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This is a€?APA and MLA Documentation and Formattinga€?, chapter 14 from the book English for Business Success (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. Identify the major components of a research paper written using American Psychological Association (APA) style. In this chapter, you will learn how to use APA styleThe documentation and formatting style followed by the American Psychological Association, or APA. While all the formatting and citation styles have their own use and applications, in this chapter we focus our attention on the two styles you are most likely to use in your academic studies: APA and MLA. If you find that the rules of proper source documentation are difficult to keep straight, you are not alone. Work ahead whenever you can.Chapter 10 "Writing Preparation" includes tips for keeping track of your sources early in the research process, which will save time later on. This chapter provides detailed guidelines for using the citation and formatting conventions developed by the American Psychological Association, or APA. List the first three elements in the order given in the previous list, centered about one third of the way down from the top of the page. The next page of your paper provides an abstractA concise (one hundred to one hundred fifty words) summary of research findings that appears at the beginning of an APA-style paper., or brief summary of your findings.
In Chapter 11 "Writing", you read a paper written by a student named Jorge, who researched the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets. Depending on your field of study, you may sometimes write research papers that present extensive primary research, such as your own experiment or survey.
APA style requirements also address specific formatting concerns, such as margins, pagination, and heading styles, within the body of the paper. Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point).
Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section. Section headings and subsection headings within the body of your paper use different types of formatting depending on the level of information you are presenting.
APA style uses section headingsHeadings used to organize information within an APA-style paper.
The fourth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are boldfaced and italicized.
The fifth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are italicized and not boldfaced. Visually, the hierarchy of information is organized as indicated in Table 14.1 "Section Headings". A college research paper may not use all the heading levels shown in Table 14.1 "Section Headings", but you are likely to encounter them in academic journal articles that use APA style. Working with the document you developed in Note 14.11 "Exercise 2", begin setting up the heading structure of the final draft of your research paper according to APA guidelines. Throughout the body of your paper, include a citation whenever you quote or paraphrase material from your research sources. In-text citations must provide the name of the author or authors and the year the source was published. This information may be included within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence, as in these examples. Epstein (2010) points out that a€?junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictivea€? (p. Here, the writer names the source author when introducing the quote and provides the publication date in parentheses after the authora€™s name.
Addiction researchers caution that a€?junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictivea€? (Epstein, 2010, p.
Here, the writer provides a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence that includes the authora€™s name, the year of publication, and the page number separated by commas. Here, the writer chose to mention the source title in the sentence (an optional piece of information to include) and followed the title with a parenthetical citation. David Epsteina€™s book Junk Food, Junk Science (2010) pointed out that a€?junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictivea€? (p. Another variation is to introduce the author and the source title in your sentence and include the publication date and page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the end of the sentence. APA is just one of several different styles with its own guidelines for documentation, formatting, and language usage.
The brief citations included in the body of your paper correspond to the more detailed citations provided at the end of the paper in the references section.
The references page is double spaced and lists entries in alphabetical order by the authora€™s last name.
Following proper citation and formatting guidelines helps writers ensure that their work will be taken seriously, give proper credit to other authors for their work, and provide valuable information to readers.
Working ahead and taking care to cite sources correctly the first time are ways writers can save time during the editing stage of writing a research paper. In APA papers, in-text citations usually include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication. In-text citations correspond to entries in the references section, which provide detailed bibliographical information about a source. As noted in previous sections of this book, in-text citations usually provide the name of the author(s) and the year the source was published. For brief quotationsa€”fewer than forty wordsa€”use quotation marks to indicate where the quoted material begins and ends, and cite the name of the author(s), the year of publication, and the page number where the quotation appears in your source.
Chang (2008) emphasized that a€?engaging in weight-bearing exercise consistently is one of the single best things women can do to maintain good healtha€? (p. The authora€™s name can be included in the body of the sentence or in the parenthetical citation. Weight Training for Women (Chang, 2008) claimed that a€?engaging in weight-bearing exercise consistently is one of the single best things women can do to maintain good healtha€? (p. Weight Training for Women claimed that a€?engaging in weight-bearing exercise consistently is one of the single best things women can do to maintain good healtha€? (Chang, 2008, p.
In Changa€™s 2008 text Weight Training for Women, she asserts, a€?Engaging in weight-bearing exercise is one of the single best things women can do to maintain good healtha€? (p.
You may begin a sentence with the direct quotation and add the authora€™s name and a strong verb before continuing the quotation.
When you paraphrase or summarize ideas from a source, you follow the same guidelines previously provided, except that you are not required to provide the page number where the ideas are located.
Chang (2008) pointed out that weight-bearing exercise has many potential benefits for women. Chang (2008) found that weight-bearing exercise could help women maintain or even increase bone density through middle age and beyond, reducing the likelihood that they will develop osteoporosis in later life (p. Although the writer is not directly quoting the source, this passage paraphrases a specific detail, so the writer chose to include the page number where the information is located. Although APA style guidelines do not require writers to provide page numbers for material that is not directly quoted, your instructor may wish you to do so when possible. When you quote a longer passage from a sourcea€”forty words or morea€”use a different format to set off the quoted material. In recent years, many writers within the fitness industry have emphasized the ways in which women can benefit from weight-bearing exercise, such as weightlifting, karate, dancing, stair climbing, hiking, and jogging. Review the places in your paper where you cited, quoted, and paraphrased material from a source with a single author. If you are quoting a passage that continues into a second paragraph, indent five spaces again in the first line of the second paragraph. It is important to note that swimming cannot be considered a weight-bearing exercise, since the water supports and cushions the swimmer. Including an introductory phrase in your text, such as a€?Jackson wrotea€? or a€?Copeland found,a€? often helps you integrate source material smoothly. Punch up your writing by using strong verbs that help your reader understand how the source material presents ideas. Highlight the verbs used in your signal phrases, and make note of any that seem to be overused throughout the paper. It is important to accurately represent a colleaguea€™s ideas or communications in the workplace. For a print work with one author, follow the guidelines provided in Chapter 14 "APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting", Section 14.1 "Formatting a Research Paper". Rodriguez (2009a) criticized the nutrition-supplement industry for making unsubstantiated and sometimes misleading claims about the benefits of taking supplements. If you have not yet created your references section, you may not be sure which source will appear first. If you are citing works by different authors with the same last name, include each authora€™s initials in your citation, whether you mention them in the text or in parentheses.
According to two leading researchers, the rate of childhood obesity exceeds the rate of adult obesity (K.
When two authors are listed for a given work, include both authorsa€™ names each time you cite the work.
If the work you are citing has three to five authors, list all the authorsa€™ names the first time you cite the source.
One survey, conducted among 350 smokers aged 18 to 30, included a detailed questionnaire about participantsa€™ motivations for smoking (Henderson, Davidian, & Degler, 2010). Note that these examples follow the same ampersand conventions as sources with two authors. Disturbingly, some young women use smoking as a means of appetite suppression (Henderson et al., 2010). If the work you are citing has six or more authors, list only the first authora€™s name, followed by et al., in your in-text citations. Researchers have found that outreach work with young people has helped reduce tobacco use in some communities (Costello et al., 2007). When citing a work that has no individual author(s) but is published by an organization, use the organizationa€™s name in place of the authora€™s name.
It is possible for a patient to have a small stroke without even realizing it (American Heart Association [AHA], 2010). Another cause for concern is that even if patients realize that they have had a stroke and need medical attention, they may not know which nearby facilities are best equipped to treat them (AHA, 2010). Review the places in your paper where you cited material from a source with multiple authors or with an organization as the author. Mark any additional citations within your paper that you are not sure how to format based on the guidelines provided so far. If no author is listed and the source cannot be attributed to an organization, use the title in place of the authora€™s name. Rosenhan (1973) had mentally healthy study participants claim to be experiencing hallucinations so they would be admitted to psychiatric hospitals. To cite a source that is referred to within another secondary source, name the first source in your sentence. Rosenhana€™s study a€?On Being Sane in Insane Placesa€? (as cited in Spitzer, 1975) found that psychiatrists diagnosed schizophrenia in people who claimed to be experiencing hallucinations and sought treatmenta€”even though these patients were, in fact, imposters. At times, you may provide more than one citation in a parenthetical reference, such as when you are discussing related works or studies with similar results.
Some researchers have found serious flaws in the way Rosenhana€™s study was conducted (Dawes, 2001; Spitzer, 1975). Both of these researchers authored works that support the point being made in this sentence, so it makes sense to include both in the same citation. In some cases, you may need to cite an extremely well-known work that has been repeatedly republished or translated.
In New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis, Freud explains that the a€?manifest contenta€? of a dreama€”what literally takes placea€”is separate from its a€?latent content,a€? or hidden meaning (trans.
Here, the student is citing a classic work of psychology, originally written in German and later translated to English. To cite an introduction, foreword, preface, or afterword, cite the author of the material and the year, following the same format used for other print materials. Whenever possible, cite electronic sources as you would print sources, using the author, the date, and where appropriate, a page number.
If an online source has no page numbers but you want to refer to a specific portion of the source, try to locate other information you can use to direct your reader to the information cited.
As researchers have explained, a€?Incorporating fresh fruits and vegetables into onea€™s diet can be a challenge for residents of areas where there are few or no easily accessible supermarketsa€? (Smith & Jones, 2006, para. Even if a source does not have numbered paragraphs, it is likely to have headings that organize the content.
The American Lung Association (2010) noted, a€?After smoking, radon exposure is the second most common cause of lung cancera€? (What Causes Lung Cancer? This student cited the appropriate section heading within the website and then counted to find the specific paragraph where the cited information was located.
If an online source has no listed author and no date, use the source title and the abbreviation n.d. For personal communications, such as interviews, letters, and e-mails, cite the name of the person involved, clarify that the material is from a personal communication, and provide the specific date the communication took place. At work, you may sometimes share information resources with your colleagues by photocopying an interesting article or forwarding the URL of a useful website. Revisit the problem citations you identified in Note 14.55 "Exercise 3"a€”for instance, sources with no listed author or other oddities.
In APA papers, in-text citations include the name of the author(s) and the year of publication whenever possible. When citing online sources, provide the same information used for print sources if it is available. When a source does not provide information that usually appears in a citation, in-text citations should provide readers with alternative information that would help them locate the source material.
When writing a paper, discuss with your professor what particular standards he or she would like you to follow.
Apply American Psychological Association (APA) style and formatting guidelines for a references section. This section provides detailed information about how to create the references section of your paper. At this stage in the writing process, you may already have begun setting up your references section. To set up your references section, use the insert page break feature of your word-processing program to begin a new page.
See the following examples for how to format a book or journal article with a single author.
For a work with no individual author(s), use the name of the organization that published the work or, if this is unavailable, the title of the work in place of the authora€™s name. For works with more than seven authors, list the first six names, followed by ellipses, and then the name of the last author listed. Use sentence case for all other titlesa€”books, articles, web pages, and other source titles. Set up the first page of your references section and begin adding entries, following the APA formatting guidelines provided in this section. If there are any simple entries that you can format completely using the general guidelines, do so at this time.
For entries you are unsure of how to format, type in as much information as you can, and highlight the entries so you can return to them later.
As is the case for in-text citations, formatting reference entries becomes more complicated when you are citing a source with multiple authors, citing various types of online media, or citing sources for which you must provide additional information beyond the basics listed in the general guidelines. For book-length sources and shorter works that appear in a book, follow the guidelines that best describes your source. The previous example shows the format used for an edited book with one authora€”for instance, a collection of a famous persona€™s letters that has been edited.
Include the translatora€™s name after the title, and at the end of the citation, list the date the original work was published. If you are using any edition other than the first edition, include the edition number in parentheses after the title. Follow the same process you would use to cite a book chapter, substituting the article or essay title for the chapter title. List the authora€™s name if available; if no author is listed, provide the title of the entry where the authora€™s name would normally be listed.
List the entries in order of their publication year, beginning with the work published first.
If two books have multiple authors, and the first author is the same but the others are different, alphabetize by the second authora€™s last name (or the third or fourth, if necessary).
Ovo je prica o zivotu i vladavini jednog od najvecih turskih, ali i svjetskih osvajaca u povijesti.
Beyond the NegativeIt is unclear to me whether it were Henry Fox Talbot or Louis Daguerre, or possibly some other unnamed fellow who first transferred a positive image onto paper from a negative. 1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c.
The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph.
Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans.
The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards.
The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee.


The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American. According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000. An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary. The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings.
The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation. The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v. Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963.
The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v.
The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members.
New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism. The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation. In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director. In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president.
In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W.
The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W.
As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L. Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States. When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized.
21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006. 22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents.
30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000. 33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). 37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations".
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply.
In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J. In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. This style is commonly used in the sciences, including social sciences., the documentation and formatting style followed by the American Psychological Association, as well as MLA styleModern Language Association style, or MLA, is often used in the liberal arts and humanities. First, it signals to your readers that your paper should be taken seriously as a studenta€™s contribution to a given academic or professional field; it is the literary equivalent of wearing a tailored suit to a job interview. Apply APA guidelines as you write, so you will not have much to correct during the editing stage.
Writers in disciplines as diverse as astrophysics, biology, psychology, and education follow APA style.
Use the headers and footers tool of your word-processing program to add the header, with the title text at the left and the page number in the upper-right corner. An abstract does not need to be provided in every paper, but an abstract should be used in papers that include a hypothesis. Briefly introduce the topic, state your findings, and sum up what conclusions you can draw from your research. In your abstract, summarize your research question and your findings, and briefly indicate how your study relates to prior research in the field. APA style provides formatting guidelines for five levels of section and subsection headings; however, most college research papers require only one or two heading levels. Include your title and at least two to three major section headings, and follow the formatting guidelines provided above. As you learned in Chapter 10 "Writing Preparation", the purpose of citations is twofold: to give credit to others for their ideas and to allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired. The page number appears in parentheses after the closing quotation marks and before the period that ends the sentence. Again, the parenthetical citation is placed after the closing quotation marks and before the period at the end of the sentence. Note that the parenthetical citation is placed before the comma that signals the end of the introductory phrase. As long as you have included the essential information, you can choose the option that works best for that particular sentence and source. Of course, your research may require that you cite many other types of sources, such as books or articles with more than one author or sources with no individual author listed. Determined by the Modern Languages Association and used for papers in literature, languages, and other disciplines in the humanities. Outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style and sometimes used for papers in the humanities and the sciences; many professional organizations use this style for publications as well. In-text citations provide basic informationa€”the authora€™s name, the publication date, and the page number if necessarya€”while the references section provides more extensive bibliographical information.
If an entry continues for more than one line, the second line and each subsequent line are indented five spaces. You will learn how to format citations for different types of source materials, whether you are citing brief quotations, paraphrasing ideas, or quoting longer passages.
Note that when a parenthetical citation appears at the end of the sentence, it comes after the closing quotation marks and before the period. If you are summing up the main findings of a research article, simply providing the authora€™s name and publication year may suffice, but if you are paraphrasing a more specific idea, consider including the page number.
Instead of using quotation marks, create a block quotationA long quotation (forty words or more) that uses indentation, rather than quotation marks, to indicate that the material is quoted.
Chang (2008) found that engaging in weight-bearing exercise regularly significantly reduces womena€™s risk of developing osteoporosis.
That doesna€™t mean swimming isna€™t great exercise, but it should be considered one part of an integrated fitness program. Remember, your ideas should drive the paper, and quotations should be used to support and enhance your points. This citation technique also helps convey that you are actively engaged with your source material. There is a world of difference between an author who a€?suggestsa€? and one who a€?claims,a€? one who a€?questionsa€? and one who a€?criticizes.a€? You do not need to consult your thesaurus every time you cite a source, but do think about which verbs will accurately represent the ideas and make your writing more engaging. This time, look for places where you introduced source material using a signal phrase in your sentence.
When writing professional or academic papers, be mindful of how the words you use to describe someonea€™s tone or ideas carry certain connotations. Read them through quickly to get a sense of what is covered, and then refer to them again as needed. If the works were published in different years, a standard in-text citation will serve to distinguish them. Additionally, he warned that consumers frequently do not realize the potential harmful effects of some popular supplements (Rodriguez, 2009b).
See Chapter 14 "APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting", Section 14.3 "Creating a References Section" for guidelinesa€”or assign each source a temporary code and highlight the in-text citations so you remember to double-check them later on.
The health risks associated with this habit begin to decrease soon after a smoker quitsa€? (p. The health risks associated with this habit begin to decrease soon after a smoker quitsa€? (Garrison & Gould, 2010, p. Edit your citations to ensure that each citation follows APA guidelines for the inclusion of the authorsa€™ names, the use of ampersands and et al., the date of publication, and, where appropriate, a page reference. You may use the full title in your sentence or use the first few wordsa€”enough to convey the key ideasa€”in a parenthetical reference.
List the citations in the same order they appear in your references section, and separate the citations with a semicolon. Many works of literature and sacred texts, as well as some classic nonfiction texts, fall into this category. Since the book is a collection of Freuda€™s lectures, the student cites the lecture number rather than a page number.
For some types of electronic sourcesa€”for instance, many online articlesa€”this information is easily available. Some websites number paragraphs within published articles; if so, include the paragraph number in your citation. In your citation, name the section where your cited information appears, followed by a paragraph number.
Note that while in-text citations correspond to entries in the references section, personal communications are an exception to this rule.
Review the guidelines provided in this section and edit your citations for these kinds of sources according to APA guidelines.
It is optional to include page numbers when citing paraphrased material; however, this should be done when citing a specific portion of a work. This may include the title of the source, section headings and paragraph numbers for websites, and so forth.
You will review basic formatting guidelines and learn how to format bibliographical entries for various types of sources. This section may consist of a single page for a brief research paper or may extend for many pages in professional journal articles.
Note that the header and margins will be the same as in the body of your paper, and pagination continues from the body of your paper. For the remainder of this chapter, you will learn about how to format bibliographical entries for different source types, including multiauthor and electronic sources. The first line should be flush with the left margin, while any lines that follow should be indented five spaces. Do not use italics, underlining, or quotation marks for titles of shorter works, such as articles. The following guidelines show how to format reference entries for these different situations.
Note that when the editor is listed after the title, you list the initials before the last name. This type of source is different from an anthology, which is a collection of articles or essays by different authors.
Then list the names of the book editor(s) and the title of the book, followed by the page numbers for the chapter and the usual information about the booka€™s publisher. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium.
Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light.
Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890.
In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself.
In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms".
Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism.
In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I. Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress.
Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process. The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v.
Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional.
These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation. Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him.
Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty.
On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved.
The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391). Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220.
Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik.
You may also download a PDF copy of this book (33 MB) or just this chapter (5 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). It provides a uniform framework for the manuscript and parenthetical citations, or in-text citations. Having to follow detailed citation and formatting guidelines as well may seem like just one more task to add to an already-too-long list of requirements. Second, it shows that you respect other peoplea€™s work enough to give them proper credit for it. A good abstract is concisea€”about one hundred to one hundred fifty wordsa€”and is written in an objective, impersonal style.


Use the word count feature of your word-processing program to make sure your abstract does not exceed one hundred fifty words.
Longer or more complex papers may need level 2 headings or other lower-level headings to organize information clearly. Your in-text citations provide basic information about your source; each source you cite will have a longer entry in the references section that provides more detailed information. You may also need to cite sources available in both print and online and nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews.
Again, this information allows your reader to follow up on the sources you cited and do additional reading about the topic if desired. You will also learn techniques you can use to introduce quoted and paraphrased material effectively.
Additionally, these exercises help women maintain muscle mass and overall strength, and many common forms of weight-bearing exercise, such as brisk walking or stair climbing, also provide noticeable cardiovascular benefits.
Unfortunately, during the process of writing your research paper, it is easy to fall into a rut and use the same few dull verbs repeatedly, such as a€?Jones said,a€? a€?Smith stated,a€? and so on. If you are citing multiple works by the same author published in the same year, include a lowercase letter immediately after the year. Williams (2007) believes nutritional supplements can be a useful part of some diet and fitness regimens. In your first citation, use the full name, followed by the abbreviation in square brackets.
Other times, however, you will need to vary the format to reflect the differences in online media. The goal is to provide enough information to help your professional peers locate and follow up on potentially useful information.
This section of Chapter 14 "APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting", like the previous section, is meant to be used as a reference tool while you write. Indicate the volume number (if applicable) and page numbers in parentheses after the article title. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt.
The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education.
Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909.
It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American.
Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements.
The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case. Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests.
Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low. Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins.
They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought.
Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent.
Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch.
The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national. A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh. In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W.
It also provides the framework for the works cited area for listing references at the end of the essay., from the Modern Language Association.
Finally, it helps your reader find additional materials if he or she wishes to learn more about your topic. Depending on the length and complexity of the paper, its major sections may also be divided into subsections, sub-subsections, and so on.
Use your outline to craft your major section headings and determine whether any subtopics are substantial enough to require additional levels of headings.
If you name the author(s) in your sentence, do not repeat the name(s) in your parenthetical citation. Provide as much specific information as possible to achieve that goal, and consult with your professor as to what specific style he or she may prefer. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead. Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975. He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy.
Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel. When writing the abstract, take a just-the-facts approach, and summarize your research question and your findings in a few sentences. These smaller sections, in turn, use different heading styles to indicate different levels of information.
Doing so will ensure you have represented your colleaguea€™s words in an authentic and accurate way. The source listed first includes an a after the year, the source listed second includes a b, and so on. The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture. While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G.
Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks.
This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black. 449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships. At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982.
Note that in this case, the parenthetical citation comes after the period that ends the sentence. Discuss with your instructor whether he or she would like you to cite page numbers in this particular instance. It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride.
It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot.
And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced.
The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro".
Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks. He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography.
In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened.
More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype). Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance.
Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed.
A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers.
He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight.
In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten.
Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs.
Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable.
Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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