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T-Enami.org - A Welcome, all who like old Photos of Japan !YOU ARE ONE OF OVER 100,000 VISITORS TO THIS SITE.
Understanding questioning strategies and practicing with a peer can improve teachers' questioning skills.
Since the days of Socrates, asking questions to assess student understanding has been a core component of teaching and learning. The most famous question taxonomy was designed by Benjamin Bloom and his associates in 1956.
The third level—Application—asks students to apply known facts, principles, or generalizations to solve a problem. The fourth level—Analysis—asks students to identify and comprehend elements of a process, communication, or series of events.
The sixth level—Evaluation—asks students to determine how closely a concept or idea is consistent with standards or values. Developed by some of the same people who created Bloom's Taxonomy, the Revised Taxonomy is, as its title suggests, a revision of the original Bloom's Taxonomy (Krathwohl, 2002). The biggest difference between Bloom's Taxonomy and the Revised Taxonomy is in the latter's reliance on subcategories. A cognitive-memory question requires only simple processes like recognition, rote memory, or selective recall to formulate an answer. Divergent thinking requires a response using independently generated data or a new perspective on a given topic.
Evaluative thinking, the highest question level in this taxonomy, deals with matters of judgment, value, and choice.
Just as teachers rarely use the higher-cognitive-level questions in these taxonomies, most teachers rarely use question sequencing, in which each question builds on the answer to the previous question (Wragg & Brown, 2001). Understanding the following question sequences and patterns provides teachers direction and structure for their questions, helps clarify for students what teachers expect of them, and fosters a climate of meaningful classroom dialogue leading to enhanced thinking and learning. This questioning pattern involves asking a number of questions at the same cognitive level—or extending—before lifting the questions to the next higher level (Taba, 1971). This pattern involves asking a series of questions which eventually lead back to the initial position or question (Brown & Edmondson, 1989). This questioning pattern involves asking questions at the same cognitive level (Brown & Edmondson, 1989). For example, a teacher could ask the following broad-to-narrow questions about ecology and the environment: "What is ecology?
In this sequence, the focus is not on the cognitive level of the questions but on how closely they relate to the central theme, issue, or subject of the discussion (Brown & Edmondson, 1989).
Colleague classroom observations can develop and strengthen teachers' verbal questioning skills.
Note: An observing teacher uses this form to record questioning practices, noting the type of question(s) each student answered in the square corresponding to that student's seat. For instance, if the first question asked is a cognitive-memory question that a student volunteers to answer, the observer would write "1CMV" in the space on the instrument that corresponds to the student's seating in the classroom. During the post-observation conference, team members should discuss whether the question script helped or hindered them and whether the students were able to follow the questioning pattern. To improve their verbal questioning skills, Lisa, a new middle school social studies teacher, partnered with Patty, a veteran social studies teacher.
The teachers decided that Lisa would observe Patty in her classroom during the first 15 minutes of class. At the post-observation conference, Lisa shared with Patty the results of the classroom observation instrument. Unlike Patty, Lisa came to the pre-observation conference with two question scripts that she had worked on the night before.
At their post-observation conference, the teachers discussed Lisa's need to become more familiar with questioning patterns so she could tailor her questions to better suit the needs of her students. For photocopy, electronic and online access, and republication requests, go to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Subscribe to ASCD Express, our twice-monthly e-mail newsletter, to have practical, actionable strategies and information delivered to your e-mail inbox twice a month. Today, verbal questioning is so prevalent in education that it's difficult to picture a classroom in which a teacher isn't asking questions. Teachers can improve their ability to ask questions of different cognitive levels by familiarizing themselves with question taxonomies, which classify questions on the basis of the mental activity or intellectual behavior required to formulate an answer (Morgan & Schreiber, 1969).


Called Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain, or, more commonly, Bloom's Taxonomy, it comprises six levels of intellectual behavior. The Revised Taxonomy renamed some of the original categories—Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation—and changed them all to verb forms to reflect their more familiar use as part of education objectives. The subcategories provide greater flexibility and responsiveness to the cognitive complexity of the activity.
Researchers studying teachers' questioning patterns found that 53 percent of the questions that teachers asked stood alone, and 47 percent were part of a sequence of two or more questions. For example, a mathematics teacher reviewing a chapter on geometric figures might ask the following series of questions: "What are the features of geometric points?
A classic example of this circular path pattern is, "Which came first, the chicken or the egg?" A classroom example of this might be the question, "Were Hitler's actions against the Jews a manipulation of—or a reaction to—people's prejudice? For example, a physics teacher questioning students about motion and speed could ask the following: "What is motion? For example, in a lesson on visual literacy, an English teacher might ask the following sequence of questions about a photograph: "What kinds of people are pictured in the photograph?
Teachers work in pairs observing each other and being observed leading classroom discussions. There, the teacher being observed writes out the questions and question sequences—the question script—that he or she will use during the lesson. If the next question asked is a convergent-thinking question answered by a nonvolunteering student, the observer would write "2CTN" in the appropriate space on the chart. At the pre-observation conference, colleagues can agree on a formal observation for a limited number of question sequences, perhaps one or two. Writing and following a question script is typically a new experience for teachers, who seldom think about questions to ask their students ahead of time.
Once honed, verbal questioning becomes an efficient formative assessment tool, helps students make connections to prior knowledge, and stimulates cognitive growth.
Patty used a same-path question sequence and an extending-and-lifting sequence and asked both cognitive-memory and convergent-thinking questions. Patty was pleased with the high classroom participation but troubled by the lack of divergent- and evaluative-thinking questions, which she had assumed she was asking. The teachers discussed each question and how the question sequences would help Lisa achieve the objectives of her lesson. But Patty noticed that Lisa was so focused on following a prescribed path of questioning that she often failed to take student responses into account. Vogler is Assistant Professor, Department of Instruction and Teacher Education, College of Education, University of South Carolina, Columbia.
In fact, researchers note that verbal questioning is second only to lecturing as the most common instructional practice (Black, 2001).
As they answer questions at different cognitive levels—especially higher levels—students develop critical-thinking and communication skills. Each question level requires a greater amount of mental activity to formulate an answer than the previous level. The revised categories are Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating, and Creating.
For example, the category Applying requires greater mental activity than Understanding, but "explaining" is a high subcategory of the Understanding category, and "executing" is a low subcategory of the Applying category even though explaining is a more complex activity than executing. Of this 47 percent, only 10 percent were a part of a sequence having four or more questions (Wragg & Brown, 2001). Civil War could ask the following narrow-to-broad series of questions: "What is a writ of habeas corpus?
During the observation, the observing teacher is responsible for keeping track of the number of questions asked, judging the cognitive level of each question, indicating which student answered each question and whether he or she volunteered the answer, and recognizing the question pattern used. This way, the teacher being observed doesn't have to write down all the questions that he or she plans to ask during the observation. As teams become more familiar with the activity and begin to develop their verbal questioning skills, subsequent post-observation conferences can focus on such topics as pacing questions, transitioning to and from question sequences, and trying new question sequences. She noted that she often makes up questions on the spur of the moment, focusing on students' interests and her instructional goals.
Lisa also recognized the beginning of a narrow-to-broad questioning pattern, but it quickly turned into a backbone-question sequence. Flexibility in using questioning sequences is an important aspect of skillful verbal questioning.


Why did Lincoln suspend habeas corpus and order the arrest of Baltimore's mayor, the police chief, and members of the Maryland legislature? In addition, after the observer has taken notes on the agreed-on number of question patterns, he or she can sit back and try to recognize the cognitive levels of questions and question patterns without having to write everything down. She was sure she would use at least two or three questioning patterns during the observation period.
Patty used a good mix of volunteering and nonvolunteering students from all areas of the classroom. Patty began jotting down a few higher-cognitive-level thinking questions in her lesson plans to ensure that she included them.
What objects in this classroom could be represented by points, lines, and planes?" The first four questions are all at the same cognitive level (extending); the fifth question requires students to think at a higher level (lifting). OTHERWISE, BEGIN SCROLLING DOWN FOR A TREASURE-TROVE OF RARE AND BEAUTIFUL PHOTOS OF OLD JAPAN. ENAMI WEARING SAMURAI ARMOR, TAKING A REST BETWEEN POSES IN HIS YOKOHAMA STUDIO, CA.1898-1900. ENAMI, OTHER WELL-KNOWN JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHERS WHO OPERATED DURING THE MEIJI-ERA (1868-1912) ARE MENTIONED THROUGHOUT THE COMMENTS.I HOPE YOU FIND THE STORY AND DATA BOTH INTERESTING AND HELPFUL.
FOR THOSE WHO ARE HERE PRIMARILY TO LOOK AT THE IMAGES, I HOPE THAT YOU EXPERIENCE SOME ENJOYMENT IN GAZING AT A FEW OF ENAMI'S"LOST PICTURES" OF OLD JAPAN. THOSE THAT LIVE FOR DISCOVERING NEW DATA AND CONNECTING THE DOTS WILL NO DOUBT FIND SOME EYE-OPENING REVELATIONS HERE.A OF COURSE, WE ALL LOVE KIMBEI KUSAKABE AND THE REST OF THOSE ILLUSTRIOUS JAPANESE PIONEERS OF PHOTOGRAPHY WHO GOT THEIR START LONG BEFORE ENAMI OPENED HIS OWN MEIJI-ERA STUDIO. THEIR BEST WORK IS ENOUGH TO TAKE YOUR BREATH AWAY.HOWEVER, ENAMI ALSO HAD HIS FANS AND FRIENDS, BOTH AS A PERSON AND AS A PHOTOGRAPHER. AS YOU SCROLL DOWN THESE PAGES, FOR A FEW MOMENTS YOU MAY STEP INTO ENAMI'S SHOES, AND TAKE A PEAK THROUGH HIS LENS.A LIKE SO MANY OTHERS --- SOME NOW FAMOUS, BUT MOST BEING FORGOTTEN --- ENAMI DEDICATED HIS LIFE TO CAPTURING, AS BOTH ART AND DOCUMENT,A WORLD THAT WAS QUICKLY VANISHING BEFORE HIS EYES.
AS THIS SITE IS A PERSONAL HOMAGE TO ENAMI, YOU WILL FIND SOME AMATEUR ELEMENTS, AND THE OCCASIONAL PITFALL. AT ALL TIMES, PLEASE "EAT THE MEAT, AND SPIT OUT THE BONES" WHILE DIGGING FOR VISUAL TREASURE.DISCOVERING THE OCCASIONAL GEM OF A PICTURE, OR ODD BIT OF INFORMATION, WILL HOPEFULLY MAKE THE SCROLLING WELL WORTH IT. The general wording seen above was fairly common to all photographic self-promotion during the Meiji-era, and actually contains less specifics than some of his studio ads which he placed in various guide books of the time. OGAWA, who was actually a year younger than Enami, was still his "elder" in terms of experience.
It was photographed by Enami's friendly competitor and neighbor Kozaburo Tamamura, whose studio was located at No.2 Benten Street.
It would be built in 1894 just down the street on the right hand side, and appear in endless views and postcards as the most recognizable landmark of Benten Street. Other images of Enami's studio -- both interior and exterior views -- are shown farther down on this page.A  While offering many of the same services and productions as his contemporaries, he also engaged in other activities that made him unique.
Further, while no photographer did "everything", Enami worked and published in more processes and formats than any other Japanese photographer of his time. A He was one of only a few photographers born during Japan's old Edo-Bakumatsu period, who went on to photograph right through to the Showa period of Emperor Hirohito.Enami was also one of the few to experience, and then successfully outgrow his roots as a traditional maker of the classic, large-format "Yokohama Shashin" albums. While successfully embracing the smaller stereoview and lantern slide formats, he added to that a portfolio of Taisho-era "street photography" that maintained his own unique and artistic content. Enami and Kimbei Kusakabe are now the only two Japanese photographers known to have a surviving list of their commercial 2-D images.
While Enami's 2-D portfolio contained a sprinkling of older, public domain images, his 3-D images and slides made from them were wholly his own.A THE 3-D CATALOG "S 26.
Girls Looking at Pictures" A Maiko and two Geisha Looking at Stereoviews in Enami's Yokohama Studio. One of over 1000 cataloged 3-D images of old Japan.A THE "CATALOG OF COLORED LANTERN SLIDES AND STEREOSCOPIC VIEWS"A  Not surprisingly, Enami matched his older Catalog of Meiji-era Prints with a separately published catalog of his classic STEREOVIEWS. In the case of the 3-D Catalog, the lantern-slides were all made directly from one half of the stereoview negatives. The Cover and two sample pages of the Stereoview Catalog are shown just below in the Enami Activity List numbers (6) and (9). ENAMI'S ACTIVITIES and CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE WORLD OF JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHYA A  For the moment, based on a wide range of primary sources, it is now clear that T.



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