How to write a book in 5 days quickly,short inspirational life quotes tattoos,being positive is hard 2014 - Reviews

Author: admin, 14.06.2015. Category: Positive Quote Of The Day

As one of the earliest printed map specifically of China and the first to show the Great Wall, this map remained the standard type for the interior of China for over sixty years. The text on verso includes four transcriptions of Chinese characters, brought back to Europe by the Jesuit Bernadino Escalante, published in Seville in 1577. 1584G3Add25 in upper right corner (75 copies printed) (last line, left aligned, in small Gothic font: Konig zerschen. 1592L101 (525 copies printed) (last line, left aligned, in cursive script: moribus,exstat quoque volumen Ioannis Gonzalis.
Cartographic Sources: Luiz Jorge de Barbuda or Ludovicus Georgius who made a manuscript map of China which reached Ortelius in 1580 via Arias Montanus (Meurer p.
With its three lushly designed cartouches and many illustrations of indigenous shelters, modes of transportation and animals, this is one of Orteliusa€™s richest engravings. It is a country [that is] very fertile with all manner of things necessary for the maintenance of mana€™s life, caused not only by the excellence of the soil and temperature of the air, but especially by the husbandry and industry of the people.
They sow the drier grounds with wheat and barley, the wet, flat and marshy grounds with rice, which they cut and reap {1588S only {three or} 1588S only} four times a year, [providing] their main diet and means of living. These walls are so neatly and soundly wrought without any crevices or slits that one would think they have just recently been made, whereas their histories testify that they have been built two thousand years ago. It is lawful for men to marry many wives, of whom they keep only one in their house, the other being boarded in adjacent places elsewhere. Yet, by their manner of writing, and through the characters which they all use in common, they can understand each other reasonably well.
As regards the part of the country adjacent to the sea, being in every manner and in many places watered and crossed by various great and navigable rivers, there are almost as many people that dwell in boats on the water as there are in houses on the land. This entire country is subject to one King (as to a Monarch) whom they call The Lord of the World, and The Son of Heaven.
Thieves and murderers are kept in perpetual imprisonment until their life comes to an end through whipping, hunger or cold. The manner of whipping is like this: they lay the party to be whipped, face downwards, and his hands bound behind him. A reflection of just how early this map is in the Westa€™s knowledge of China is suggested by the fact that Portuguese Jesuits were not allowed to establish a mission on Chinese soil until 1577, just seven years before this map was published. This huge kingdom of China is called TAME by the inhabitants, and they call themselves TANGIS. For the people here are not given to idleness, but are very laborious and exert themselves.
The higher and steep places, and the sides of hills are covered with Pine trees, amongst which they sow {not in 1598D{millet, beans or horse-corn} not in 1598D}. The villages, which cannot be counted at all, are very densely and pleasantly inhabited through continuous husbandry and tillage. The people are broad and round faced, thin-haired, flat nosed and small eyed, although there may be some among them that are reasonably well favored and handsome men.
There are some who never leave their boats or barges, but who stay there all the time, fishing and fowling [from there] all year long, for, as we said before, the abundance of fish and fowl here in this country is admirable.
When they want to go fishing, they put these [birds] into their boats, and taking them to the deepest part of the river, they bind their necks lightly with cords (to prevent that the fishes they catch should go into their bellies), they cast them in multitudes into the water where they let them stay until their crops are clearly filled with fish, and then, returning to their boats, where they are received, they throw up at their master's feet all the fish they have caught.
Then he is beaten by a whip made of a reed or cane upon the calves of his legs with such a mighty blow that the victim usually shows blood by the first stroke. They believe that all earthly creatures and all things in the World, as well as government and the disposition of them, depend on Heaven and Heavenly powers. This paste they hide in the earth, where they let it lie for 80 or a hundred years, before they stir it or look at it again, leaving it as an inheritance, or as a precious jewel for their heirs. The situation [explained there] clearly shows that by PtolemA¦us these people were called SINA†, and the name now retained does not differ much from that.


He also produced an early history of China from which of the information for this map must have been drawn. Although the mapa€™s Portuguese maker, Barbuda, was himself not a Jesuit, his sources for the map were Portuguese Jesuits. But by the bordering nations it is called CHINA, {1606E only {which is that [name] Tein or Sin which Avicenna mentions so many hundreds of times, and recommends for sovereign use in Physics, and it is the same, no doubt, with SINA† or Sinarum regio, a country with rich commodities much discussed amongst all ancient Cosmographers} 1606E only}. Their cities are mostly situated on the bank of some wide and navigable river, fortified with broad and deep ditches, and very high, strong walls.
Their streets are so smooth and precisely leveled, as if they were made by line and level, and are so large and broad that ten to fifteen horsemen can ride side by side through them. The color of their faces is somewhat like that of those who inhabit Europe, yet those who live around Canton are of a browner complexion. The men there, like the women here, wear their hair long, winding it in a knot on the crown of their head, where they bind and fasten it with a silver hairpin. Within the city there may be no brothels, and the courtesans all live in the unwalled suburbs. This they do as often as the fisherman wants, and then, being brought home to their compartments, their necks are untied, and they are given ordinary food as much as they want.
They think that Heaven is the greatest of all Gods, and therefore the character referring to it has the first place in their alphabet.
The Chinese characters found in the text on the verso of the map were the first introduction to Chinese language for many educated Europeans of the time. In many and various places [the streets] are parted and separated by stately triumphal arches, gracing the cities beyond measure.
The women comb their hair very trimly, and ornate and beautify it with golden spangles and various kinds of pearls and precious stones.
They do the same in winter, but then they do not put them into dung, but into a wicker basket, and putting this over a moderate fire which is kept burning all the time to reach the same temperature, they achieve the same in a certain number of days. Robberies (no crime committed in this country is considered to be more odious) are punished by a cruel kind of whipping. They worship the Sun, the Moon and the Stars, yes even the very Devil himself (whom they picture in the same form as we do here in Europe) that he may not hurt them, as they say. And they observe the ancient custom that he who takes away old paste will put new paste into its place} not in 1587F & 1598F}. Japan is shown on a curious curved projection reminiscent of Portuguese charts of the period with Honshu dissected along the line of Lake Biwa. The map and text would have forced many Europeans to see China for the first time as a nation and culture distinct from the others of Asia. The sea, which beats upon this coast, and the rivers which run through the middle of this country abound with all sorts of fish. Towards the top and the fortifications, they are made with bricks, connected with lime or potter's clay, the same stuff, I mean, of which China dishes, so esteemed by us, are made.
The wealthy and better to do men have all their clothes made of silk in various different colors. These feasts they organize, like we also do, in a very sumptuous manner and with as much preparation and provision as may be obtained or devised.
And moreover he adds that this King alone far surpasses all the rest of the Princes of Asia around him, and that his yearly revenues surpass all the riches and wealth of entire Europe. The outline shows the region horizontally orientated with North to the right of the page and includes parts of Indo-China, the Philippines and most of Japan.
But especially Sugar canes (which grow here in marvelously great abundance) and Mulberry trees, to feed the silk worms which eat the leaves of this tree.
This (they state in their judgment) in greatness, exquisite workmanship, beauty and in costs exceeds by far all the stately buildings of Europe.


They never go outdoors, except when they are carried in litters on mena€™s shoulders, attended by all the family. Their chambers are embellished and bedecked with hanging cloths of silk and rich tapestry, [and] flowers are strewn and cast in every corner. This kingdom has an infinite number of all sorts of galleys, boats and barges, with which they cross rivers and inlets of the sea, so that, when they want to brag about the Kinga€™s wealth and his powers of command, they use a proverb saying that he can make a bridge of ships so long, that it shall reach from China to Malacca, which are more than 500 leagues apart.
It is covered by a very rich curtain, which is never drawn away except on festivals and holy days, and when it happens they give it superstitious reverence, as if indeed it did represent the very Majesty of the King himself} {not in 1587F & 1598F}.
They also have two sorts of priests: one sort goes in white, with the head shaven, and lives by begging, as our Friars do.
The woods, forests and groves are full of Boars, Foxes, Hares, Rabbits, Zebellines and Weasels and various other such kinds of beasts, whose skins are used for protective clothing. Silk is their chief merchandise and commodity from which they yearly obtain an infinite gain and profit. Here and there on these walls towers and bulwarks have been made from which they may see all their fields, far and near around them. They report that when he [= the king] makes war at any time against the Tartars, he leads out into the fields at least three hundred thousand footmen and two hundred thousand horsemen, yet, they also add to this that it [= China] is not a very warlike nation. The other goes in black, wears long hair, and lives by himself, as our Priests here in Europe do.
He says that his palace, or the house where he keeps his Court, is enclosed by seven walls. The Tartar yurts, or travelling tents, are dotted across the plains and steppes of Central and Eastern Asia.
Of all kinds of birds there are plenty, especially water birds, as is shown by the fact that in Canton, which is one of the smaller cities in this province, there are served on their tables every day some ten to twelve thousand Ducks and Geese. During [the feast] they have music from all sorts of instruments, with Interludes and plays on stage. The King has under his [command] a governor, as it were a lieutenant, whom they call Tutan.
The Tartar yurts, or travelling tents, are dotted across the plains and steppes of Central and Eastern Asia.A  Notable is the illustration in eastern China of the wheeled a€?sail machinesa€?. At these banquets they drink and eat so much, that even the very Dutch and Flemish people do not much exceed them [in this]. This lieutenant is the judge who determines all cases and controversies arising between man and man throughout the whole kingdom. And that 70 crowned Kings pay homage to him, and are subject to his government and command. These four wind wagons are shown on the right and top of the map, perhaps the earliest examples of a depiction of this device, which in Europe is certain to have originated in the Low Countries, but which had been invented much earlier in China. The wind wagon is well documented in a treatise in Dutch on the subject by Simon Stevin that appeared in Dutch in the year 1600. They do not touch their meat with their hands, but they put it into their mouths with a silver fork or hook. They sit at their meal or table in chairs or on stools, as we do here in Europe, and not on the ground, as the rest of the Asians do. They are such a very witty and ingenious people that they have devised and put together certain wagons, which they can skillfully guide through the fields and flat plains, driven forth by its sails and the wind, like a ship at sea.



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