How to write a book title in mla format 101,words beginning with zk,positive motivational quotes ziglar - Tips For You

Author: admin, 04.12.2015. Category: Positive Affirmations Quotes

This is a€?APA and MLA Documentation and Formattinga€?, chapter 13 from the book Successful Writing (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators.
Identify the major components of a research paper written using American Psychological Association (APA) style. In this chapter, you will learn how to use APA styleThe documentation and formatting style followed by the American Psychological Association, or APA. While all the formatting and citation styles have their own use and applications, in this chapter we focus our attention on the two styles you are most likely to use in your academic studies: APA and MLA. If you find that the rules of proper source documentation are difficult to keep straight, you are not alone.
This chapter provides detailed guidelines for using the citation and formatting conventions developed by the American Psychological Association, or APA. List the first three elements in the order given in the previous list, centered about one third of the way down from the top of the page. The next page of your paper provides an abstractA concise (one hundred to one hundred fifty words) summary of research findings that appears at the beginning of an APA-style paper., or brief summary of your findings. In Chapter 12 "Writing a Research Paper", you read a paper written by a student named Jorge, who researched the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets.
Depending on your field of study, you may sometimes write research papers that present extensive primary research, such as your own experiment or survey. APA style requirements also address specific formatting concerns, such as margins, pagination, and heading styles, within the body of the paper.
Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point). Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section.
Section headings and subsection headings within the body of your paper use different types of formatting depending on the level of information you are presenting.
APA style uses section headingsHeadings used to organize information within an APA-style paper.
The fourth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are boldfaced and italicized. The fifth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are italicized and not boldfaced. Visually, the hierarchy of information is organized as indicated in Table 13.1 "Section Headings".
A college research paper may not use all the heading levels shown in Table 13.1 "Section Headings", but you are likely to encounter them in academic journal articles that use APA style. Working with the document you developed in Note 13.11 "Exercise 2", begin setting up the heading structure of the final draft of your research paper according to APA guidelines. Throughout the body of your paper, include a citation whenever you quote or paraphrase material from your research sources. In-text citations must provide the name of the author or authors and the year the source was published. This information may be included within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence, as in these examples. Epstein (2010) points out that a€?junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictivea€? (p.
Here, the writer names the source author when introducing the quote and provides the publication date in parentheses after the authora€™s name. Addiction researchers caution that a€?junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictivea€? (Epstein, 2010, p. Here, the writer provides a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence that includes the authora€™s name, the year of publication, and the page number separated by commas. Here, the writer chose to mention the source title in the sentence (an optional piece of information to include) and followed the title with a parenthetical citation. David Epsteina€™s book Junk Food, Junk Science (2010) pointed out that a€?junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictivea€? (p. Another variation is to introduce the author and the source title in your sentence and include the publication date and page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the end of the sentence. APA is just one of several different styles with its own guidelines for documentation, formatting, and language usage. The brief citations included in the body of your paper correspond to the more detailed citations provided at the end of the paper in the references section.
The references page is double spaced and lists entries in alphabetical order by the authora€™s last name. Following proper citation and formatting guidelines helps writers ensure that their work will be taken seriously, give proper credit to other authors for their work, and provide valuable information to readers. Working ahead and taking care to cite sources correctly the first time are ways writers can save time during the editing stage of writing a research paper. In APA papers, in-text citations usually include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication.
In-text citations correspond to entries in the references section, which provide detailed bibliographical information about a source. As noted in previous sections of this book, in-text citations usually provide the name of the author(s) and the year the source was published. For brief quotationsa€”fewer than forty wordsa€”use quotation marks to indicate where the quoted material begins and ends, and cite the name of the author(s), the year of publication, and the page number where the quotation appears in your source. Chang (2008) emphasized that a€?engaging in weight-bearing exercise consistently is one of the single best things women can do to maintain good healtha€? (p. The authora€™s name can be included in the body of the sentence or in the parenthetical citation. Weight Training for Women (Chang, 2008) claimed that a€?engaging in weight-bearing exercise consistently is one of the single best things women can do to maintain good healtha€? (p. Weight Training for Women claimed that a€?engaging in weight-bearing exercise consistently is one of the single best things women can do to maintain good healtha€? (Chang, 2008, p. In Changa€™s 2008 text Weight Training for Women, she asserts, a€?Engaging in weight-bearing exercise is one of the single best things women can do to maintain good healtha€? (p. You may begin a sentence with the direct quotation and add the authora€™s name and a strong verb before continuing the quotation. When you paraphrase or summarize ideas from a source, you follow the same guidelines previously provided, except that you are not required to provide the page number where the ideas are located.
Chang (2008) pointed out that weight-bearing exercise has many potential benefits for women. Chang (2008) found that weight-bearing exercise could help women maintain or even increase bone density through middle age and beyond, reducing the likelihood that they will develop osteoporosis in later life (p. Although the writer is not directly quoting the source, this passage paraphrases a specific detail, so the writer chose to include the page number where the information is located.
Although APA style guidelines do not require writers to provide page numbers for material that is not directly quoted, your instructor may wish you to do so when possible. When you quote a longer passage from a sourcea€”forty words or morea€”use a different format to set off the quoted material. In recent years, many writers within the fitness industry have emphasized the ways in which women can benefit from weight-bearing exercise, such as weightlifting, karate, dancing, stair climbing, hiking, and jogging. Review the places in your paper where you cited, quoted, and paraphrased material from a source with a single author. If you are quoting a passage that continues into a second paragraph, indent five spaces again in the first line of the second paragraph. It is important to note that swimming cannot be considered a weight-bearing exercise, since the water supports and cushions the swimmer.
Including an introductory phrase in your text, such as a€?Jackson wrotea€? or a€?Copeland found,a€? often helps you integrate source material smoothly. Punch up your writing by using strong verbs that help your reader understand how the source material presents ideas. Highlight the verbs used in your signal phrases, and make note of any that seem to be overused throughout the paper.
It is important to accurately represent a colleaguea€™s ideas or communications in the workplace.
For a print work with one author, follow the guidelines provided in Chapter 13 "APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting", Section 13.1 "Formatting a Research Paper".
Rodriguez (2009a) criticized the nutrition-supplement industry for making unsubstantiated and sometimes misleading claims about the benefits of taking supplements.
If you have not yet created your references section, you may not be sure which source will appear first. If you are citing works by different authors with the same last name, include each authora€™s initials in your citation, whether you mention them in the text or in parentheses.
According to two leading researchers, the rate of childhood obesity exceeds the rate of adult obesity (K. When two authors are listed for a given work, include both authorsa€™ names each time you cite the work.
If the work you are citing has three to five authors, list all the authorsa€™ names the first time you cite the source. One survey, conducted among 350 smokers aged 18 to 30, included a detailed questionnaire about participantsa€™ motivations for smoking (Henderson, Davidian, & Degler, 2010).
Note that these examples follow the same ampersand conventions as sources with two authors.
Disturbingly, some young women use smoking as a means of appetite suppression (Henderson et al., 2010). If the work you are citing has six or more authors, list only the first authora€™s name, followed by et al., in your in-text citations. Researchers have found that outreach work with young people has helped reduce tobacco use in some communities (Costello et al., 2007). When citing a work that has no individual author(s) but is published by an organization, use the organizationa€™s name in place of the authora€™s name. It is possible for a patient to have a small stroke without even realizing it (American Heart Association [AHA], 2010). Another cause for concern is that even if patients realize that they have had a stroke and need medical attention, they may not know which nearby facilities are best equipped to treat them (AHA, 2010).
Review the places in your paper where you cited material from a source with multiple authors or with an organization as the author.

Mark any additional citations within your paper that you are not sure how to format based on the guidelines provided so far.
If no author is listed and the source cannot be attributed to an organization, use the title in place of the authora€™s name. Rosenhan (1973) had mentally healthy study participants claim to be experiencing hallucinations so they would be admitted to psychiatric hospitals. To cite a source that is referred to within another secondary source, name the first source in your sentence.
Rosenhana€™s study a€?On Being Sane in Insane Placesa€? (as cited in Spitzer, 1975) found that psychiatrists diagnosed schizophrenia in people who claimed to be experiencing hallucinations and sought treatmenta€”even though these patients were, in fact, imposters. At times, you may provide more than one citation in a parenthetical reference, such as when you are discussing related works or studies with similar results. Some researchers have found serious flaws in the way Rosenhana€™s study was conducted (Dawes, 2001; Spitzer, 1975). Both of these researchers authored works that support the point being made in this sentence, so it makes sense to include both in the same citation. In some cases, you may need to cite an extremely well-known work that has been repeatedly republished or translated. In New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis, Freud explains that the a€?manifest contenta€? of a dreama€”what literally takes placea€”is separate from its a€?latent content,a€? or hidden meaning (trans. Here, the student is citing a classic work of psychology, originally written in German and later translated to English. To cite an introduction, foreword, preface, or afterword, cite the author of the material and the year, following the same format used for other print materials.
Whenever possible, cite electronic sources as you would print sources, using the author, the date, and where appropriate, a page number. If an online source has no page numbers but you want to refer to a specific portion of the source, try to locate other information you can use to direct your reader to the information cited.
As researchers have explained, a€?Incorporating fresh fruits and vegetables into onea€™s diet can be a challenge for residents of areas where there are few or no easily accessible supermarketsa€? (Smith & Jones, 2006, para.
Even if a source does not have numbered paragraphs, it is likely to have headings that organize the content. The American Lung Association (2010) noted, a€?After smoking, radon exposure is the second most common cause of lung cancera€? (What Causes Lung Cancer? This student cited the appropriate section heading within the website and then counted to find the specific paragraph where the cited information was located.
If an online source has no listed author and no date, use the source title and the abbreviation n.d. For personal communications, such as interviews, letters, and e-mails, cite the name of the person involved, clarify that the material is from a personal communication, and provide the specific date the communication took place.
At work, you may sometimes share information resources with your colleagues by photocopying an interesting article or forwarding the URL of a useful website. Revisit the problem citations you identified in Note 13.55 "Exercise 3"a€”for instance, sources with no listed author or other oddities. In APA papers, in-text citations include the name of the author(s) and the year of publication whenever possible. When citing online sources, provide the same information used for print sources if it is available. When a source does not provide information that usually appears in a citation, in-text citations should provide readers with alternative information that would help them locate the source material.
When writing a paper, discuss with your professor what particular standards he or she would like you to follow.
Apply American Psychological Association (APA) style and formatting guidelines for a references section. This section provides detailed information about how to create the references section of your paper. At this stage in the writing process, you may already have begun setting up your references section. To set up your references section, use the insert page break feature of your word-processing program to begin a new page. See the following examples for how to format a book or journal article with a single author. For a work with no individual author(s), use the name of the organization that published the work or, if this is unavailable, the title of the work in place of the authora€™s name. For works with more than seven authors, list the first six names, followed by ellipses, and then the name of the last author listed. Use sentence case for all other titlesa€”books, articles, web pages, and other source titles.
Set up the first page of your references section and begin adding entries, following the APA formatting guidelines provided in this section. If there are any simple entries that you can format completely using the general guidelines, do so at this time. For entries you are unsure of how to format, type in as much information as you can, and highlight the entries so you can return to them later.
As is the case for in-text citations, formatting reference entries becomes more complicated when you are citing a source with multiple authors, citing various types of online media, or citing sources for which you must provide additional information beyond the basics listed in the general guidelines. For book-length sources and shorter works that appear in a book, follow the guidelines that best describes your source.
The previous example shows the format used for an edited book with one authora€”for instance, a collection of a famous persona€™s letters that has been edited.
Include the translatora€™s name after the title, and at the end of the citation, list the date the original work was published. If you are using any edition other than the first edition, include the edition number in parentheses after the title. Follow the same process you would use to cite a book chapter, substituting the article or essay title for the chapter title. List the authora€™s name if available; if no author is listed, provide the title of the entry where the authora€™s name would normally be listed. List the entries in order of their publication year, beginning with the work published first. If two books have multiple authors, and the first author is the same but the others are different, alphabetize by the second authora€™s last name (or the third or fourth, if necessary). Treat these as you would a book published by a nongovernment organization, but be aware that these works may have an identification number listed. In order to properly cite your sources when writing a research paper, it is important to include a section at the end of the paper (usually called a "Bibliography") that provides detailed information on each of the sources.
If you've ever written a research paper for school, chances are that you've had to include a bibliography section that lists all of the sources that you used in researching your topic. During the process of researching and editing your paper, it is critical that you keep track of every source you use.
Once you've finished researching and writing your paper, you can begin to start putting together the bibliography. While the method described above is a general guide for how to write a bibliography, there are other bibliography formats that you may be asked to use - depending on the type of paper you are writing and the format you are asked to write it in. Please remember that using others' images on the web without their permission is not very nice.
See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. This style is commonly used in the sciences, including social sciences., the documentation and formatting style followed by the American Psychological Association, as well as MLA styleModern Language Association style, or MLA, is often used in the liberal arts and humanities.
First, it signals to your readers that your paper should be taken seriously as a studenta€™s contribution to a given academic or professional field; it is the literary equivalent of wearing a tailored suit to a job interview.
Chapter 11 "Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?" includes tips for keeping track of your sources early in the research process, which will save time later on. Apply APA guidelines as you write, so you will not have much to correct during the editing stage. Writers in disciplines as diverse as astrophysics, biology, psychology, and education follow APA style.
Use the headers and footers tool of your word-processing program to add the header, with the title text at the left and the page number in the upper-right corner. An abstract does not need to be provided in every paper, but an abstract should be used in papers that include a hypothesis.
Briefly introduce the topic, state your findings, and sum up what conclusions you can draw from your research. In your abstract, summarize your research question and your findings, and briefly indicate how your study relates to prior research in the field.
APA style provides formatting guidelines for five levels of section and subsection headings; however, most college research papers require only one or two heading levels. Include your title and at least two to three major section headings, and follow the formatting guidelines provided above. The page number appears in parentheses after the closing quotation marks and before the period that ends the sentence.
Again, the parenthetical citation is placed after the closing quotation marks and before the period at the end of the sentence.
Note that the parenthetical citation is placed before the comma that signals the end of the introductory phrase. As long as you have included the essential information, you can choose the option that works best for that particular sentence and source.
Of course, your research may require that you cite many other types of sources, such as books or articles with more than one author or sources with no individual author listed. Determined by the Modern Languages Association and used for papers in literature, languages, and other disciplines in the humanities. Outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style and sometimes used for papers in the humanities and the sciences; many professional organizations use this style for publications as well. In-text citations provide basic informationa€”the authora€™s name, the publication date, and the page number if necessarya€”while the references section provides more extensive bibliographical information. If an entry continues for more than one line, the second line and each subsequent line are indented five spaces. You will learn how to format citations for different types of source materials, whether you are citing brief quotations, paraphrasing ideas, or quoting longer passages.
Note that when a parenthetical citation appears at the end of the sentence, it comes after the closing quotation marks and before the period. If you are summing up the main findings of a research article, simply providing the authora€™s name and publication year may suffice, but if you are paraphrasing a more specific idea, consider including the page number. Instead of using quotation marks, create a block quotationA long quotation (forty words or more) that uses indentation, rather than quotation marks, to indicate that the material is quoted.

Chang (2008) found that engaging in weight-bearing exercise regularly significantly reduces womena€™s risk of developing osteoporosis.
That doesna€™t mean swimming isna€™t great exercise, but it should be considered one part of an integrated fitness program. Remember, your ideas should drive the paper, and quotations should be used to support and enhance your points. This citation technique also helps convey that you are actively engaged with your source material.
There is a world of difference between an author who a€?suggestsa€? and one who a€?claims,a€? one who a€?questionsa€? and one who a€?criticizes.a€? You do not need to consult your thesaurus every time you cite a source, but do think about which verbs will accurately represent the ideas and make your writing more engaging. This time, look for places where you introduced source material using a signal phrase in your sentence.
When writing professional or academic papers, be mindful of how the words you use to describe someonea€™s tone or ideas carry certain connotations.
Read them through quickly to get a sense of what is covered, and then refer to them again as needed. If the works were published in different years, a standard in-text citation will serve to distinguish them. Additionally, he warned that consumers frequently do not realize the potential harmful effects of some popular supplements (Rodriguez, 2009b). See Chapter 13 "APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting", Section 13.3 "Creating a References Section" for guidelinesa€”or assign each source a temporary code and highlight the in-text citations so you remember to double-check them later on. The health risks associated with this habit begin to decrease soon after a smoker quitsa€? (p. The health risks associated with this habit begin to decrease soon after a smoker quitsa€? (Garrison & Gould, 2010, p. Edit your citations to ensure that each citation follows APA guidelines for the inclusion of the authorsa€™ names, the use of ampersands and et al., the date of publication, and, where appropriate, a page reference. You may use the full title in your sentence or use the first few wordsa€”enough to convey the key ideasa€”in a parenthetical reference. List the citations in the same order they appear in your references section, and separate the citations with a semicolon. Many works of literature and sacred texts, as well as some classic nonfiction texts, fall into this category. Since the book is a collection of Freuda€™s lectures, the student cites the lecture number rather than a page number. For some types of electronic sourcesa€”for instance, many online articlesa€”this information is easily available. Some websites number paragraphs within published articles; if so, include the paragraph number in your citation.
In your citation, name the section where your cited information appears, followed by a paragraph number. Note that while in-text citations correspond to entries in the references section, personal communications are an exception to this rule.
Review the guidelines provided in this section and edit your citations for these kinds of sources according to APA guidelines. It is optional to include page numbers when citing paraphrased material; however, this should be done when citing a specific portion of a work.
This may include the title of the source, section headings and paragraph numbers for websites, and so forth. You will review basic formatting guidelines and learn how to format bibliographical entries for various types of sources.
This section may consist of a single page for a brief research paper or may extend for many pages in professional journal articles.
Note that the header and margins will be the same as in the body of your paper, and pagination continues from the body of your paper. For the remainder of this chapter, you will learn about how to format bibliographical entries for different source types, including multiauthor and electronic sources. The first line should be flush with the left margin, while any lines that follow should be indented five spaces. Do not use italics, underlining, or quotation marks for titles of shorter works, such as articles. The following guidelines show how to format reference entries for these different situations. Note that when the editor is listed after the title, you list the initials before the last name. This type of source is different from an anthology, which is a collection of articles or essays by different authors. Then list the names of the book editor(s) and the title of the book, followed by the page numbers for the chapter and the usual information about the booka€™s publisher.
If the organization that issued the report assigned it a number, include the number in parentheses after the title. While it may not be the most exciting part of writing your paper, it is still one of the most important.
While you may not end up using every source in your paper, if you write down detailed bibliographic information on each source, you'll save yourself the time and hassle of having to go back and find that information. As we've discussed above, the bibliography is basically a list of all of the sources that you've used in writing your paper. Besides letting your reader know what sources you used to write your paper, it can also help protect you against charges of plagiarism and intellectual theft. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (47 MB) or just this chapter (5 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
It provides a uniform framework for the manuscript and parenthetical citations, or in-text citations. Having to follow detailed citation and formatting guidelines as well may seem like just one more task to add to an already-too-long list of requirements. Second, it shows that you respect other peoplea€™s work enough to give them proper credit for it. A good abstract is concisea€”about one hundred to one hundred fifty wordsa€”and is written in an objective, impersonal style. Use the word count feature of your word-processing program to make sure your abstract does not exceed one hundred fifty words. Longer or more complex papers may need level 2 headings or other lower-level headings to organize information clearly. Your in-text citations provide basic information about your source; each source you cite will have a longer entry in the references section that provides more detailed information. You may also need to cite sources available in both print and online and nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews. Again, this information allows your reader to follow up on the sources you cited and do additional reading about the topic if desired.
You will also learn techniques you can use to introduce quoted and paraphrased material effectively. Additionally, these exercises help women maintain muscle mass and overall strength, and many common forms of weight-bearing exercise, such as brisk walking or stair climbing, also provide noticeable cardiovascular benefits. Unfortunately, during the process of writing your research paper, it is easy to fall into a rut and use the same few dull verbs repeatedly, such as a€?Jones said,a€? a€?Smith stated,a€? and so on. If you are citing multiple works by the same author published in the same year, include a lowercase letter immediately after the year.
Williams (2007) believes nutritional supplements can be a useful part of some diet and fitness regimens. In your first citation, use the full name, followed by the abbreviation in square brackets. Other times, however, you will need to vary the format to reflect the differences in online media.
The goal is to provide enough information to help your professional peers locate and follow up on potentially useful information. This section of Chapter 13 "APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting", like the previous section, is meant to be used as a reference tool while you write. Indicate the volume number (if applicable) and page numbers in parentheses after the article title.
Preliminary findings from an evaluation of the presidenta€™s physical fitness program in Pleasantville school district. Besides the quality and strength of your own original ideas, teachers and professors will often look at how well you incorporate outside research into your arguments and how accurately you document those sources.
Before you begin working on your bibliography, it is important to first check with your teacher or professor to find out what bibliography format they want you to use. It also provides the framework for the works cited area for listing references at the end of the essay., from the Modern Language Association.
Finally, it helps your reader find additional materials if he or she wishes to learn more about your topic. Depending on the length and complexity of the paper, its major sections may also be divided into subsections, sub-subsections, and so on. Use your outline to craft your major section headings and determine whether any subtopics are substantial enough to require additional levels of headings.
If you name the author(s) in your sentence, do not repeat the name(s) in your parenthetical citation. Provide as much specific information as possible to achieve that goal, and consult with your professor as to what specific style he or she may prefer. If you're having trouble figuring out how to properly write a bibliography, just follow the simple steps in this guide.
When writing the abstract, take a just-the-facts approach, and summarize your research question and your findings in a few sentences. These smaller sections, in turn, use different heading styles to indicate different levels of information. Doing so will ensure you have represented your colleaguea€™s words in an authentic and accurate way. The source listed first includes an a after the year, the source listed second includes a b, and so on. Note that in this case, the parenthetical citation comes after the period that ends the sentence. Discuss with your instructor whether he or she would like you to cite page numbers in this particular instance.

How to do a quick roller set
How to make money from stocks book
Positive mind positive vibes positive life poster darwin

Comments to «How to write a book title in mla format 101»

  1. iblis_066 writes:
    More about using positive time and author of the quote by reading more.
  2. Samirka writes:
    Affirming to lose weight you need to overcome.