, densely populated, with many buildings, markets, much industry and commerce; Dover, to the east, was an equally important town not far from the mouth of the river of London, the broad and swiftly flowing Thames. In 1402 the Normans partially conquered them, meeting stiff resistance from the indigenous Guanches.
They took some sheepskins and sailed on to the south for another twelve days until they sighted an island. Nearby is another island, called Raqa, which is the home of a red bird the size of an eagle, which catches fish in its claws and never flies far from the island.
Certain adventures of Sinbad the Sailor, from Tales of the Arabian Nights, are almost identical to those of Saint Brendan. Uncouth as they are, we may regard them with some respect, both as being the images of flowers that bloomed many centuries ago, and also as the last ripple of the receding tide of Classical Art. For instance, a plant such as the Houseleek may be represented growing on the roof of a house—the plant being about three times the size of the building. However, the primary object of the herbal illustrations was, after all, a scientific and not a decorative one, and, from this point of view, the gain in realism more than compensates for the loss in the harmonious balance of black and white.
In the octavo edition of Fuchs' herbal published in 1545, small versions of the large wood-cuts appeared.
The writer has been told by an artist accustomed, in former years, to draw upon the wood for the engraver, that to avoid a rectangular effect required a distinct effort of will. The artist employed by Bock, as he himself tells us, was David Kandel, a young lad, the son of a burgher of Strasburg. This difficulty is enhanced by the fact that some were actually made for one and then used for another, before the work for which they had been originally destined was published. 100) in which the seedling of the Rose of Jericho is drawn side by side with the mature plant, and another (Text-fig. Like Parkinson's 'Paradisus Terrestris,' into which some of the figures are copied, it is more of the nature of a garden book than a herbal. In the octavo edition of Fuchs’ herbal published in 1545, small versions of the large wood-cuts appeared. The tail represents the land from dhat al-Plumdm [the frontier of Egypt] to the Maghreb [Northwest Africa]. Written as president on pale green White House stationery blind-embossed with the presidential seal to former U.S. To his friend, bibliophile and editor of Bierce’s 1909 collection of essays, The Shadow on the Dial, SILAS ORRIN HOWES (1867-1918).
Sherman’s aide-de-camp in Europe later in the year before returning to his cavalry assignment in 1872. Gates, a well-respected amateur historian of the Civil War and Abraham Lincoln, reviewed books for the Lincoln Herald and contributed to the anthology Lincoln for the Ages. Nevertheless, the Northern soldiers who camped near the White House respected Mary Custis Lee’s wishes. A partially-printed document for the Military District of Manzanillo appointing Ramon Hernandez Rios inspector of customs for the District of Manzanillo. You may get there sooner or you may not get there as soon as you expected, but you will certainly get there. In the mid-15th century, the Spanish took control of the Canaries and continued the conquest.
The settlers quickly burned down all the forests, so it is now hard to know for certain, but some sort of scented wood may have once grown there. But whether the Irish borrowed these myths from the Arabs, or vice versa, or if they both obtained them from an earlier common source is a matter of conjecture. No one would imagine that the artist was under the delusion that these proportions held good in nature.
I t is perhaps invidious to draw distinctions between the work of Fuchs and that of Brunfels, since they are both of such exquisite quality. At the present day, when photographic methods of reproduction are almost exclusively used, the artist is no longer oppressively conscious of the exact outline of the space which his figure will occupy. A color printed broadside proclamation announcing V-E Day, dated May 8, 1945, set in double columns of Gothic type and with a large gilt initial letter and red and blue opening paragraph letters or words, signed by President Truman. It was a journey from which he never returned and it remains the final mystery of a colorful career. He went on to serve under General Custer during the Black Hills Expedition and fought several Indian wars on the frontier. A fine Brady photograph of a uniformed Hunt, standing with his right hand tucked inside his tunic and the other holding his cap at his side. To New York artist and former Union Civil War veteran JAMES HOPE (1818-1892), known for his depictions of Antietam and other battles. Al-Idrisia€™s silver disk, or planisphere, was a form of projection considerably in advance of others of its time.
Fighting was still going on when Columbus used the islands as the first stop on all four of his voyages to the Caribbean. They headed toward it in order to explore and when they were not far offshore, they suddenly found themselves surrounded by boats, which forced their ship to land beside a city on the shore. A king of the Franks heard of this, al-Idrisi adds, and sent a ship to the island to bring him that fruit and some of the birds, but the ship was lost and never returned. The little house was merely introduced in order to convey graphic information as to the habitat of the plant concerned, and the scale on which it was depicted was simply a matter of convenience. However, merely as an expression of personal opinion, the present writer must confess to feeling that there is a finer sense of power and freedom of handling about the illustrations in Fuchs' herbal than those of Brunfels.
For instance, the picture of an Oak tree includes, appropriately enough, a swine-herd with his swine, the Chestnut tree gives occasion for a hedgehog (Text-fig. However, merely as an expression of personal opinion, the present writer must confess to feeling that there is a finer sense of power and freedom of handling about the illustrations in Fuchs’ herbal than those of Brunfels.
Following his military career he assisted his father in writing his memoirs and pursued his own political career, unsuccessfully running for New York’s secretary of state. Peary’s ties to Brooklyn include his employment at the Brooklyn Navy Yard as a civil engineer prior to his career as an explorer, and he was an honorary member of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences.
The Guanches were not finally subdued until the end of the 16th century, when they and their language virtually disappeared. They saw the men who lived there; they were light-complexioned, with very little facial hair. 92) and, in another case, a monkey and several rabbits are introduced, one of the latter holding a shield bearing the artist's initials. Sheldon of New Orleans depicting the seated Hood with his crippled left arm in the foreground and wearing his officer’s frock coat. Pinchot (likely suffragette, labor activist, Pennsylvania first lady, office seeker, and diplomat CORNELIA BRYCE PINCHOT, 1881-1960). Grant”) FREDERICK DENT GRANT (1850-1912), who has added his endorsement on the verso. He served as American ambassador to Austria-Hungary under Presidents Harrison and Cleveland and New York City police commissioner from 1894 to 1898, returning to the military during the Spanish-American and Philippine-American wars, and attaining the rank of major general in 1906 with the command of the Army’s Eastern Division. And in the ninth century, 70 Muslim scholars, working under the patronage of Caliph al-Maa€™mun, gathered in the Syrian Desert to determine the length of a degree of latitude. There are arid wastes where one must walk two, four, five, or twelve days before finding water . From the few words of Guanche preserved in the Spanish chronicles, we know they spoke a form of Berber, and were therefore probably descended from Jubaa€™s colonists. It would be as absurd to quarrel with the illustrations we have just described, on account of their lack of proportion, as to condemn grand opera because, in real life, men and women do not converse in song. Signed on the lower photographer’s mount and dated on the back in another hand in pencil. Rather than rely on travelersa€™ guesses of distance, as previous astronomers had done, they used wooden rods to measure the road they traveled until they saw a change of one degree in the elevation of the polestar. Yet when Europeans encountered them, they had no memory of the mainland; having no boats, they were unaware that the other islands in the group were inhabited. The idea of naturalistic drawings, in which the size of the parts should be shown in their true relations, was of comparatively late growth. 29), is a highly imaginative production which clearly shows that neither the artist nor the author had ever seen the plant in question.
A sepia head-and-shoulders portrait of Sickles in a military dress uniform by Sarony of New York. Their calculation resulted in a figure for the eartha€™s circumference equivalent to 22,422 miles, an error of 3.6 percent, almost as accurate as Eratosthenesa€™ estimate and a considerable improvement over Ptolemya€™s.
On the fourth day a man who spoke Arabic entered and asked them who they were and where they were going and what was the name of their country. They told him everything and he said not to worry, and that he was the kinga€™s interpreter.
The next day they were taken into the kinga€™s presence and he asked the same questions they had been asked by the interpreter. They told him what they had told the interpreter the day before, of how they had embarked upon the ocean in order to find out about it and see the wonders it contained, and how they had come to this place. When dawn broke and the sun rose, we found we were in great pain because we had been so tightly bound. One of them asked us: a€?Do you know how far you are from your country?a€™ a€?No,a€™ we answered.



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