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Programme Development work with your team to develop what you already have and deliver a streamlined approach that matches your culture, your needs & your people. We bring with us extensive experience, knowledge of the pitfalls and effective mobilisation strategies to help you get the returns on your ability as soon as possible. A Happy Daycare - Summer Program    Summer Program 2013Get ready to explore your worldthis summer at A Happy Daycare.This Summer at A Happy Daycare we will pretend to ride along with the Magic School Bus into a world of adventure. Mathematics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields. I counted $16$ whole squares ($4$ going down on left side, $4$ going down on right side, $8$ small squares in the centre).
I can also see the answer being $24$ if you count the smaller squares separately, as if they were floating above the main grid instead of intersecting with it. Is there a right answer, or is it possible that there is no 'right' answer and it just depends on your counting method? I find it amusing that the OP, who obviously studied the puzzle in some depth, did fail the simple test.
Ignoring the two strange squares in the middle, there are $16\ 1 \times 1$ squares, $9\ 2 \times 2,\ 4\ 3 \times 3,$ and $1\ 4 \times 4$ for a total of $30$ Each of the two strange squares has four small and one large square, five each, ten total. What about the $\sqrt{5} \times \sqrt{5}$ square created by the points $(1,0), (0, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1)$? Generally speaking, most puzzles that are written are intended to be answered using the minimum number of assumptions possible to arrive at the correct solution. Even questions that are trick questions generally have one correct answer; we can arrive at the suitable solution by way of Occam's Razor as well.
This puzzle, and others along the same vein, are generally meant to invoke critical thinking; find the correct answer with the minimum number of assumptions necessary to solve the problem.
For example, this Stock Photo shows a square window; it's mentioned as such in the description. Since the question doesn't state that any of the squares are floating or are in any other way special, and since the question also doesn't appear to be an optical illusion, such as this optical illusion question, we can apply Occam's Razor to come up with the obvious solution. Each line in the image appears to be unbroken, and can thus participate as a side in a closed object that has four corners connected at 90 degree angles and may either be a rectangle or a square. The lines for the offset squares in the middle of the grid appear to be the same length as any of the other 1x1 squares in this grid, and their vertices appear to land exactly in the middle of the squares in the grid.
Assuming that this question isn't an optical illusion, which it clearly does not appear to be, the obvious solution to the question is 40. The downvotes are because you're being extremely vague - how exactly are you invoking Occam's razor?
Additionally, there are $2$ small squares in the middle along with 4 even smaller squares each.
Because it has attracted low-quality or spam answers that had to be removed, posting an answer now requires 10 reputation on this site (the association bonus does not count).
Not the answer you're looking for?Browse other questions tagged puzzle or ask your own question. Mathematical solution for “remove the minimum number of matches so that all the squares in picture are incomplete”? What causes git push to fail all of a sudden with "User was holding a relation lock for too long"? Steve’s singular approach to realizing permanent, positive change blends proprietary methods with ancient wisdom and revolutionary lessons from modern thought leaders.
Playing to Win, a noted Wall Street Journal and Washington Post bestseller, outlines the strategic approach Lafley, in close partnership with strategic adviser Roger Martin, used to double P&G’s sales, quadruple its profits, and increase its market value by more than $100 billion when Lafley was first CEO (he led the company from 2000 to 2009). Lafley and Martin have created a set of five essential strategic choices that, when addressed in an integrated way, will move you ahead of your competitors. The stories of how P&G repeatedly won by applying this method to iconic brands such as Olay, Bounty, Gillette, Swiffer, and Febreze clearly illustrate how deciding on a strategic approach—and then making the right choices to support it—makes the difference between just playing the game and actually winning. Playing to Win outlines a proven method that has worked for some of today’s most celebrated brands and products. Author Terry Orlick, an internationally acclaimed sport psychologist, has helped hundreds of Olympic and professional athletes maximize their performances and achieve their goals. Both practical and inspirational, In Pursuit of Excellence is a guide to daily living and motivation as well as a road map to long-term achievement. Influence and persuasion aren’t just abstract concepts of interest exclusive to psychologists and sociologists. Now, in Influence: Mastering Life’s Most Powerful Skill, discover everything you need to tap into the hidden powers of influence and persuasion—and use them to enhance your personal and professional life in ways you never thought possible. Your ability to successfully influence others—including your children, your spouse, or your boss—is rooted in how well you can grasp and use the four fundamental components of any influence attempt. Targets: The individual or group you’re hoping to influence is called your target—and some people and groups are more likely to be persuaded (or tricked) than others. Tactics: What methods and strategies of influence are more likely to increase your target’s chances of commitment? Context: Contextual clues—such as scarcity of goods and the power of authority—are shortcuts that our brain uses to make sense of our social world and to make what are generally quite good decisions. More than just a helpful acronym, the “ATTiC” model is the perfect metaphor for just how powerful (and often overlooked) these components are. From there, you’ll explore some of the many scientific and real-world applications of influence in your everyday life. Public speaking, where big business speeches or small family pep talks can benefit from a focus on the positives and a demonstration of good will toward your audience. You’ll also get an expert’s insights into the ethics surrounding influence, and how you can use these extraordinary tools to responsibly further your goals without becoming Machiavellian. To do so, each lecture concludes with a couple of simple exercises and tasks that will help illuminate what you’ve learned about influence and will increase your confidence in using the tools of successful influencers. Next time you’re at a restaurant, learn your server’s name and use it when addressing him or her. When you enter a negotiation where you hope for mutual agreement, use words like “we” and “us” and see whether it creates a difference in the other party’s approach to the deal. When someone you don’t know tries to gain your confidence, adopt the Russian proverb of “trust but verify” by double-checking his or her story against an additional source. These and other exercises are just a small part of the overall learning experience you’ll get from Professor Brown, a management expert whose ability to teach to a range of audiences—from college students to corporate professionals to laypeople—has won him a wealth of awards and accolades, including The University of Iowa’s highest teaching honor: the President and Provost Award for Teaching Excellence. His lectures will enlighten you, challenge you, inspire you, and possibly even transform you into a savvier participant in the often overlooked ways that everyday life influences us. In The Road to Recovery, Andrew Smithers—one of a handful of respected economists to have accurately predicted the most recent global financial crisis—argues that the neoclassical consensus governing global economic decision-making must be revised in order to avoid the next financial collapse. As the global economy continues the long climb out of recession, it's imperative that central bankers and other economic decision-makers not repeat the mistakes of the past. In 1971, President Nixon imposed national price controls and took the United States off the gold standard, an extreme measure intended to end an ongoing currency war that had destroyed faith in the U.S. Currency wars are one of the most destructive and feared outcomes in international economics. Currency wars have happened before-twice in the last century alone-and they always end badly. As James Rickards argues in Currency Wars, this is more than just a concern for economists and investors. Baffling to many observers is the rank failure of economists to foresee or prevent the economic catastrophes of recent years. While the outcome of the new currency war is not yet certain, some version of the worst-case scenario is almost inevitable if U.S. Grand master and prolific chess author Neil McDonald explains every single move made in 30 striking tactical or strategical games played over the last quarter century. Chess self-improvement for amateur players, who are invited to find the best moves in 50 Grandmaster games. Taking the mystery out of wood finishing, this completely updated second edition includes the latest technical updates on materials and techniques—from spray guns to French polishing—with detailed step-by-step instructions and explanations. Puzzle maker Charlie Ross personalizes puzzle making by sharing with the reader different methods to add their own creative touch to this popular scroll saw woodworking project. From learning to convert a favorite digital photo, art print or other image onto a wooden jigsaw puzzle, to mastering his three puzzle-making methods of strip cutting, stair-step cutting, and free form cutting, readers, whether beginner or experienced, can move at their own pace in practicing each technique. Ross also includes designs for brain-busting puzzles with imbedded hidden objects, no corners, and other clever techniques. The biscuit joiner has revolutionized woodworking by enabling woodworkers to create joints that are incredibly strong and durable. In Bill Hylton's Power-Tool Joinery you'll learn shop-tested techniques and explanations as to the why's and how's of joinery. In Hand Tool Essentials you'll learn how to choose and use hand tools for chopping, cutting, paring, sawing, marking, drilling and more. Follow along as Harold Enlow, one of America's foremost caricature carvers, teaches you how to carve faces with life and expression. The traditional folk craft of chip carving is commonly used in Switzerland, Austria, and Germany for the decoration of all kinds of wooden objects. The most popular guide to this subject in Europe, Josef Mader's Chip Carving takes the reader step by step through the chip carving process, from layout of the design to the final cut and finishing of the piece. From tiny glass beads and pendants to rings and necklaces, Creating Lampwork Beads for Jewelry teaches you how to create them all. Step-by-step color photographs and descriptive detail make this book indispensable for beginners looking to create beautiful and functional scented candles on their very first try, and for experienced crafters who want to sharpen their skills. The two previous editions of the book known by home improvement retailers as “Big Red” sold nearly 600,000 copies. The third edition also includes more than 30 projects not found in the original edition, as well as more than 300 new photos. This latest revision of our best-selling bathroom remodeling book features practical, achievable bathroom improvements and upgrades shown with clear color step-by-step photos. But the heart of this DIYers guide are the well-chosen projects that are featured in full detail. One of the hottest consumer trends is the new importance on outdoor living, and nothing brings the outdoor home to life like a greenhouse and other accessories to help grow and nurture landscape greenery. Complete Book of Framing, Second Edition is an updated, easy-to-learn guide to rough carpentry and framing written by an expert with more than thirty years of framing experience. Starting with the basics, this book begins with types of lumber, nails, and what tools are needed, followed by detailed, fully illustrated steps for framing each building element—from planning and layout through specific nailing patterns. A step-by-step guide that gives any gardener all the information needed to make garden furnishings that are both simple and beautiful. Published at the beginning of the twenty-first century, Sustainable Landscape Construction took a new approach to what was then a nearly new subject: how to construct outdoor environments based on principles of sustainability. Like its predecessor, the new edition of Sustainable Landscape Construction is organized around principles that reflect the authors’ desire to put environmental ethics into practice. Sustainable Landscape Construction is a crucial complement to basic landscape construction texts, and is a one-of-a-kind reference for professionals, students, and concerned citizens. New Grids - Prominent and permanent grids added to your SFG box help you visualize the planting squares and know how to space for maximum harvest. New Seed Saving Idea - The old-fashioned way advocates planting many seeds and then thinning the extras (that means pulling them up). Tabletop Gardens - The new boxes are so much smaller and lighter (only 6 inches of soil, remember?), you can add a plywood bottom to make them portable. A shaman is one who walks in two worlds, one seen easily by everyone, another seen with the senses of the heart, deep recesses of the mind, and within the collective spiritual consciousness. Shamanic Gardening integrates sustainable ancient and traditional gardening methods with shamanic principles and modern permaculture. Shamanic Gardening includes a cultural history of sustainable gardening, including gardening techniques used by Cleopatra, the Japanese, the Pueblo Indians, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, and many others. This book teaches both simple and advanced techniques to garden with more awareness and effectiveness, using your inner senses. A Sweet Taste of History captures the grandeur of the sweet table—the grand finale course of an 18th century meal. This gorgeous cookbook blends American history with exquisite recipes, as well as tips on how to create your own sweet table. From the BBC One presenter and author of The Kitchen Diaries, this beautiful and easy-to-use book contains over 600 recipe ideas and is your essential go-to for what to cook every day. Returning to the territory of Nigel’s bestselling Real Fast Food, Eat is bursting with beautifully simple and quick-to-cook recipes, in a stylish and practical flexible format that’s easy to read and use anywhere. Covering everything from quick meals to share with friends to comfort food, Eat is a new, and highly innovative, classic from Nigel Slater. In his cookbook debut, Saad—restaurateur and star of the Cooking Channel’s United Tastes of America—takes you on an international tour to celebrate and savor the flavors of the globe without ever leaving your kitchen. Journeying through popular culinary hotspots from France, Italy, and Spain to India, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East, Saad breaks down the core spices that define each region’s cuisine and showcases scrumptious recipes inspired by these global palates. Written with Saad’s showstopping passion for food and seasoned with helpful sidebars and cooking essentials, this easy-to-use recipe guide is a melting pot of culinary wisdom. Enriched with full-color photographs in honor of its twenty-fifth anniversary, The Silver Palate Cookbook is the beloved classic that brings a new passion for food and entertaining into American homes. As more and more self-sufficiency methods rise out of today’s waning economy and growing green movement, so does jerky. The Complete Jerky Book includes everything from how the Native Americans preserved their meat to the foolproof, easy-does-it purchased jerky seasoning mixes and new products of today. In this, his first non-menu cookbook, the New York Times food columnist offers 100 utterly delicious recipes that epitomize comfort food, Tanis-style. Among the chapter titles there’s “Bread Makes a Meal,” which includes such alluring recipes as a ham and Gruycre bread pudding, spaghetti and bread crumbs, breaded eggplant cutlets, and David’s version of egg-in-a-hole. And so it goes, with one irrepressible chapter after another, one perfect food moment after another: this is a book with recipes to crave. It also details Amanda’s crazy story of building a restaurant from the ground up to its currently being one of the hardest-to-get reservations in New York City—all illustrated as a brilliant graphic novel. Author, baking instructor, and vegan powerhouse Fran Costigan has dedicated years to satisfying her sweet tooth while keeping it vegan. The perfect gift for anyone with a sweet tooth, Vegan Chocolate is sure to become an instant classic. In the West, when we think about food in China, what usually comes to mind are the signature dishes of Beijing, Hong Kong, Shanghai. For more than twenty-five years, both separately and together, Duguid and Alford have journeyed all over the outlying regions of China, sampling local home cooking and street food, making friends and taking lustrous photographs. With little fuss and enormous flavor, transform everyday meals with simple yet creative toppings, dips, and spreads. An updated edition, with more finished food photos, of the bestselling slow cooker books by Katie Bishop. More and more people are discovering the benefits these affordable cookers – they are economical, environmental and produce perfect results every time. Cookery writer and journalist, Katie Bishop, shows just how little effort is required to make great family recipes such as Rolled Shoulder of Lamb, Mini Chestnut, Mushroom and Red Wine Pies, Classic Bouillabaisse, Herby Italian Stuffed Peppers and Oat, Sunflower and Honey Bread. This book provides a fresh insight into this old-fashioned method of cooking, with straightforward, easy-to-achieve dishes that will delight your friends and family. Katie’s fresh ideas, helpful advice on making the most of your cooker and easy-to-follow recipes provide new inspiration for anyone who wants to produce perfect meals every time. Comfort food nourishes the soul as well as the body; think chicken noodle soup, pot roast, and apple pie. Two bonus chapters add extra value: “Comfort Classics Made Healthy,” for those watching what they eat, and “30-Minute Meals,” for cooks short on time who still want a home-cooked meal. This all-new and gorgeous edition of Better Homes and Gardens Baking (the first major all-purpose BH&G baking title published since 1998) is a compendium of irresistible cookies, brownies, cakes, pies, cobblers, pastries, and breads—from everyday sweets to special-occasion show-stoppers. This smart guide to whiskey introduces a new generation of would-be connoisseurs to the hottest new-again spirit. Drink More Whiskey is the reference for those want to discover the provenance, styles, differences in quality, and ideal uses of whiskey in a fresh, fun-to-read format. Kombucha is lauded worldwide by healers, athletes, yogis, and other health-conscious souls, and is now going mainstream. Eric and Jessica Childs, founders of Kombucha Brooklyn and experts on the wonders of kombucha, share their knowledge in this complete guide to kombucha. Description: The Lenox Globe is often referred to as the oldest extant post-Columbian globe. What is known about the provenance and acquision of this special globe by the New York Public Library was assembled by Robert W. Lenoxa€™s personal library was acquired in 1911 by the New York Public Library and in the process this small, engraved globe made of copper became one of the Librarya€™s most valuable possessions. Like Martin Behaima€™s famous large globe from 1492 (#258), the Lenox Globe still shows only one ocean between Europe and Asia. There was no good indication as to when the little globe was made, but three prominent scholars in the late 19th century - Benjamin De Costa, Henry Harrisse and Justin Winsor a€“ addressed this perplexing issue before Joseph Fisher made his discovery of the WaldseemA?ller map in July 1901. Harrisse in his landmark work The Discovery of North America (1892) concluded that the most likely date for the Lenox Globe was 1511. Prior to Harrisse, Justin Winsor in the mid-1880s was equally perplexed concerning what to make of and how to date the Lenox Globe. The scholar who provided the first and to this day still the most in-depth analysis of the Lenox Globe was Benjamin De Costa (1831-1904). What makes De Costaa€™s scholarship in his 1879 essay so outstanding is that he is open and candid about the profound implications of dating any globe or map depicting the entire continent of South America so many years before Magellana€™s voyage of 1519-1522. This is an astonishing pattern of cartographical evidence concerning South America prior to Magellana€™s voyage in 1519. We should also observe that even before De Costa, the world famous scholar Alexander de Humboldt took seriously the proposition that there may have been more extensive exploration of South America (Portuguese in his and our view) than the conventional wisdom allowed due to the tradition, surrounding Magellana€™s famous voyage. For his part, De Costa was well aware of Cosmographiae Introductio and the small WaldseemA?ller globe gores (#310) found in the passage in the south. It is evident that the Lenox Globe must have been constructed subsequent to the discovery of the coast of South America, in 1500, by Cabral, who gave it the name Vera Cruz, which was soon changed to Terra SanctA¦ Crucis, as on this globe. On the other hand, the almost complete lack of information betrayed by the maker of the globe concerning the east coast of North America, and the absence of the name America on South America would indicate that it antedates the map of Martin WaldseemA?ller of 1507 (#310). Because the date of this globe could be deduced mainly from its representations of America, let us give a brief resume of the condition of geographical knowledge respecting the New World for several years subsequent to 1510. In the year 1500, Juan de la Cosa, the Pilot of Columbus, drew a map of the New World (#305), but North America does not appear, Newfoundland being represented as a part of Asia. What has been said thus far applies only to North America, but, upon turning to South America, the representation has the appearance of belonging to a period later than 1511. In order to present the subject with clearness, it will be useful to state first, that the La Cosa map of 1500 (#305) exhibited the northern coast of South America, together with the eastern coast down to about 25A° S. On this point it may be observed that such a termination to South America was doubtless rendered probable by the argument from analogy. Sometimes the information thus derived was of great value, and it would appear that the maker of the Lenox Globe had received information of this kind. The uncertainty of the globe-maker respecting Madagascar may be explained by the fact that it was not until 1508 that Da€™Acuhna made his exploration of the island, though it was known to Marco Polo. The SchA¶ner Globe of 1520 (#328) has an island similar in form and situation to the nameless island of the Lenox Globe, but in a reversed position, and called Madagascar. In support of the suggestion that the Madagascar and Certina of the globe are simply Sumatra and Java misplaced, we may cite the fact that the well-known islands of Sumatra and Java do not appear in their places, while the Malayan peninsula, labeled on the globe as Loac, is extended so far south as to confuse the geography of the whole region. It is true that one of the first references to the southern coast of Australia in the 17th century was that of 1627, when a Dutch ship sailed along the shore for a distance of a thousand miles, while one of the earliest maps of that century which showed the outlines of Australia was the Montanus map of 1572. Attention has already been called to the fact that the great nameless island, with its attendant islands, is placed westward instead of southeast of the Malayan peninsula; but Sylvanus, in his Ptolemy map of 1511 (#318), moves the whole group into its proper position to the southeast, thus giving a somewhat correct view of the geography of that region. Thus far nothing has been said of the general appearance of the globe, though, if it were necessary, many details could be pointed out which indicate its ancient origin. In Asia the Himalayan range, anciently known as Imaus, had its influence upon the globe-maker's geography, who indicates Schite extraianivm for Scythia extra Imaum. Moabio appears to be the Maabar of Marco Polo, who says that in this entire Province there is never a Tailor to cut a coat or stitch it, for the very good reason that everybody goes naked. Beyond Newfoundland is a sinking ship, with the figure of a human being in the water, possibly an allusion to the loss of the Portuguese Cortereal. When, however, the maker of the Lenox Globe looked away toward the region now occupied by North America, he saw only a watery waste, in the midst of which the island of Bacaleos or Newfoundland, rode like some ship at anchor. In the place of North America there are scattered islands, one of which, located near the northwest extremity of Terra de Brazil, bears the name Zipangri [Japan], being close to Yucatan, whose well-known bay, first explored in 1518, has a conjectural coast line trending towards the south instead of the west. The name America does not appear upon the Lenox Globe, which fact, so far as it possesses any significance, favors the belief that the early date of 1504 assigned to the instrument is correct. Hylocomilus, while admitting the priority of the voyage of Columbus, felt no necessity for naming the New World after one who, in the most pronounced manner, declared that there was no New World to be named. Humboldt maintains that Vespucci, equally with Columbus, believed that the land discovered formed a part of Asia. The Viscount Santarem (Researches respecting Vespucci) has taken the ground, as well as some others, that the map of Hylocomilus, in the Ptolemy of 1513, was the work of Columbus. The southern coasts of Asia are drawn less correctly than on the map of Ruysch and on the TabulA¦ NovA¦ of Asia inserted into the Ptolemy edition of 1513. In the New World representation, South America appears as a large island having three regional names: Mundus Novus, Terra SanctA¦ Crucis, and Terra de Brazil. In the place of North America there are scattered islands, one of which, located near the northwest extremity of Terra de Brazil, bears the name Zipangri [Japan], and one in the far north, but unnamed, clearly resembles the Cortereal region, as it appears on the Cantino and Caveri maps (#306, #307). Most of the inscriptions on the globe reference back to the medieval picture of Asia, combining antique sources, travel accounts, and fabulous legends. From the standpoint of 2012, with our greater appreciation of the WaldseemA?ller world map, we can see how De Costaa€™s suspicions of a pre-Magellan discovery of the strait point to the broader cartographic issue. Either the Lenox Globe really was a post-1507 creation, which in view of its shortcomings oddly failed to take into account the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507, which was reportedly issued in 1000 copies for sale, along with the essay Cosmographiae Introductio. De Costa did not explicitly renege on his estimation of the 1510 date for the Lenox Globe as the most probable but he waffles. Given these facts, one has to give serious consideration to the possibility that the creator of the Lenox Globe made it before April 1507 or at least not to long after that date if one is to explain ignorance of this widely published essay. De Costa originally prepared his analysis in 1879 without benefit of any knowledge of the large WaldseemA?ller world map discovered 22 years later. For his part, NordenskiA¶ld in his Facsimile Atlas (1889) cited De Costaa€™s a€?estimate of 1508-1511a€? and concluded that this a€?seemed to be about righta€?. In his later work entitled Periplus published in 1897, NordenskiA¶ld dramatically asserted that knowledge of the Pacific, the isthmus and a water passage to the south a€?must have reached Europe prior to Balboaa€™s journeya€?. Ultimately, Emerson Fite and Archibald Freeman in their 1926 work A Book of Old Maps argued that the Lenox Globe was made sometime in the 1503-1507 period. One reason why they came to this conclusion was that the Lenox Globe lacks the sophistication of the Ruysch world map (1507-1508) with its more accurate depiction of features associated with the region of the Indian Ocean, something which troubled both De Costa and NordenskiA¶ld. The bottom line is that the maker of this globe seems to be unaware of not only the WaldseemA?ller 1507 map, the Ruysch map of 1508, but also ignorant of others such as the Juan de la Cosa, Cantino and Caveri maps from the 1500-1504 period which do show substantial parts of the North American mainland including Florida and the Gulf coastline and also in the Caveri map the Central American coastline from Mexico to roughly Honduras. This discontinuity in cartographical conception makes it hard to know where to place the Lenox Globe on the family tree of maps and globes made during the first decade of the 16th century. This analysis, if correct, would suggest that Lenox Globe was not likely to have been based on tightly held information in the possession of Spanish navigators. Furthermore, given that Balboa did not cross the Isthmus of Panama to see the Pacific Ocean until 1513, it is extremely hard to imagine the maker of the Lenox Globe getting his a€?island-likea€? conception or vision of the new southern continent from Spanish sources. There is other evidence that strongly points to the source of the Lenox Globe being Portuguese rather than Spanish. This geographical distortion seems far too neat or convenient in political terms to have been a mere coincidence as we can see when we superimpose the Line of Demarcation established by this treaty onto the Lenox Globe. Despite this obvious manipulation of nautical data, Fite and Freeman, like De Costa before them, observed that the Lenox Globe still accurately places the southern edge of of this continent at 55 degrees south of the equator. What is amazing is that Fite and Freeman made such a bold statement based merely on their assessment of the Lenox Globe of uncertain date with no consideration of the WaldseemA?ller globe gores of 1507 which also clearly shows a southern water passage. We would argue further that if this analysis is correct, then the Lenox Globe would represent a stepping-stone or interim intellectual stage in the evolution of geographical knowledge that made possible the more impressive and comprehensive cartographic synthesis articulated by Mathias Ringmann in Cosmographiae Introductio and shown visually in the world map and globe made by Martin WaldseemA?ller at the Gymnasium at Saint-Die. Note the same land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere as in the Jagiellonian Globe, but unlike on that globe, unnamed. The Jagiellonian Globe, dating from around 1510, held by the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Poland, depicts a continent in the Indian Ocean to the east of Africa and south of India, but labeled America. The appearance in the mid-16th century of Jave la Grande in a series of mappemondes drawn by a school of cartographers centred on the French port of Dieppe, suggesting an early Portuguese or Spanish discovery of the eastern coast of Australia, has been called a€?one of the puzzles of European historya€?. An ancient Map of the World has been discovered in the British Museum, which lays down the coasts of New-Holland, as described by Cooke and Bougainville. In all the subsequent discussion of the Dieppe maps and Spanish or Portuguese discovery of the East coast of Australia in the early 16th century, it is noteworthy that there has been no consideration of the Jagiellonian Globe and the bearing it might have on the matter. The Sydney Morning Herald of 19 January 1911 carried an article with the arresting title, a€?Australiaa€™s Discoverer: was it Amerigo Vespucci?a€?. Professor Estreicher drew attention to a globe of similar date held by the New York Public Library, known as the Lenox Globe. Ein solches Land is nur Sudamerica allein, und wir mussen annehmen, dass jene Insel Sudamerica vorstellen soll, freilich an einer ganz falschem Stelle. Estreicher proposed Louis Boulengier of Albi as having been the cartographer responsible for the Jagiellonian Globe, on the basis of similarity between it and the Tross Gores, dating from 1514-1518 (#324), of which Boulengier is known to have been the author. An armillary clock, similar to the Jagiellonian, made by Jean Naze of Lyons in 1560 is held at the Orangerie Planetarium of the Staatliche Museen Kassel (formerly the Hessisches Landesmuseum). But the most revealing feature of this globe is that its maker was aware of Cosmographiae Introductio, because he refers to America. If it was impossible that the maker of the Jagellonian Globe with the benefit of access to Cosmographiae Introductio which invented the name America could have been that confused, why the gross mistake? Edward Stevenson, discussing Estreichera€™s work in 1921, commented that he seemed not to have noticed that the inscription AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA possibly indicated not only an acquaintance on the part of the Jagiellonian cartographer with WaldseemA?llera€™s suggestion as to the name America, but a belief that America was actually located in this particular region. In the sixth climate toward the Antarctic there are situated the farthest part of Africa, recently discovered, the islands Zanzibar, the lesser Java, and Seula [Ceylon], and the fourth part of the Earth, which, because Amerigo discovered it, we may call Amerige, the land of Amerigo, so to speak, or America. In his 1911 interview, Petherick pointed out that Thomas Morea€™s Utopia (published in Louvain in 1516) reflected this concept of the eartha€™s geography. The representations of the east coast of a€?Jave Ie Granda€™ [sic] (Australia) delineated in those maps are, I assert, very rough representations and repetitions of the east coast of South America when that continent and our Australia were supposed to be one, before the Pacific Ocean was known. From this perspective, one might speculate that the bizarre attachment of the name America to a mythical or hypothetical island in the southern Indian Ocean was an expression of strong contempt for the Florentine navigator and an attempt to delink his name from the South American continent, which had been made by WaldseemA?llera€™s team at Saint-Die in 1507. Catigara was the name given on earlier Ptolemaic maps to the land on the easternmost shore of the Mare Indicum, south of the equator. In claiming that Amerigo Vespucci discovered Australia Petherick may simply have been intending to make the point hyperbolically that the coastline of the Dieppe maps, taken by some to represent Australia, was the coast of the land discovered by Amerigo, misplaced into the Eastern Hemisphere. The Jagiellonian Globe demonstrates that it was possible for early 16th century geographers to depict the same coastline, that of eastern South America, in two different places on the same map. The Jagiellonian Globe reminds us that we must try to look at the early maps through the eyes and with the knowledge of their makers, free of the preconceptions arising from our current geographical knowledge. Another four decades were to pass before another scholar addressed the question of the date for the creation of the Lenox Globe. Why did Pohl see the creation of the Lenox Globe being linked so closely to the publication of Vespuccia€™s letters in Italy in 1505? Levilliera€™s analysis in an essay in Imago Mundi entitled a€?New Light on Vespuccia€™s third voyagea€? was stunning in this regard. We should observe at this juncture that even prior to the so-called Italian-Sodorini edition of Vespuccia€™s letters, the famous Cantino map (#306), which is also of Portuguese-origin and which dates to no later than November 1502, also shows the eastern coastline bending abruptly (and falsely) to the southeast. Thus, in his essay for the Bulletin of the New York Public Library in 1963 Pohl was on solid ground when he pointed to the similar or parallel tampering with the text of Vespuccia€™s original letter for the Italian-Soderini edition as grounds for suspecting that the Lenox Globe dates to a period before the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507. Nevertheless, Pohl deliberately dodged the question of the uncanny depiction of the new southern continent in his 1963 essay. Pohl went to considerable lengths in this long footnote in 1944 to dismiss any evidence -- the account in the Newen Zeytung journal, the SchA¶ner globes and Valentine Fernandesa€™ remarks in a deposition in a Portuguese court in 1503 -- that supports Magellana€™s assertion that Portuguese navigators had discovered the strait much earlier, and no later than 1506. Pohla€™s rigid position concerning the a€?accidentala€? or a€?imaginarya€? features of the Lenox and Jagellonian Globes remains baffling given that he was prone to accept highly dubious claims of evidence for the presence of Europeans and Asians in America -- such as the stone tower in Newport, Rhode Island which has been reliably dated to after 1492. In the more than forty years since Pohla€™s essay was published there has been little attention paid to the Lenox Globe. Meridians and parallels are engraved and numbered on its surface at intervals of ten degrees, the prime meridian passing through the island Ferro. We believe that when all the evidence and analysis of the historical context are taken into consideration, Fite, Freeman, and Pohl presented a compelling, convincing argument that places the creation of the Lenox Globe prior to the WaldseemA?ller map and globe gores. Furthermore, it seems more probable that the Lenox Globe was based on sensitive information that was improperly acquired directly from someone in Lisbon than it was based on information leaked from the Gymnasium at Saint-Die while the work on Cosmographiae Introductio, the world map and globe gores was still underway in 1505-1506. Thus, there is some basis for concluding that the maker of the Lenox Globe had learned about a water passage and thus knew a lot more than Vespucci conveyed, at least more than the Florentine navigator revealed openly in Mundus Novus which entered into circulation in 1503-1504. In conclusion, we can summarize what appear to be five solid facts concerning the creation of the Lenox Globe. Second, the maker of this globe also knew from sensitive Portuguese sources a lot more about the overall shape of the entire southern continent than Vespucci conveyed (at least openly) in Mundus Novus that entered into widespread circulation beginning in 1503- 1504. When one considers all this chronological evidence, analysis of the most probable historical context points to the creation of the Lenox Globe between the publication of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus in 1503-1504 and April 1507 when Cosmographiae Introductio and the large world map were printed. Whatever the truth, the Lenox-Jagellonian Globes add to a large body of cartographic evidence that points to a Portuguese discovery of the strait before 1519 which is what Magellan had always insisted, and to a clandestine exploration of the west coast of this new fourth continent as far north as what we know as Acapulco no later than 1507. Magellana€™s odd decision was illogical or counter-intuitive if he and his contemporaries believed that this new land mass was an extension of Asia. It is a reasonable conclusion that Magellan understood from extensive discussions with Spanish officials and navigators that this land mass was connected to the land region we know as Central America with which the Spanish were quite familiar by 1518- 1519. Chauncey, Henry, a letter written on January 21,1902 to Willberforce Eames, official at the Lenox Library. Lingren, Uta, a€?Trial and Error in the Mapping of America in the Early Modern Period,a€? in America: Early Maps of the New World, editor, Hans Wolff, New York, 1992, pp. Nordenskiold, Adolf, Periplus - An Essay on the Early History of Charts and Sailing-Directions, Stockholm, 1897, p. Pohl, Frederick, a€?The Fourth Continent on the Lenox Globea€?, Bulletin of The New York Public Library, Volume 67, Number 9 (September 1963), pp. Stevenson, Edward Luther, a€?Martin WaldseemA?ller and Early Lusitano-Germanic Cartography of the New World,a€? Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, Volume XXXVI, Number 4, 1904, pp. Winsor, Justin, Narrative and Critical History of America, Houghton-Mifflin & Company, 1884-1889, Volume III, pp. Zakrzewska, Maria N., Catalogue of globes in the Jagellonian University Museum, translated by Franciszek Buhl, Kracow, 1965. A A A Lenoxa€™s personal library was acquired in 1911 by the New York Public Library and in the process this small, engraved globe made of copper became one of the Librarya€™s most valuable possessions. A A A Like Martin Behaima€™s famous large globe from 1492 (#258), the Lenox Globe still shows only one ocean between Europe and Asia. I always see a huge variation of answers such as$8, 9, 16, 17, 24, 28, 30, 40, 41, 52,$etc., yet I've never seen a definitive answer on any website. With this method the answer could also be$17\$ if you want to count the entire shape as one big square. William of Ockham first stated this principle as a guideline, commonly known as Occam's Razor. The types of problems that we are given in school textbooks, for example, all abide by Occam's Razor; the intent is to prove critical thinking and analysis skills, not "thinking outside the box" skills (a sad truth, really, as we'd do much better as a society if the latter were true).
The question is asking is to find the number of squares, a square being defined as a closed object with four sides, with each side meeting at 90 degree angles, and each side being the same length. The fact that it contains four smaller squares is irrelevant here; most people will naturally state that this is a square window (note, I didn't actually measure it, so it may not be perfectly square, but it appears as such, and we'll take it at face value for purposes of this discussion). We arrive at this answer by enumerating all of the squares of various sizes and adding them together.
This answers appears to do nothing more than obfuscate the fairly simple problem of finding all embedded geometric squares in the image, which is a well defined problem.
Six paragraphs of irrelevant utterly tangential fluff, followed by an answer to the actual question — and the answer wasn't even present in the original version.

In this fourth edition, Orlick provides new insights and a powerful step-by-step plan for you to develop your own personal path to excellence.
You’ll gain a more positive outlook, a more focused commitment, better ways of dealing with distractions, and strategies for overcoming obstacles. Instead of merely following the will of others, you can actively take charge of your decisions—and your life—by grasping the science behind how influence works and by strengthening your own skills at influence and persuasion. To help you, Professor Brown introduces what he calls the ATTiC model, which represents these four elements. Professor Brown’s insights into influential tactics provide you with numerous tools, including rational persuasion, which involves putting forth specific ideas for why a particular course of action is the best way forward. With the aid of eye-opening research on psychology and sociology, historical examples from politics and business, and several in-depth case studies, you’ll get solid guidelines and tips for how to become a more influential person—and how to resist influence attempts when it’s in your best interests to do so.
With the insights, tools, and tips in Influence: Mastering Life’s Most Powerful Skill, you’ll be able to use influence on behalf of any professional or personal goal, or for any cause that is near and dear to your heart. He argues that the current low interest rates and budget deficits have prevented the recession becoming a depression but that those policies cannot be continuously repeated and a new consensus for action must be found. The Road to Recovery offers prescriptive guidance on redesigning an economic system that is healthy, stable, and beneficial to all.
At best, they offer the sorry spectacle of countries' stealing growth from their trading partners. Time and again, paper currencies have collapsed, assets have been frozen, gold has been confiscated, and capital controls have been imposed.
The United States is facing serious threats to its national security, from clandestine gold purchases by China to the hidden agendas of sovereign wealth funds. Not only have their theories failed to prevent calamity, they are making the currency wars worse.
Each of these games has been carefully chosen for its consistent logical thread, so that the reader will get prime instruction in the art of conceiving appropriate plans and attacks and carrying them out to their natural conclusion: in short, players will learn to think logically.
The most practical, comprehensive book on finishing ever published, this guide offers advice for troubleshooting, distinguishing different products, and suggestions for creating beautiful finishes. This book provides woodworkers, hobbyists and furniture makers with a variety of projects that will help them develop more efficient joinery techniques while creating wonderful new pieces of furniture for their home. Also included are plans for jigs and fixtures that will help you cut individual joints accurately and safely.
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Leonardo and her network of fellow artisans share their secrets for creating stunningly beautiful lampwork beads.
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From replacing surfaces and fixtures to installing plumbing and making easy decorative improvements, The Complete Guide to Bathrooms shows you how to save thousands of dollars by doing the job yourself. This book guides the reader through the steps on framing floors, walls, roofs, door and window openings, and stairs. Framer-Friendly Tips throughout the book show how to get a task done right—and more easily. This book includes 50 complete plans for trellises, raised beds, planters, window boxes, and just about any imaginable project you can make to train and display plants in your garden and around your home.
This enormously influential book helped to spur a movement that has taken root around the U.S. Children, adults with limited mobility, even complete novices can achieve spectacular results.
Forget about pH soil tests, double-digging (who enjoys that?), or the never-ending soil improvements. We've also included simple, easy-to-follow instructions using lots of photos and illustrations. The practices, history, myths, recipes, and philosophies inside this book will enhance your relationship with nature, sustain the earth, delight your senses, and nourish your soul. Learn to design an elegant, edible, sustainable landscape, plant for nutrition and beauty, grow healing herbs and aphrodisiacs, work with earth energies and color, extract flower essences, and much more.
Rather than serving something simple, hostesses arranged elaborate sweet tables, displays of ornate beauty and delicious edibles meant to leave guests with a lasting impression. It features 100 scrumptious dessert recipes, including cakes, cobblers, pies, cookies, quick breads, and ice cream.
Or at least put aside your fear of frying (not to mention sauteing, roasting, or tossing a salad). Whether you like savory or sweet, keeping it mild or kicking up the heat, Jeffrey Saad’s Global Kitchen shows you how to eat globally and cook locally with gourmet-quality results.
Its 350 flawlessly seasoned, stand-out dishes make every occasion special, and its recipes, featuring vibrant, pure ingredients, are a pleasure to cook. Jerky is one of the oldest forms of food preservation, and yet these days, a very popular hobby for the hunting enthusiast and a great way of using game meats. Delicious recipes for a wide variety of meats, including venison, turkey, goose, beef, and even fish, are included.
Individually or in combination, they make perfect little meals that are elemental and accessible, yettotally surprising—and there’s something to learn on every page. Her vegetable recipes are sophisticated and daring, beloved by omnivore, vegetarian, and vegan diners alike.
Both a great read and a source of kitchen inspiration, Dirt Candy: A Cookbook is a must-have for any home cook looking to push the boundaries of vegetable cooking. But for the first time, chocolate cakes, brownies, truffles, puddings, ice creams, and more are within reach: dairy-free, organic, fair-trade, and sublime. Through experimentation and long hours in the kitchen, she’s recreated some of her favorite chocolate desserts as better-for-you interpretations that pass the taste test: Bittersweet Chocolate Truffles (with a variety of flavor variations), a Brooklyn Blackout Layer Cake, a Sacher Torte, even chocolate Moon Pies! But beyond the urbanized eastern third of China lie the high open spaces and sacred places of Tibet, the Silk Road oases of Xinjiang, the steppelands of Inner Mongolia, and the steeply terraced hills of Yunnan and Guizhou. Beyond the Great Wall shares the experience in a rich mosaic of recipes—from Central Asian cumin-scented kebabs and flatbreads to Tibetan stews and Mongolian hot pots—photos, and stories.
Thus, in this respect, the small globe does not convey the awareness that there had to be a distinct second ocean (the Pacific) as the WaldseemA?ller map (#310) clearly does. Harrisse believed that the Lenox Globe was made in France derived from a€?an Italian modela€? and he detected what he thought were some features or nomenclature reminiscent of a sketch map allegedly from the hand of Leonardo Da Vinci (#327) now kept in the Library at Windsor Castle.
He was one of the first scholars to make the astute observation about how quickly and how inevitably it was that the Europeans would connect the dots, would grasp the continuous unbroken coastline from Labrador to Argentina as seen in the Stobnicza map of 1512 (#319). He remarked in his Narrative and Critica1 History of America that a€?its date is fixed at 1510-1512, but by some as early as 1506-1507.a€? Curiously Winsor, who died in 1897, never identified which scholars favored the earlier date that would place the creation of the Lenox Globe before the WaldseemA?ller map. When he published his critical assessment in a long article for The Magazine of American History in September 1879, he was ahead of his time. There in fact are several other maps, globes, or globe gores - associated with the names Boulengier (#324), Green (#342.1), Hauslab-Leichtenstein (#310), Nordenskiold (#311), Stobnicza (#319), and the well-known globes and maps of Johannes SchA¶ner (#328) from the 1515-1520 period - which show this continent having a strait or cape like the African continent and also having a distinctive a€?ice cream-conea€? shape quite unlike Africa.
And this evidence should raise doubts and did in fact raise doubts among some late-19th century scholars such as De Costa, Nordenskiold, Varnhagen and Winsor concerning the conventional wisdom that everyone in Europe was in the dark prior to Magellana€™s famous expedition. And Humboldt based his conclusion in the 1830s, on the fact that the little essay Cosmographiae Introductio published to accompany WaldseemA?llera€™s world map in 1507 and which names for the first time the New World as America in Vespuccia€™s honor, also describes the new continent in the southern hemisphere as being like an a€?enormous island in it that it is found to be surrounded on all sides by watera€?. Therefore, unlike Harrisse who curiously was not willing to date the globe before 1511, De Costa was firm in his conclusion that the Portuguese must have found the strait no later than 1510.
It seems probable that it was made after the publication, in 1503, of Vespuciusa€™ letter to Lorenzo de Medici, in which he gave an account of his third voyage, when he followed the Brazilian coast 34A° south latitude. De Costa, Justin Winsor and Henry Harrisse have assigned a date of 1510-11, for the reason, amongst others, that, while several of its representations are in advance of the published knowledge of 1508, they are behind that of 1511-12. In 1508, on the map of John Ruysch (#313), Newfoundland also appears as a part of Asia, being marked Terra Nova. In its New World representation, South America appears as a large island having three regional names, Mundus Novus, Terra Sanctae Crucis, and Terra de Brazil. The ordinary observer must have perceived that the great bodies of land on the globe terminated towards the south in points. The principle in accordance with which the age of this globe is to be deduced is now therefore quite clear. The globe shows very distinctly a large island, without any name, lying in the Indian Ocean. This excuse, however, cannot be offered for those who later represented Zanzibar as a great island out in the ocean. Acting, however, in accordance with the suggestion offered, it would prove an easy task to bring order out of the confusion. Nevertheless it is probable that Australia was known centuries before, when the Chinese, with the marinersa€™ compass, navigated those seas. Amongst these might be mentioned the peculiar configuration of the Asiatic coasts, the style of the lettering, the drawing of the ships, and the aspect of the marine monsters. He also puts Simarum Situs on the border of the Gulf of the Ganges, where Sinarum Situs is put by Ruysch, Sinarum, like Serica, or silk, being a name applied to China, which on the globe is called East India. The globe-maker, however, should have placed the province where Polo and the Nancy Globe (#363) place it, on the Coromandel coast. Below South Africa is a grotesque monster, intended for a whale, the creature being delineated with much care.
He may have heard of the Vinland of the Northmen, but the story of the Cabots had already been locked up in depositories where it was destined to lie too long; while Martyra€™s map of Beimeni, or Florida, together with the publications of 1512, 1513, 1515, had not come from the press. The word Getulia and Zamor point to the influence of the Goths and Moors in Africa, while Paludes Nile show that, in common with the geographers of that period, the globe-maker had anticipated the discoveries of Livingstone and Stanley.
Cuba, on the other hand, is correctly laid down as an island, being called Isabel, in honor of Queen Isabella.
The name America was first proposed in 1507 by Martin WaldseemA?ller, known under the Greek pseudonym of a€?Hylacomilus.a€? It appears in his Cosmographiae Introductio, where, having called attention to the fact that the old continents were named after women, he observes that the new one should be called after a man. Hylacomilus was entirely friendly to Columbus, as was the case with Vespucci in his relations to the Genoese; nevertheless the geographer of St.
He says that three times in his second voyage Vespucci calls the country terra del Asia, but in the third voyage calls it una€™ altro mondo and Mondo nuovo.
This map shows the separation of America from Asia, but we believe that the Lenox Globe is earlier. Or the Lenox Globe indeed was made prior to 1507 that would or could mean that its amazing depiction of the new southern continent was derived from highly valued geographical knowledge that also made possible the brilliant synthesis that we see in the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507.
The main reason for De Costaa€™s waffling is that he remained intrigued with the notion that there was a€?some connectiona€? between the Lenox Globe that refers to the New World as Mundus Novus, and Vespuccia€™s 1501-1502 voyage. Curiously, for some reason, even though De Costa lived until 1904, there is no record of what he thought after the discovery of this map in 1901, which might well have prompted him to date the Lenox Globe prior to 1507.
The Baron had no doubt that the globe was made well before Magellan since its depiction of Asia was more primitive than what one sees on the Ruysch map included the 1507-1508 Rome editions of Ptolemya€™s Geographia.
The Ruysch map was inserted in the widely available Rome editions of Ptolemya€™s Geographia which published in 1507-1508, the first such edition of this work since 1490.
Instead, in sharp contrast, the Lenox Globe shows what the Cantino and Caveri maps do not show: namely, the coastline from Venezuela around Panama then upward to Honduras with no hint of a strait in the region of Panama. Ita€™s amazing depiction of the southern continent, essentially in its entirety as a land mass totally separate from Asia and surrounded like an island virtually on all sides by water makes the Lenox Globe a strange hybrid.
In Spanish maritime circles, knowledge of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, and even much of the coast north of Florida (all of which fell within the Spanish maritime zone) was fairly complete by 1502-1504.
At the same time, we know that in the Spring of 1501, after Cabral had found the east coast of Brazil the previous year, the Portuguese focused intensely on exploring the eastern coastline of South America in order to determine if there was a cape and if it fell within Lisbona€™s maritime zone. The globe reflects a pro-Portuguese political bias and here we come to what is perhaps the most astonishing and revealing feature of the globe. We can also see this same eastward twist of the coastline in the Cantino (#306) and Contarini (#308) maps both of which date to before the WaldseemA?ller map. Based on this evidence, Fite and Freeman felt compelled to conclude (again like De Costa and NordenskiA¶ld) that this a€?suggests a water-route around South America was known before Magellan set out in 1519a€?. In any case, the preponderance of evidence and the historical contextualization seems to validate the Fite-Freeman argument that the Lenox Globe dates to sometime between late 1503 when the first editions of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novos were published and April 1507 when Cosmographiae Introductio and the WaldseemA?ller world map and globe gores appeared. The globe illustrates how geographers of that time struggled to reconcile the discoveries of new lands with orthodox Ptolomaic cosmography.
The discussion over this puzzle may be dated from 1786, when Alexander Dalrymple first drew attention to the resemblance between the shape of Jave la Grande on the Dauphin, or Harleian map (#378) and the shape of the coastline of New South Wales as it had been charted by James Cook in HMS Endeavour in 1770. This map, which is on parchment, appears from the characters, and other circumstances, to have been made about the beginning of the 16th century. This had been described in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica and discussed in an article by Benjamin Franklin De Costa in the Magazine of American History. Estreicher pointed out that the western coasts of both this continent and the MUNDUS NOVUS in the Western Hemisphere are schematic and without detail, in contrast to the eastern coasts which show bays, rivers and promontories, indicating that they are the result of actual discovery by voyagers. Diese Annahme wird zur Gewissheit, als wir auf dem Jagellonischen Globus finden, dass die Insel die Inschrift tragt: AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA. The Tross Gores also bear the inscription AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA, but in this case placed over South America (WaldseemA?llera€™s America), and there is no continental land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere. The depiction of the continents on the globe in this clock is similar to the globe or gores made by Louis Boulengier in 1514, indicating how globe makers could persist in using cosmographical concepts that were decades out of date. Unlike the Lenox Globe, the Jagellonian Globe has engraved on it the lines of latitude and longitude with the prime meridian passing through the island of Ferro. However, as mentioned above, he oddly applies this name, not to the new fourth continent in the Western Hemisphere but instead to an unsubstantiated mythical island in the southern portion of the Indian Ocean.
For his part, Estreicher drew the sensible and logical conclusion that the use of the name America clearly indicates that the Jagellonian Globe was made after the spring of 1507. One distinct possibility consistent with the other indication of a pro-Portuguese political bias, is that the Jagellonian Globe was made by someone with that same bias and who was furious that Amerigo Vespucci had revealed far too much in Mundus Novus for Lisbona€™s liking and who may well have been dismissed in late 1504 from further service for Portugal for that reason. Hythlodaeus, the narrator, whose name perhaps recalls Hylacomylus (WaldseemA?llera€™s name in latinized form), is said to have accompanied Amerigo Vespucci on what, according to the perhaps apocryphal but widely read Soderini letter, was his fourth voyage (1503-1504).
This analysis would suggest that the Jagellonian version of the Lenox Globe might have been a hostile reaction to what the mapmakers had done at St.
The maker of the Jagellonian Globe who inserted this erroneous inscription with regard to Americaa€™s location on a globe was dependent on a prior cartographic projection that had to have originated elsewhere. Writing of his 1499 voyage, Amerigo Vespucci said he had hoped to reach India by sailing westward from Spain across the Atlantic around the Cape of Catigara into the Sinus Magnus, the Great Gulf that lay to the East of the Chersonese Aureus [Malay Peninsula].
Johannes SchA¶nera€™s globe of 1515 (#328), like Boulengiera€™s of 1514 (#324), depicted America but, like the Jagiellonian and Lenox, showed another continent to the South West, labeled BRASILLIE REGIA. This was a cosmographical concept, not based on actual surveys, but as Stevenson pointed out, assumed because the geographers of the time such as WaldseemA?ller, ignorant of the reality of the Pacific Ocean or of North America, thought Amerigo Vespuccia€™s newly discovered land was located in the Southern Hemisphere to the eastward of Africa. As an authentic document from the early sixteenth century incorporating and demonstrating the cosmographic concepts of that time, it deserves consideration in any discussion of how the Dieppe maps came into existence. Frederick Pohl (1889-1991) accepted the Fite-Freeman position in an essay published in the Bulletin of the New York Public Library in September 1963.
Pohl drew this conclusion in part because after he published a biography of Vespucci in 1944, Pohl seems to have become aware of the observations of German Arciniegas and Robert Levillier that the Portuguese map makers were in the habit of twisting the southern coastline of South America toward the southeast so that the cape or strait would fall on Lisbona€™s side of the Line of Demarcation established by treaty in 1494. Although Pohl in his 1963 essay curiously did not mention Levilliera€™s essay or Arciniegasa€™ well-known Vespucci biography, he had already argued in 1944 that someone must have tampered with Vespuccia€™s letters to Soderini in various passages, especially that conspicuous alteration from a€?southwesta€? to a€?southeasta€? to give the false impression that the eastern coastline shifted abruptly in that direction a€“ as we can see illustrated in the Lenox Globe in a quite dramatic fashion. This exaggerated geographical feature strongly suggests that officials in Lisbon were quite eager as early as 1502 to spread misinformation or disinformation about the true direction of the coastline below the Tropic of Capricorn at 23 degrees latitude south.
We can say this because he buried a discussion of this specific issue in a long footnote on pages 225-226 at the back of his biography of Vespucci published in London in 1944.
However, the most telling observation is that if there was no European knowledge of a cape or a strait with regard to the new southern continent prior to Magellan, why do these globes a€?twista€? the southern portion of the continent to make people believe that a cape and water fall so far to the east, in the direction of, and therefore within the Portuguese maritime zone?
Hans Wolff who edited and also contributed to America: Early Maps of the New World (1992) made a passing remark about how the Lenox Globe a€?is slightly older than the Brixen-Hauslab globe of 1523a€? but his suggestion that the globe dates to around 1520 is not credible. While it is neither signed nor dated, there is scarcely a doubt that it is as old as the Lenox globe; indeed, the geographical features of the two globes are so similar that they appear to be the work of the same globe maker, or copies of a common original, yet it is note-worthy that the nomenclature of the Jagellonicus globe is somewhat richer. At the same time, the maker of the globe evidently and curiously was still not aware of the decision at Saint-Die to baptize the New World as America in honor of Vespucci. First, the maker of this globe accepted or echoed Portuguese cartographic propaganda after 1502 concerning the configuration of the eastern coastline which was depicted as shifting or twisting in a highly exaggerated fashion in a southeasterly direction into the Atlantic. Third, despite all the evidence that the maker of the Lenox Globe was working almost exclusively with Portuguese sources, he oddly fails to provide the more accurate depiction of South Asia that we find in the Cantino, Caveri and Ruysch maps all of which were completed in the 1502-1507 time period. Pohla€™s suspicion that this globe appeared around the time of the publication of the questionable Italian or Sodorini edition of Vespuccia€™s letters in 1505 or 1506 is a compelling argument.
Today we are engaged in a new currency war, and this time the consequences will be far worse than those that confronted Nixon. At worst, they degenerate into sequential bouts of inflation, recession, retaliation, and sometimes actual violence.
Greater than any single threat is the very real danger of the collapse of the dollar itself.
Rickards untangles the web of failed paradigms, wishful thinking, and arrogance driving current public policy and points the way toward a more informed and effective course of action. Watching these games unfold will prove an education and inspiration to readers who can then try to play in the same purposeful way, with a corresponding improvement in their own game. Don't be afraid if your move differs from the Grandmaster's choice: alternative moves are analysed and rated accordingly. There are 12 projects in all, including a lamp, a bookcase, a nightstand, a chest of drawers and an entertainment centre. Though they've been around for hundreds (or thousands) of years, these tools have gotten lost in the rush of the industrial revolution. You’ll learn to carve a female face, a cowboy face, a Native American face, a Santa face, and more.
Numerous photographs and drawings provide additional guidance by showing the progression of the design as cuts are made, and a portfolio of chip-carving designs used on furniture and boxes, and throughout the home, gives woodworkers exciting ideas. In addition, these talented artists give you complete instructions for incorporating the beads into your own artistic jewelry pieces.
Gleaned from the expertise of master candle makers, this guide presents everything a novice needs to know to get started crafting traditional tapers and molded candles, container and rolled beeswax candles, and interesting variations on each. But all the features that made the original America’s best-selling “bible” of home repair are still present here—thousands of color photographs and detailed step-by-step directions. Includes projects suitable to homes and landscapes of all types—urban, suburban, and rural.
Hundreds of color photographs and illustrations help the reader understand the basics as well as advanced framing methods. Featured projects are created using a host of easily found materials, including wood, metal, hypertufa, upcycled barrels, clay pots, sticks, latticework, copper tubing, re-rod, wire, landscape timbers, retaining wall block, and natural stone.
Her detailed instructions make for professional-quality outcomes every time: it’s like a personal baking class, right in your kitchen. The peoples who live in these regions are culturally distinct, with their own history and their own unique culinary traditions. A must-have for every food lover, and an inspiration for cooks and armchair travelers alike. With few steps to follow and minimal ingredients to purchase, these recipes—many of which are sensitive to vegans and those with nut and gluten allergies—are built for speed and ease. To Chad, bread is the foundation of a meal, the center of daily life, and each loaf tells the story of the baker who shaped it. Included are can’t-miss classics that cover main dishes, sides, soups, snacks, baked goods, and desserts.
The globe was first discovered in an antiques shop on the Quai Voltaire in Paris around 1854 by a New York architect named Richard Morris Hunt. Despite this fact, what makes the Lenox globe extremely important, indeed revolutionary, is that it depicts the continent of South America as a separate island-like continent. He argued that this globe was not part of the a€?cartographical familya€? with roots in Portuguese sources a€“ such as the Cantino (#306) and Caveri (#307) maps However, closer examination requires a major reassessment of that conclusion because the historical context and other cartogcaphic evidence imbedded in the Lenox Globe suggest that it is indeed of Portuguese origin, or inspiration, or was made to convey Lisbona€™s political perspective on discoveries in the New World. Harrisse correctly predicted in 1892 that the Stobnicza map was a derivative of the WaldseemA?ller world map of 1507 and argued that if and when it could be found, it also would show this same continuous unbroken coastline. However, it is probable that among the unnamed scholars was the agent Henry Stevens himself who stated that he favored the date of 1506-1507 in an undated letter in the possession of The New York Public Library. For example, Emerson Fite and Archibald Freeman in their folio-sized work entitled A Book of Old Maps published in 1921 by Harvard University Press essentially repeated much of what De Costa had said more than forty years earlier. These scholars were not entirely convinced that these maps and globes (including especially the Lenox Globe) were a€?provocative geographical cartoonsa€? as Lawrence Bergreen claims in his book on Magellana€™s famous voyage.
He suggested that the Lenox Globe had a€?some connectiona€? with the voyage of Vespucci in 1501-1502 to South America in the service of the Portuguese King Manuel.
The western coast of South America is drawn here, as in other maps that were constructed before the news of Magellana€™s circumnavigation had arrived in Europe, laid down not by direct observation but by estimation. Of course the simple fact that an instrument of this kind represents the condition of geographical knowledge at a certain period does not infallibly prove that it was produced at that particular period. On the Lenox Globe, however, Newfoundland appears as an island, though without any name, and at the same time no part of continental North America is laid down. In fact, the entire continent is laid down, though apart from the Lenox Globe, no analogous representation is found before that of the SchA¶ner Globe, 1520 (#328). Nevertheless the Lenox Globe gives all of South America, the drawing alone rendering it probable that the draughtsman was not unacquainted with the configuration of Terra del Fuego. Good reasons also exist for believing that Africa was accepted as the a€?modela€? for South America.
To the northward of this island is another, called Madagascar, though the true Madagascar is laid down in its proper place without any name.
This may be done by moving the great nameless island into the position occupied by Australia on the modern maps, carrying with it Certina, the so-called Madagascar, and the three islands without name. From Lelewela€™s sketch of map of Idrisi (#219) it is evident that the region including Java was perfectly well known in 1154. In fact he made too long and too sudden a stride towards the truth to be followed, though Lelewel, while severely criticizing his work, admits that some of his delineations were not equaled for many years after.
The delineation of the Asian coast using the a€?Tiger Lega€? configuration carries on the tradition also employed by the Behaim Globe, and the Marlellus, King Hamy, WaldseemA?ller, Roselli, and Contarini maps. In this region, near the equatorial line, is seen Hc Svnt Dracones, or here are the Dagroians, described by Marco Polo as living in the Kingdom of Dagroian. In the work entitled Globus Mundus, printed at Strasburg, 1509, the suggestion occurs again, Hylacomilas, evidently repeating himself. To break the force of this, Humboldt refers to the fact that Cadamosto calls the west coast of Africa Altro mondo. The separation, however, on the map in question proves that it could not have been the work of Columbus, as it has been shown repeatedly that Columbus died in the belief that there was no separation.
Third: It is the oldest instrument of any kind showing the entire continent of South America. And this connection, if correct, would suggest that a 1510-1511 date might be too conservative, especially when De Costa himself drew attention to one crucial fact. As far as direct European knowledge of the west coast of South America which was implicit in the Lenox Globe, NordenskiA¶ld hesitated, even though in 1884 he had on his own discovered a fabulous set of globe gores very similar to the WaldseemA?ller globe gores that conveys the continenta€™s the distinctive ice cream- cone shape. The main reason that he shifted was that he was heavily influenced by the discovery in the 1890s of four copies of the WaldseemA?ller 1507 world map made by Heinrich Loritti (Glareanus).
By the time the Ruysch map appeared, the Portuguese had established a presence in South Asia (India), which this map reflects.
It conveys or mixes the sophistication of the 1507 WaldseemA?ller map with respect to the southern continent, with a retarded perception of the new lands in the northern hemisphere that lay within the Spanish maritime zone. The Maggiolo world map (#316), which dates to January 1511, is the last known map to contain this curious geographical feature.
According to Robert King it offers a clue as to where Thomas More located his Utopia, and may provide a cosmographic explanation for the Jave la Grande of the Dieppe school of maps. The names are in French, and it is adorned with Fleur de Lis, but most probably has been translated from the work of some Spanish Navigator, whose discovery being forgotten, left room for the new discoveries of the English and French Navigators.
Petherick, Commonwealth Parliamentary Archivist, historian, collector of Australiana and bibliographer, whose name is commemorated in the Petherick Reading Room of the National Library of Australia.
It is five inches in diameter and made of copperplate, manufactured probably in France to form the central feature of an astronomical clock or armillary sphere, like the Jagiellonian Globe. WaldseemA?llera€™s America referred to what later became known as South America, as the continental extent of the lands later known as North America was not understood in 1507.
The formula AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA would indicate a common authorship, and therefore a French origin, for the Tross Gores and the Jagiellonian Globe. The relevant phrase on the Jagellonian globe is America novitert reperta [America, land newly discovered]. However, there is no way such a mistaken attribution to a island in the Indian Ocean could have been made if the maker of the Jagellonian Globe had in his possession the world map or globe gores made at St. Amerigo set out from Lisbon in May 1503 in an unsuccessful attempt to reach Malacca (Melaka) by sailing westwards. In sum, the Jagellonian borrowed directly from the Lenox Globe which does not refer to America.
On the earliest of the Dieppe maps, that of Jean Mallard of c.1536-1540, La Catigare is located on that part of the Terre Australe occupied on later Dieppe maps by Jave la Grande. SchA¶ner said that his source of geographical information was the Newe Zeytung auss Presillg Landt [New Tidings from the Brazilish Land], printed in Augsburg, probably in 1514 and compiled from reports on the recent discoveries sent back to the Fugger banking house in Augsburg from their agents in Madeira. Pohl went further and also argued that the globe in all probability was made in the immediate wake of the publication in Italy in 1505 of Vespuccia€™s letters concerning his four voyages ostensibly addressed to the Florentine leader, Piero Soderini.
Despite his personal fascination with European, especially Norse or Viking expeditions to the New World prior to 1492, Pohl declared in that footnote that while he was impressed by the accurate placement of the endpoint of South America at about 56 degrees latitude south in both the Lenox and Jagellonian globes, he concluded that this was a€?accidentala€? and that the depiction of a west coast was a€?imaginarya€?. Another contributor to this volume, Professor Uta Lingren (University of Bayreuth) preferred the 1511-1512 date. We do know that Lenox Globe reflects the island-like conception or model for the new continent that in fact was articulated in Cosmographiae Introductio, in sharp contrast to Vespuccia€™s remarks in Mundus Novus. Again, when we take all the facts into account, the analysis continues to point to the time period between 1503 and 1507 for the creation of the Lenox Globe. Fourth, the maker of the Lenox Globe was still not aware of the Spanish and also English exploration of significant coastline of the North American continent which we already find reflected in the Cantino and Caveri maps made by 1504 (#306 and #307). We believe that he made that decision based on inside knowledge which suggested to him that if he took the clearly safer route and followed closely this largely barren, mountainous coastline further northward, then he was not going to reach Asia and the Moluccas.
The knowledge that the region associated with the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean was a vast a€?cul-de-saca€? or a gulf - il grand golfo as both Peter Martyr and Vespucci described it - supplied the prime motivation behind Magellana€™s attempt to reach Asia in the alternative fashion that he proposed.
A copy of this letter is in the possession of the Rare Book Division (Reserve Room) of The New York Public Library. It is now a prized possession of the New York Public Library, of which the Lenox Library now forms a part. Packed with eye-opening scientific and sociological experiments, case studies from fields including business and politics, practical exercises to test your skills, and more, this course will show you how to harness the power of influence at home, at work, at the store, in your social life, and anywhere else you may need it. You’ll see how the seemingly magical ability to win people over involves specific characteristics such as physical appearance, charisma, trustworthiness, and membership in a shared group.
Further, he explains how central bankers must broaden the economic theories that guide their decisions to include the major factors of debt and asset prices. Recent headlines about the debasement of the dollar, bailouts in Greece and Ireland, and Chinese currency manipulation are all indicators of the growing conflict.
Take control of finishing by learning how to use the many finishes available—and what those products actually are. Using a biscuit joiner, each piece can be made quickly and effectively, with joints that are as strong, if not stronger, than those made using traditional joinery techniques. Rediscovering the value of these tools in your woodworking will also give you a better understanding of how your power tools work. Best of all, you'll discover Enlow's secret to success: learning how to render highly detailed eyes, lips, nose, hair, and ears before moving on to carving a complete face.
Includes guidelines for buying tools and materials, preparing the work space, and working safely and effectively, as well as suggested shopping lists.

This Second Edition is updated to match the framing techniques to the 2009 International Building Code, and introduces the concept of "green framing" regarding material use and handling.
Each plan includes photographs, a scaled plan drawing, cutting and shopping lists, and thorough step-by-step instructions. The second edition has been thoroughly updated to include the most important developments in this landscape revolution, along with the latest scientific research in the field. The language has been Anglicized to communicate in a precise and natural way with British gardeners, while still retaining the inspirational 'can-do' attitude that has made Mel Bartholomew such a gardening phenomenon in his home country. Chef Staib also offers sources for unusual ingredients and step-by-step culinary techniques, updating some of the recipes for modern cooks. Its lively charts, tips, and directions replace intimidation with pleasure and camaraderie, and its 150 great recipes will turn the most culinarily challenged dad into the family chef. Anything from a plain chicken breast to a fresh-from-the-ocean fillet can be transformed into dozens of different ethnic dishes, and chef Jeffrey Saad is just the person to show you how. In Beyond the Great Wall, the inimitable duo of Jeffrey Alford and Naomi Duguid—who first met as young travelers in Tibet—bring home the enticing flavors of this other China. Fifteen minutes is the total preparation time for Classic Provencal Tapenade, Balsamic Fig and Caramelized Onion Spread, and Rich Crab Spread. He developed his unique bread over two decades of apprenticeship with the finest artisan bakers in France and the United States, as well as experimentation in his own ovens. In the late 1860s Henry Stevens, an agent for James Lenox and other collectors of rare books and other historical artifacts, became aware of this special globe and recognized its historical significance. We can even detect the suggestion of a cone-shape in the lower latitudes below the equator and a cape or water passage at the far southern end. Given his perspicacity, it remains odd that the Lenox Globe with its distinct image of the South America as a real a€?islanda€? - totally disconnected from other landmasses - and with no depiction of North America at all a€“ was still not enough to persuade Harrisse to date the globe prior to 1507.
Stevens must have taken this position by the late 1870s, because an entry under a€?Globesa€? in the Encyclopedia Britannica edition of 1879 quotes him as assigning the date of 1506-1507 to the Lenox Globe. This total separation from Asia is exactly the cartographic projection we find on the Lenox Globe. And De Costa astutely pointed to Vespuccia€™s repeated assertion in Mundus Novus that he had reached 50 degrees below the equator which means the Italian navigator would have fallen just short of the strait by only two degrees on this voyage. Under peculiar circumstances, it would be possible for an instrument like this to possess many of the marks which indicate an early origin, simply through the failure of the designer to incorporate the results of the latest explorations, concerning which he might have been ignorant; but this suggestion, in order to have any weight in the present case, should be supported by some proof of such ignorance. In Peter Martyra€™s work (Legatio Babylonicd) of the following year, Florida appears as Beimeni, while the Stobnicza map in the Ptolemy of 1512 (#319), gives a rough view of North America, similar to that found in the Ptolemy of 1513 (#320). This circumstance might, therefore, lead some to conclude that the globe originated at a late period. How, then, could the globe-maker have known that South America terminated in such a form near latitude 55A° S.?
But it is by no means unreasonable to suppose that the termination of South America was known in 1510, even though its circumnavigation had apparently not been accomplished.
Perhaps it is not too much to believe that this globe has some connection with the third voyage of Vespucci, which brought him to the latitude of the Straits of Magellan.
When this is done, the student will have before him a tolerable indication of the geography of that region.
In the 13th century Marco Polo traveled with a map of the world in his hand, by the aid of which he appears to have described Madagascar. The a€?Tiger Lega€? is Catigara which was the name given on earlier Ptolemaic maps to the land on the easternmost shore of the Mare Indicum, south of the equator. These people, as once charged against the Irish, feasted upon the dead and picked their bones.
That country is called TERRA SANCTO CRVCIS, as upon the Ruysch map, and MVNDVS Novvs, a name given by Sandacourt, a Canon of St.
The name occurs in SchA¶nera€™s Luculentissima, etc., 1515, but the idea that it was generally used is a mistake.
It is probable that he had resolved upon this course before Columbus died, while there is nothing whatever to indicate that Vespucci took any action to secure the honor awarded to him, or even that, any more than Columbus, he was solicitous upon the subject.
This, however, he confesses is a mere adaptation of the old classic use, the alter orbis of Pomponius, Mela and Strabo. The Genoese, at the end of Cuba, on his second voyage, required his companions to declare on oath that Cuba was not an island the person maintaining the contrary being liable to a fine of ten thousand maravedis, and to have his tongue cut out. Fourth: It is the oldest instrument showing that the discoveries of Columbus formed no part of the Asiatic Continent, and that America was absolutely Mvndvs Novvs, or the New World.
That fact is the absence of America on the globe as a name for the new continent - a name which caught on quickly at least in Italy and northern Europe after Cosmographiae Introductio was published in many editions following the first edition in St Die in eastern France in April, 1507.
Glareanus states that he had followed the projections of WaldseemA?ller whose large map still had not been found but whose globe gores were well known since the early 1870s. The other crucial factor that Fite and Freeman cite as in favor of an earlier date prior to 1508 is the fact that the Lenox Globe does not show any portion of the North American mainland - meaning, as observed earlier, that the maker of the little globe was still wedded to the Ptolemaic concept of only one ocean separating Europe and Asia.
Although there is in fact a curl in that direction, it is quite exaggerated on the globe which is a strong hint that someone wanted to be sure that others would conclude that the cape or strait fell inside the Portuguese maritime zone as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494.
In the interview, Petherick referred to the work of Tadeusz Estreicher, a professor at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland. On both globes South America is shown, bearing the names MUNDUS NOVUS, TERRA SANCTAE CRUCIS and TERRA DE BRAZIL.
This conclusion becomes a certainty when we find that on the Jagiellonian Globe the island bears the inscription: AMERICA-NEWLY-DISCOVERED].
The fact remains, the Lenox Globe and the Jagiellonian Globe are evidence that there was an authoritative map made around 1507-1508 that showed, albeit mistakenly, a continental land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere. Having gone with Amerigo as far as the farthest point he reached (ad fines postremae navigationis) on the coast of the new continent, Hythlodaeus left the expedition and after passing through unknown lands proceeded on to the Portuguese base at Calicut in India by way of Taprobana (Ceylon, present day Sri Lanka) discovering the fabulous island of Utopia on the way.
The reverse sequence - the notion that a€“ the Lenox Globe could appear after the Jagellonian Globe, the WaldseemA?ller map and also the many editions of Cosmographiae Introductio a€“ and deliberately drop the name America - makes no sense whatsoever.
On the Harleian mappemonde, CATIGARA is not to be found on the western coast of IAVE LA GRANDE but, as noted by Petherick, is located on the western coast of LA TERRE:DVBRESILL, indicating a pre-Magellanic lack of knowledge of the existence of the Pacific Ocean and the notional character of IAVE LA GRANDE. And last but not least, he refused to follow or more likely did not know of the decision at St. All the foregoing analysis means that Magellana€™s main claim to fame as a navigator rests not with the discovery of the strait - an achievement which he disavowed - but to his bold decision like that of Columbus in 1492 to cross an ocean whose real breadth was unknown. The small globe is composed of two copper-engraved hemispheric sections closely fitted along the equator, as in the case of the Ulpius Globe (#367), and pierced for an axis. We will join the magic school bus on a few of it’s many adventures as it journeys to the bottom of the sea, goes back into the time of the dinosaurs, and explores the hidden world of bugs. Federal Reserve has engaged in the greatest gamble in the history of finance, a sustained effort to stimulate the economy by printing money on a trillion-dollar scale. In this book, his first since Understanding Wood Finishing, Bob Flexner delves deeper into many of the issues woodworkers struggle with and he does it with an authority that leaves no doubt. It has been expanded to provide even more ideas for designing, building, and maintaining environmentally sensitive landscapes.
A new chapter details ways in which landscape architectural practice must respond to the dangers posed by fire, floods, drought, extreme storms, and climate change. Particularly suited for beginners, or those with poor soil, this is the perfect system for getting huge yields in a small space. This wonderful keepsake will bring a bygone era in America to life and inspire readers who love to cook, entertain, and follow history.
In 1869, he persuaded Hunt to permit the Coast Survey Bureau in Washington DC to make an accurate facsimile projection which has been used by many subsequent scholars.
Unfortunately, we have not been able to find any explanation from Stevens as to why he chose this date. For all these reasons, De Costa at several points in his essay conveyed his strong suspicion that the Portuguese learned a great deal more about the continenta€™s configuration in the years that followed and well before Magellana€™s expedition. Respecting the points on which the globe gives no light, information was, nevertheless, so wide-spread in 1511 as to render it difficult to believe that any globe or map maker of the period could have failed to know of its existence. The very early map attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (#327) shows Florida as an island, but since the map was not published, no inference can be drawn from it. If, however, it were to be argued that the Lenox Globe belongs to a period subsequent to SchA¶ner, it might be necessary to assign its date to the 16th century. How, in fact, could he have known that it terminated at all, especially since sketches later than 1515, with one or two unimportant exceptions, represented Terra del Fuego as joined to a great continent, supposed to cover the entire region around the south pole?
Peter Martyr, writing to the Pope in 1514, seems to have a definite view of the shape of South America quite in advance of published maps. Since, however, this part of the Indian Ocean contains no such vast island, and since Australia does not appear in its proper place, it has been suggested by De Costa that, though we do so with extreme diffidence, that Australia is represented by the great island in question, which was misplaced; while the so-called Madagascar and Certina are simply Sumatra and Java.
Borneo and Celebes (called Java Minor by Ramusio), having their proper place, New Guiana, without any name, also appearing. At that period the great island of Australia, lying close to well-known islands, could hardly have remained unknown to geographers. At the same time the maker of the globe, in common with Sylvanus, in forming the outline of what we venture to offer as Australia, appear to have made a certain use of those outlines characteristic of the Java Major of the Fra Mauro map and the Behaim Globe (#249 and #258), which lay on the east coast of Asia. Loac is the Locac of Marco Polo, and Seilan is the Borneo of our day, the former name having been taken from its proper place near India to make room for Taprobana, which was often applied to Sumatra.
568), believes it necessary to refute what Sebastian Munster said in his Cosmography, to the effect that it sometimes falleth out that Mariners, thinking the Whales to be Islands, and casting out ankers vpon their backs, are often in danger of drowning. Die, when he framed the title of the Latin version of Vespuccia€™s letter, which described Brasil. The name was first published on a map made by WaldseemA?ller in 1507 (#310) and later by Appianus, 1520 (#331), in the work of Gamers, but the Ptolemy of 1513, in a legend on the map made by Hylocomilus himself (#320), attributes the discovery of the new world to Columbus.
He then shifts the argument, and shows that Peter Martyr in 1493-4, while speaking of the novis orbis, did not recognize its separation from Asia, and that this use was long continued. And the date of April 1510 on one of these Glareanus copies made it impossible for the Baron to support von Wiesera€™s attempt to push these maps to the 1520s. This strange level of ignorance on both points seems puzzling for any map or globe made as late as 1510- 1512, and defies a good explanation. Professor Estreicher described a globe which he dated to between 1509 and 1511 held in the Library of the University.
De Costa noted a large land mass depicted in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere, unnamed on the Lenox Globe and suggested, a€?with extreme diffidencea€?, that this land represented Australia, misplaced to this location.
The Jagiellonian Globe shows that its maker believed this continent to have been the New World discovered by Amerigo. Is it possible that this globe-maker was simply confused because he did not have the benefit of the world map and only had a copy of Cosmographiae Introductio in front of him? This placed the land discovered by Amerigo and the island of Utopia which lay contiguous to it to the south of Taprobana and India. When we also note that the Lenox Globe was made by someone who amazingly still seems to be in the total dark about basic geographical knowledge concerning North America a€“ well-known by 1507 to many scholars, not just those involved with WaldseemA?ller - then this would lend considerable weight to the conclusion that the Lenox Globe should date to a time period prior to or no later than Cosmographiae Introductio and the WaldseemA?ller map - namely, to the 1503-1507 period as Fite and Freeman argued in 1926. In other words, the Brazilish Land, Presillg Landt, was differentiated from Brazil proper, otherwise known as America.
Given her exclusively technical approach to this globe, she complained about the bending of the tip of the continent towards the east, but it never occurred to her than this feature might have been part of an attempt to deceive, an effort to spread disinformation to make persons think that a cape would fall on the Portuguese side of the maritime demarcation line established in 1494. Die that became widely known after April 1507 to baptize the New World as America in honor of Vespucci who had re-entered Spanish service in early 1505. For anyone who wants to learn to carve faces that stand out in a crowd, this is a must-have addition to your woodcarving library. A hundred photographs from years of testing, teaching, and recipe development provide step-by-step inspiration, while additional recipes provide inspiration for using up every delicious morsel. At the time, Stevens hoped to conclude a purchase for the British Museum and was prepared to pay Hunt the handsome sum of A?2,000, according to Hunt's widow. To get some clue as to why that date might have made sense to Stevens we need to turn to a contemporary scholar who pondered more deeply and put his thoughts in writing as to when this globe might have been made.
The maps of 1511, 1512 and 1513 nevertheless must have been known to every intelligent person engaged in globe making, and if the Lenox Globe had been made during those years, or later, it would have reflected information published to the world.
On his map is found a Latin legend, translated as follows: Portuguese mariners discovered this part of this territory, and proceeded as high as the fiftieth degree of South latitude, but without reaching its southern extremity.
Being secretly together in a chamber with the Bishop of Burgos, Martyr says that they examined many sea charts, one of which Vespucci was said to have set his hand, while another had been influenced by both Christopher and Bartholomew Columbus.
In accordance with this view, it would be necessary to conclude that, though misplaced upon the Lenox Globe, even Australia was known to the geographers of that early period. It would appear that the Java Minor of Marco Polo, a term applied by him to Sumatra, came eventually to include the entire region. The maker of the Lenox Globe may have misunderstood his instructions, and thus pushed Australia into the Indian Ocean. In Northern India is Sacha- vvm Regno, the sugar region described in the Ptolemy of Patavino (1596). It would appear as though Milton found his own Leviathan on the page of Hakluyt, in whose works he had read the treatise signed Arngrimus Ionus.
This has been alluded to as very curious, though the course pursued by Hylacomilus was altogether consistent.
The Lenox Globe appears to have been made at a time when geographers regarded the matter with unconcern, as neither Columbus nor Vespucci have any honor awarded.
He forgets, however, that Martyr describes South America as land never known by the ancients. 145.) Pinzon on the first voyage understood Cuba to be a city, and that the land here was a continent of great size, which extended far to the north (First Voyage of Columbus, Boston, 1827). That said, NordenskiA¶ld was still content in Periplus to give the Lenox Globe a date of about 1510 that just happened to be the same year for the Glareanus copies of WaldseemA?llera€™s work. Fortunately, it has survived the vicissitudes of the 20th century and is still held in the Treasury of the Jagiellonian Library, now the Muzeum Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego Collegium Maius. If so, a€?it would be necessary to conclude that, although misplaced upon the Lenox Globe, Australia was known to the geographers of that early perioda€?. Not likely because Vespuccia€™s detailed letters concerning all his voyages were attached to Cosmographiae Introductio. This is just where Amerigoa€™s newly discovered land is shown on the Jagiellonian Globe, indicating that Sir Thomas More probably had such a globe before him when he wrote Utopia.
The Zeytung described the voyagers passing through a strait, like the Strait of Gibraltar, between the southernmost point of America or Brazil, and a land to the South West, referred to as vndtere Presill (in Latin, Brasilia inferior). In sharp contrast, Rudolf Schmidt in the 1991 reprint of Konrad Kretschmera€™s famous 1892 atlas of facsimile maps underscored the crucial question in his brief commentary where he remarked: a€?How does the unknown author of the Lenox Globe arrive at a quite good representation of South America, if we disregard the eastward kink, which after all persisted for a long time in drawings of Africa as well?a€? Schmidt at the time was the President of the International Coronelli Society that promotes the study of globes.
But before Stevens could make this offer, Hunt already had already decided to give the globe as a gift to Lenox out of admiration for him. This was the case with many of the early geographical works; but in every such instance it is easy to show that the map is not in accordance with the text, and that the map was introduced by the publisher in lieu of something better. According to this argument, this globe, therefore, takes its place in the year 1510, or the beginning of 1511.
But this question is one that may be disembarrassed, for it will not prove a difficult task to show how the globe- maker may have obtained, in 1610, the knowledge which he exhibits. Speaking of South America, he says it reaches forth into the sea even as Italy doth, although not like the leg of a man, as it does.
That this was so appears from the fact that names belonging to Java and the neighboring islands are given on maps of a later period. The attention of the designer of the globe may have been directed to the subject by the voyage of Gonnville, who sailed from Honfleur in June 1503, for the East, and fell upon a great country, not far from the direct route to the Indies, which they called Southern India. Near Persia is Carmenis, the Kermann of Marco Polo, who does not refer to the neighboring Calicut, or Calcutta.
The history of this name, however, is not quite so clear as the others, though Navarrete calls attention to Muratoria€™s notice of the fact that brazil, signifying a red dye-wood, was an excisable article at Ferrara and Modena in 1193 and 1306. The really curious thing remains to be stated, and for the special consideration of those writers who have had so much to say about the ingratitude shown to Columbus by early geographers. Certainly Vespucci never gave the impression in these letters or in the earlier publication known as Mundus Novus that he was sailing in the Indian Ocean. A very similar globe, belonging to an astronomical clock and apparently of about the same age as the Lenox Globe, is in the library of the Jagiellon University at Cracow in Poland. Hunt had a close relationship with Lenox because Lenox had hired him to design a large mansion in Manhattan to house his private collection. After passing this year, and reaching 1520, the newly found lands are so well known as to be celebrated in an English poem, entitled the Four Elements. 7) calls attention to the fact that in the fourteenth chapter of the work, in which the map of Ruysch appears, there is a separate statement, to the effect that the Portuguese had surveyed the coast of South America as far as 37A° S., and that it was known as far as 50A° S. The Globe of Ulpius (#367) illustrates this phase of the question, Java Minor appearing as a very large island, and the true Java not being laid down at all. He also quotes from Capmanya€™s Memorias sobra la antiqua marina, commercio, y artes de Barcelona, which contains references to this wood connected with the years 1221, 1243, 1252 and 1271.
The point is this, that though Ferdinand, the son of Columbus, lived until 1539, and for many years was an owner and diligent reader of the Cosmographise Introductio, which he annotated and rebound, he is not known to have written or spoken a syllable, or to have caused any one else to write so much as a word, expressive of any sense of injustice done to his father by the naming of the New World after Vespucci. It has invariably been used by mapmakers to represent the coast of North America, whatever may have been its origin.
Winsor, neither of who had seen the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507, which was only discovered in 1901, fixed the date at 1508-11 and 1510-12, respectively.
The globe consists of two gilded copperplate calottes, inscribed with the Eartha€™s principal features as understood at that time, including a continent inscribed AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA.
The Zeytung said that Malacca was only six hundred miles from the western point of this Brazil. June 24-June 28 Ocean Explorer’s CampCome journey to the bottom of the sea as we explore the wonderful world of oceans and sea animals.Time Traveler’s Camp July 1-19July 1-5 A short stop in 1776 for America’s birthday. The offering of the globe as a gift was evidently timed with the completion of the construction of this mansion in 1870. The scholar Henry Harrisse, in his Life of Fernand Colomb, also calls attention to the fact that the partisan Life of the Admiral, which has been attributed to his son, while exceedingly severe upon those who detracted from the fame of Columbus, does not mention either Hylacomilus or his book.
It is the earliest surviving globe on which the name America appears, a name invented by Martin WaldseemA?ller and published in his Cosmographiae Introductio, St.
In SchA¶nera€™s 1520 globe, AMERICA had evolved into TERRA NOVA, AMERICA vel BRASILIA sive PAPAGALLI TERRA [Land of Parrots], while BRASILLIE REGIO had become BRASILIA INFERIOR (a translation of vndtere Presill). Thus in 1508 there existed at Rome a general understanding of the coast to within about two degrees of the entrance to the Straits of Magellan.
Major discusses four maps with similar characteristics, belonging to same period, in the Hakluyt Societya€™s work on Australia, and the matter is also touched upon in his Prince Henry. It would appear, therefore, that the indignation referred to is, upon the whole, a modern thing, of which the immediate friends of the famous Genoese had no experience. The Lenox Globe, though giving no lines of latitude, represents the coast as far south as about 55A° south latitude, the correct latitude of Cape Horn.
SchA¶nera€™s 1533 globe showed the BRASILIAE REGIO as part of the TERRA AVSTRALIS, with an enormous peninsula, the REGIO PATALIS, attached to its southeastern part.
We will make American flags, have a parade, and celebrate America’s birthday with a delicious Apple Pie. With such facts before him, Humboldt came to the conclusion that between the years 1500 and 1508 a succession of attempts were made by the Portuguese along the coast of South America, beginning at Porto Seguro in latitude 16A° S. Some of the geographers endeavored to set off Java, reduced to proper proportions, SchA¶ner, 1520, being amongst the number; but in the attempt Australia in some cases disappeared altogether. Moreover, it places open water to the south of this new continent and thus suggests that the water-route around South America was known before Magellan set out in 1519. Oronce Finea€™s 1531 map exhibits this cosmography, and the Dieppe maps show its further evolution, even though it was out of date by the time they were made in the 1540s and 1550s. The children will dress up like the Statue of Liberty for our infamous Statue of Liberty photos. Brazil appears on a map of the 15th century, but the Catalan map of 1375 (#235) also shows an island in the Atlantic bearing the name. The SchA¶ner globes of 1515 and 1520 (#328), on which South America is separated from an Antarctic continent by a strait connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, give further evidence of this fact. Our Statue of Liberty photos are so good one of the children’s  photos made it all the way to the office of a Supreme court judge. Still the student is not justified, with such data, in declaring precisely how far the navigators knew the region by actual observation.
Perhaps, therefore, the Lenox Globe may be regarded as showing one of the earliest attempts to correct a misunderstanding. The inference is that the navigators who passed along that region viewed the strait afterwards discovered by Magellan as an inlet, and that they learned from the natives the configuration of Terra del Fuego. It is reasonable, however, to conclude that the name was applied to South America, because the first navigator found there an abundance of desirable dye-wood.
July 22 - August 5 Science Explorer’s Camp We will enter the fascinating world of insects and go inside the human body.
The Hudsona€™s Bay Company possess at their House important sketches made by the Indians; while Balboa, called the a€?Discoverer of the Pacifica€? had the Pacific discovered for him by the Cacique of Zumaco, who, upon the arrival of the Spaniard in the Bay of Panama, figured for him the coasts of Quito, and described the riches of Peru.
A summer full of fun and imagination.   June 24-28, 2013This week the magic school bus stopped at it’s first destination, under the sea, to explore the ocean’s coral reefs and tidal zones. We, Ocean Explorers, were along for the ride and what an adventure we had discovering the ocean and it’s many wonders.
You can’t be an ocean explorer without an ocean explorer’s guide to identify what you see in the great big blue sea.
This was all that the Spanish and Portuguese navigators needed to have done for them by the natives of Terra del Fuego. Ray’s Ocean Explorers’ Guide to the real animals that live in Nemo’s neighborhood, the Great Barrier Reef.
Clownfish live in stinging anemones but the anemone’s tentacles don’t sting them because they are covered in a special slime. You cut 8 legs in the hot dog and when you place it into a pot of boiling water the tentacles curl all up. It is Movie Friday.  We watched Finding Nemo and made graceful jellyfish out of a colorful mosaic of tissue paper. Remember: We will be closed Thursday for the Fourth of July    July 8-12, 2013This week the Magic School Bus transported us back to the Prehistoric World of Dinosaurs and Reptiles and next week we will become Paleontologists in search of dinosaur bones and fossils. I wonder what mine will be?” The children were expectant dinosaur parents during our Hatch A Dinosaur science experiment. They filled the glasses with warm water, placed the colorful egg capsules into the water, and eagerly waited for their dinosaur eggs to hatch.  They decided Catalina was the best Dinosaur Mother because her red egg hatched first and everyone gathered around to help Christopher hatch his blue egg which needed some extra help with the hatching process. There was a little dino envy when Jaden’s hatched into a big red Iguanodon but they each loved their little hatchlings as only a parent could.  The children are wearing Dinosaur T-Rex hats through out the day for special Dinosaur story times and to practice their own reading skills.
The children are continuing to learn to stay in their own seats or on their own letter on the alphabet rug until the school activity is complete.
He taught us the signs for the letter D, Dinosaur, the letter V and Volcano.  He even read us the book Harold and the Purple Crayon: Dinosaur Days in Sign language!
Mia, a future teacher herself, shared a special photo book of all their adventures around the world.
Signing Time: A special sign language class with Thomas Cabaluna and a Dinosaur Story time in sign language.
New Sign language signs learned include the signs for dinosaur, volcano, and the letter signs D and V Movie Friday and Lunch: Disney’s Dinosaurs and Dinosaur shaped chicken nuggets. Math: Counting spots on the Triceratops, Skip counting, addition, and patterns with Leapfrog Math to the Moon. Art: Harold the Purple Crayon Art, Using stencils with paint, How to make a volcano and prehistoric landscape, and Sticker Art.
Prehistoric Play Dough Center: We discovered how to make and identify  dinosaur and lizard footprints in play dough. Pretend Play: We introduced new stegosaurus, and brontosaurus toys to our play and block area. The last two weeks the children have been busy discovering the exciting world of paleontology. A paleontologist is a scientist who learns about prehistoric animals like dinosaurs by studying their fossils. Squeezing modeling clay with their hands they picked out  dinosaurs and pressed them as hard as they could into the clay making an imprint fossil. In this learning unit the children learned what a paleontologist does and the tools they use to discover fossils. So here at A Happy Daycare the children actually touched a real piece of a dinosaur bone and examined an ammonite shell fossil over 65 million years old. The children were very excited to discover that when you look through a Magnifying glass it make things huge! The children measured and helped mix up the recipe in a big bucket to use to make treasure stones.
They molded it into a rock shape  and we hid a treasure into each of their stones for them to dig out when the treasure stone harden. On Friday we brought out more tools, brushes, and little shovels for the children to dig out their treasures. We read the book The Dinosaur Stomp and then stepped right on to the dinosaur stilts to see how it feels to stomp around with big dinosaur feet. The dinosaur feet stilts we used were only a few inches off the ground but when the children stood on them they  thought that they were bigger than life!  Dinosaur had bones and when you look at the shapes of their bones you can tell what kind of dinosaur it is.
The children learned how to identify stegosaurus bones, t-rex bones, and long-neck dinosaur bones by using critical thinking and matching skills. We learned that even if you find a dinosaur skeleton you have to put it back together in the right order. We practiced our puzzle skills with mixed up t-rex flash cards and a plastic skeleton mold. Dinosaurs have bones and so do we.   Next stop on the Magic School Bus Adventure is Inside the Human Body.
Reading and Writing: We are practicing sight words, sounding out three letter words, and recognizing that print is a part of our daily lives. This fall Lindsay will be attending Kindergarten at a school in Prunedale and Jaden will be attending Kindergarten at a school in Monterey.
Potato Head as a teaching tool for the children to visualize the body parts that make up the five senses.
The nose knows how to smell and we practiced using our sense of smell to explore the world around us by seeing how many things we could smell.
The children even put on silly glasses with big noses to go on a nature walk in the garden to smell the flowers.
We have X-rays hanging up on the windows for the children to explore and discover how an X-ray takes a picture of bones.
Potato Head Art, and my five senses chart  August 5-9, 2013Next week the Magic School Bus Science explorers will explore the wonderful world of bugs and butterflies. This week we joined the Magic School Bus as it magically shrank down in size to explore inside the human body! All the children thought it was hilarious that on the Magic School Bus Series the children have a friend named Ralphie in their class too. When we learned about community helpers and farmers we read about a rooster named Ralphie too.
Before we explored inside the human body the children laid on a big roll of paper to trace the shape of their own bodies! Seuss’s Horton Hears A Who is, “A person is a person no matter how small.” And it is true it doesn’t matter how big or how small a person is everyone has their own body with the same amazing bones and body organs inside. Their brain’s job is to think and learn, their heart’s job is to pump, their lung’s job is to breath in air, and their stomachs job is to help digest their food. Now that everyone had made a tracing of their own unique outline the children were ready to paint and add  in  the different bones and organs, during the week, as we learned about them.
On Movie Friday we watched a Double Feature with Sid The Science Kid’s episode on the sense of smell and the Magic School Bus’s series Inside Ralphie. Thanks to Irie and her mom for bringing the Movie Friday Snacks last week and this week.  The children’s sense of taste says the snacks are delicious! This week the children explored the life cycle of butterflies with Eric Carle’s The Very Hungry Caterpillar. We practiced the days of the week and counted fruit right along with that wiggly lovable caterpillar.
The caterpillar even helped us learn about placing in order from biggest to smallest with the wooden caterpillar stacking gameNoodles, noodles, and more noodles. Can you find the noodle type that looks like a curly caterpillar, little eggs, a cocoon and a butterfly taking flight.
The hunt was on for the children to match the noodles to each butterfly stage and to find the most eggs.  They even selected special leaves and sticks from the garden for their noodle caterpillars. We harvested green, yellow, and purple organic beans from our Jack and the Beanstalk beans.
Then we explored volume with water by transferring the water from one container to another. Thanks to Irie’s Mom for the Yummy Chocolate pudding with gummy worms and Gabriel’s Mom for the homemade muffins. Magic School Bus: Ants in his pants and Butterfly BogAugust 19-23, 2013This week we are finishing up the last of our summer program and preparing lesson plans for the new school year. We have so many activities and lessons full of learning planned for the upcoming fall season!
Please send your child to school in a yellow or black shirt for a day full of bee and bug themed activities. All summer the children have been exploring how to use a magnifier to enlarge objects and this week we introduced how a microscope works.
We have a special microscope for young children that plugs directly into the TV screen so the entire class can see all at once. We went on a nature hunt in the backyard to discover interesting leaves and bugs to look at under the microscope. Catalina, Cole, and Omari were the helpers who held the buckets full of their finds.  We placed them in a jar and used the microscope to enlarge them. We could see the tiniest  caterpillar eggs on our sunflower leaf.  An ant looked like a monster and we didn’t even know that a roly-poly had that many legs.
Each of the children helped pick out the color pattern of their caterpillar, pressed their painted little toes onto the wooden magnet, and tried not to wiggle their toes too much.   Then we added eyes and antennas. She even included an array of nutritious fruit for us and the cake caterpillar to eat just like in the story. August 26-30, 2013This year we finished up our Summer Program with a Busy Bee Celebration Day. The children came in on Wednesday dressed in yellow and black ready to be busy little bees.
We had bobbling bee antennas on our heads to greet the children as they arrived at our “hive”.
Trinity had little bees on her dress, Jonathan had on his striped bumblebee shirt, and Irie even had bee barrettes in her hair.   What would the little bees eat for breakfast?
We learned that if you are going to be a bee then you have to build a hive to go home to.  The children worked together to help build a honeybee hive out of our many tunnels and tents.
The “hive” ended up covering their whole play area and they had so much fun crawling in and out of the tunnels buzzing like worker bees. The children dressed up in the bee costumes to fly through the yard and gather pretend nectar from the garden to make their  honey. Pretend play like this gives the children the opportunity to apply the learning and knowledge that they have gained. During Music and Movement Time we danced, jumped and learned how bees communicate to each other where the best flowers are by dancing. The children put on the headbands they made and we all marched through the garden in a buzzing bee parade.
The children loved every minute of it.  A special thanks to Asher’s family for the delicious bee cupcakes they made. Thanks to Irie’s family who worked so hard on making a beautiful honeybee hive filled with honeycomb treats to share. Have a great holiday weekend and remember we will be closed Monday September 2 for Labor Day.

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