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In contrast, the endocrine glands (endo=inside), specialized organs, ductless and their production passes directly into the blood-stream, circulates all over the body and acts at places far from where it originated.
Endocrinology is one of the latest and the fastest deveA­loping areas of bio-medical research. The main endocrines are: the pineal, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals, islets of Langerhans and gonads (sex-glands). Until recently, the status of the pineal gland as an endocrine organ was highly controversial. The pineal gland or body (epiphysis cerebri, corpus pineale) lies near the centre of the brain.
Although it is located within the brain, the gland is innervated doubly by central and autonomic systems. Thus, in childhood, the pineal gland helps in holding the sex in abeyance, and later aids in the maturing processes of sex after puberty. Some experimental evidence indicates that pineal hormones inhibit ACTH secretion, and thus indirectly help to regulate the secretions of the adrenal gland. The pituitary gland (also called the hypophysis) is about the size of a pea, situated almost exactly in the centre of the head at the base of the brain and just behind the root of the nose. To understand how the endocrine system works, we must look at the pituitary as well as the hypothalmus which controls it.
The pituitary is traditionally called the master gland or 'the conductor of the endocrine orchestra'.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) are both gonadotropins i.e.
The hypothalamus receives inputs from parts of the body including the emotional centres of the brain.
The other hormones are growth hormone and prolactine which stimulates the secretion of milk in the breasts. The posterior pituitary is not really an endocrine but a storage depot of the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus. The thyroid gland consists of two lateral maroon-coloured masses astride the upper end of the trachea, close to the larynx.
Its most astonishing feature is its ability to take up and concentrate large amounts of iodine which, within the gland, may be 50 to 300 times more than in the blood-plasma.
The rate of release of thyroid hormones is principally regulated by the thyrotrophic hormonea€”TSHa€”of the anterior pituitary. Thyroid gland is essentially an energy producing organ and its output is the controller of the rate of metabolism or the speed of living. Parathyroids are four minute yellowish brown ovoid bodies about 6 mm long and 3 mm wide, embedded in the lobes of the thyroid gland (two in each lobe).
The overall effects of parathyroid hormone are to increase the calcium levels in the extra-cellular fluids and decrease the phosphate concentration. Unlike other glands, the thymus gland is not universally accepted as a member of the endocrine system.
A lymphoid, two lobed structure, this gland is situated in the chest between the two lungs and extends up into the neck.
An interesting correlation that has recently attracted -the attention of researchers is the fact that there is a dramatic increase in auto-immune diseases such as arthritis, anemia, (conditions in which the body attacks its own useful cells as a result of errors in recognition mechanism) with increasing age precisely at the time when the thymus is losing its functional capacity.
It is believed that this is the gland that keeps children childish and sometimes makes adults childlike. Endocrine tissue making up the islets of Langerhans accounts for about 1 to 2 % of the total weight of the pancreas.
Glucagon is formed in the alpha-cells, insulin in the beta-cells, and somatostatin in the delta-cells.
Adrenals are a pair of three- cornered hat-shaped glands capping the upper end of the kidneys.
Probably more hormonesa€”more than three dozens - are produced by the adrenal cortex than by any other endocrine gland of the body. Fear, pain, exposure to cold, low blood-pressure, emotional upsets and other challenging experiences stimulate the release of these hormones.
The secretion of these two hormones is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system and the higher centres in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus. Through repeated excitement, anger, fear etc the adrenal glands may be exhausted of their reserve supply of adrenaline secretion.
The gonads also double as potent endocrine glands, secreting hormones that condition the functional state and influence the psycho-biological phenomena involved in the sexual act. The testes have semen as their external secretion which carries the sperm and which is stored at the prostate gland.
Secretions of a woman's sex-hormones are in a large measure responsible for the characteristics that distinguish her from a man. Testes are the chief male gonads like the ovaries in the female, having two major functions: they produce the germ cells that act in reproduction and they also are powerful endocrine organs secreting male sex hormones. The male sex hormones are called androgens and testosterone is the major androgen produced by the testes.
Testosterone is responsible, to some degree, for sexual interest and sex drive, but an intricate complex of psychological factors is superimposed on this underlying endocrine mechanism. Having dealt with physical functions of the endocrine system, we shall now, briefly, discuss its action on the mental states and behavioural patterns of man.
The nervous system and the endocrine system are the two major control-systems of the body. A serious study of the endocrines and their hormones commenced about the beginning of the century.
Within the central nervous system, there are groups of nerve-cells, which are capable of functioning as glands.
Recent studies on neuro-secretions leave no doubt that the nervous system has its own endocrine specialization for the release of hormones.
Every gland might be likened to a chemical factory in which all cells are working and the production of the factory is their secretions.

In this chapter we shall, therefore, deal with the ductless endocrine glands, their secretions called hormones and their profound effects on the physical functions, mental states and behavioural patterns of an individual. All these glands are comparatively small, are devoid of ducts and have access to very rich vascular supply.
For the most part, hormone-secretion of endocrine system is under the control of pituitary and hypothalamus. Despite greatly increased interest, many mysteries of its functions still remain to be unravelled. Impulses from these nerve-fibres, transmitted to the gland by neuro-transmitter norepinephrine, stimulate the secretion of the pineal hormonea€”melatonin.
In adult life, it regulates the proper nourishment to muscles and controls the action of light on the pigment of skin. However, an even grander analogy must be found for the hypothalamus since it controls the pituitary.
The former produces six different hormones and is controlled by hormone-like releasing factors from the hypothalamus.
Whenever required it produces releasing factors which stimulates the pituitary to produce trophic hormones, which in turn stimulate the other glands to release the hormone needs for the occasion. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is responsible for the regulation of water loss from the kidneys through braking effect. The two lobes are connected with a narrow strip of the same tissue just below the Adam's apple.
Iodine ions are very effectively removed from the circulating blood by an active transport mechanism (an iodide pump). The hormone is secreted in a self-regulating feedback system, independent of pituitary control. Besides the function mentioned above, the thymus exerts an influence on the lymph nodes, spleen and other lymphatic tissues so that they too gain the ability to produce lymphocytes and foster the development of immuno-competent cells by means of a hormone.
Functionally, the adrenal-cortical hormones can be grouped into three major classes: Mineralocorticoids which influence primarily the electrolytes of the extra-cellular fluids, regulate the quantity of salt and water and maintain the electrolyte balance in the body. Thus the functioning of the adrenal medulla is intimately linked with the sympathetic nervous system Both the release and resynthesis of the hormones are triggered by nerve impulses. Its entry into the blood causes a tremendous heightening of vigour and tensing of the nervous system.
If enough time is not allowed for the glands to recuperate, amount of the secretion will be insufficient to meet the demand. Thus besides producing the ovum, ovaries also produce endocrine substances that vitalize a woman and make her feminine. These are secreted mainly by the ovaries which are two small glands of the size of a bean which lie inside the pelvis supported by ligaments.
At or about the age of 10, the biological clock (pineal gland) in the girl's body seems to set off an alarm that wakes up a specific portion of the hypothalamus. Other androgens are produced by testes as well as adrenal glands but all of them are slight in comparison with testosterone. Small quantities of testosterone continue to be secreted during childhood, but there is a dramatic increase at puberty. So also is the variation that repeats its cycle regularly everyday the so-called 'circadian rhythms' to wake during the day and sleep at night. Science cannot hope to mimic the fine control exercised by this powerful band of chemical messengers. The co-ordinating effects of the nervous system are transmitted nearly instantaneously by electro-chemical impulses; the endocrine glands secrete chemical regulators (hormones) which are carried through the body by the blood-stream. It has now been known that besides the old method of chemical intercommunication between the two systems, another method by nerve-action also exists. The chemical messengers released by these neuro-secretory cells are called neuro-hormones. The functional interlocking is so remarkable that nervous and endocrine elements are coming to be regarded as constituting a single integrated system called 'neuro-endocrine system'.
Impulses and urges not only generate feelings but also command appropriate action that satisfy the need. Some glands, such as those of the skin and the gastro-intestinal tract, produce secretions which drain out to the surface or into a body cavity via a duct and affect only near where they are released.
Unlike continuous anatomical structures of most of the systems of the body, the glands of the endocrine system are scattered through the body like islands. Just as, the thermoA­stat may instruct the central heating to switch on or off, the endocrine system regulates various functions of the vital organs of the body to match the external conditions. Variety of trophic hormones secreted by the pituitary reach thyroid, adrenals and gonads via the blood stream and stimulate each of them to secrete specific (peripheral) hormones in definite quantities. It acts as a general supervisor over all the other glands, and its secretions act as a regulator for all endocrines.
Its job is to stimulate growth in the growing years but it works on many systems even after adolescence. Iodine is used to produce hormones which regulate protein-, carbohydrate-, and fat-metabolism. In exerts its effects in three major sites: In the bones, where it promotes reabsorption of calcium and phosphate into the extra-cellular fluid by increasing the number and activity of the osteoclasts[**] In the intestine, where it enhances the absorption of calcium and phosphate, and In the kidneys, where it increases the reabsorption of calcium but enhances excretion of phosphate with the-urine. However, there cannot be much doubt that it is the source of one or more hormone-like factors.
A brownish mass, it reaches its largest size at the beginning of puberty, when it is about 5 cms.
The continuance of its activity after puberty causes peculiar actions of sex-development and stops the process of transforming into positive sex-expression, either of male or female.
Norepinephrine which is also a neurotransmitter is also released by the ends of the sympathetic nerve-fibres. The amount of adrenaline, in circulation in general, is about 1 part to 2) millions, while a hundred thousand times more is stored in the glands as reserve. More sugar is sent into the blood from the liver and more red blood-cells are forced into circulation from the blood reservoirs of the liver and spleen The heart beats more strongly, the blood-pressure and temperature rises, breathing is more rapid, and the blood rushes in the brain as well as to the skeletal muscles of the limbs.

Their principal function is to produce the germ-cells (ova and sperm) that can fuse with the germ-cells of the opposite sex to produce a new life. They are touched by the fronded ends of the fallopian tubesa€”the ducts for the passage of ova to uterus.
The function of the testes is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary system, and its regulation by the gonadotrophic hormones is accomplished according to the feedback principle. This sparks a furious growtha€”spurt along with the development of the mature sexual organ. Growth hormone and thyroxine are especially influential in the period of rapid growth and development both in the womb and outside. The action of the latter is more slowly established, but longer lasting than that of the former. Lately, it has been realised that nervous and endocrine systems, both functioning to integrate the organism, are not as divergent as was formerly supposed. As research deepens our knowledge of co-ordinate systems, it becomes increasingly apparent that their products participate not only in every bodily function, but have profound influence upon the mental states and behaviour of individuals. Animals just act out instinctive rituals of eating, courtship and fighting because they do not possess a reasoning mind. Nevertheless, they are unified into a finely coordinated system, function in a marvellously harmonious fashion and coordinate the activities of the body. An efficient feedback system of plus-minus or minus-plus chemical interaction regulates the function of these three glands as well as the trophic function of the pituitary. During the first two-three years of life, its chief duty is to give the baby time to grow in bulk and put on weight. At various times of life, the thyroid and sex-hormones also share a growth promoting role. It is the other great link between the brain and the organs of generation; and its acceleration is necessary to give balance to the brain.
On the other hand, the digestion and everything non-essential is inhibited, arrested and suppressed.
It is characterized by indecision, a tendency to worry and an inclination to weep for the slightest provocation. Elaborate system of ducts and glands, for the conveyance of the germ-cells towards the exterior* has been evolved. As in the case of female, pituitary hormones play a profound role in controlling the functions of the testes in male.
While nerve-action is measured in milliA­seconds, some hormones need several days to get started and then last for weeks, months or even years.
Many endocrine glands act on the nervous system through their hormones; on the other hand, endocrines are stimulated or inhibited by products of the nervous system. Man, on the other hand, because he has conscious reasoning, can control his responses to the insistence of the impulsive drives. They regulate such important body-processes, as growth and development, sexual activity, pregnancy and birth, metabolism and maintain homeostasis in the organism.
The feedback system works like this: with the increased level of a peripheral hormone, the secretion of the stimulanta€”the trophic hormonea€”is inhibited and vice versa.
It is hidden away at the base of the brain in a tiny cave behind and above the pituitary gland.
An important effect of the pineal secretion is to inhibit the production of gonadotropic hormones, thus reducing sexual excitation. Each adrenal is a double gland, composed of a cortexa€”an outer layer, and a medullaa€”an inner layer.
At least some differences in the typical behaviour and personality between men and women seem to be linked with the secretion of testosterone. At puberty, the first signal is given by hypothalamus through gonadotropins from pituitary which stimulate the major producers of sex hormonesa€”the testes and ovaries - to grow and begin to secrete. Nerve-impulses control the function only of muscles and glands, while hormones may act on all the cells of the body. It is composed, in part, of nerve-cells containing pigment similar to that present in the cells of retina. The cortex makes up the bulk of the gland, which is bright yellow outside and reddish brown inside.
Thus the pineal is believed to be the seat of the body's biological clock, which signals the onset of maturation.
Cortex itself is divided into three zones: a narrow outer, a wide heavier middle, and an irregular inner. It is heavier in the female than in the male, and becomes enlarged during sex-excitement, menstruation and pregnancy. Cortisone is nowadays synthesized and used in treatment of many different disorders mostly to suppress inflammation.
At all ages, the amount of blood passing through the adrenals is very great compared to their size.
Pain in muscles and joints are often dramatically affected and relieved by the use of this drug. The tremendous importance of these glands is better understood when it is known that death occurs very quickly after removal. 3 hours ago christmas music piano printable sheet - body parts worksheet your heart and body quick printable kids book about magnets - 2010 free printable calendars here are three sets of picture cards for body parts.
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