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Author: admin, 14.03.2016. Category: How To Learn Meditation

Tests for identifying genetic variations among individuals, which can be used to develop precisely targeted drug therapies, are a current focus in the emerging field of pharmacogenomics. To develop the nanoprobe, Jackie Ying at the A*STAR Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology and co-workers in Singapore, Taiwan and Japan devised a relatively simple procedure that uses standard laboratory equipment and can be easily adapted for other genetic tests. Ying's method detects genetic variations known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that differ in only a single-nucleotide building block of DNA.
The researchers used gold nanoparticles attached to short sections of DNA that bind to specific complementary sequences of DNA through the base pairing that holds together double-stranded DNA. The nanoprobes are initially pink due to surface plasmonic effects involving ripples of electric charge.
The resulting color change is easily visible to the human eye but can also be evaluated automatically (see image). Double-stranded DNA must disentangle itself into single strands during replication or repair to allow functional molecules to bind and perform their various operations.


Genetic engineering of plants, animals and microorganisms such as bacteria typically involves the use of restriction enzymes to 'cut and paste' DNA fragments into certain genetic sequence locations. A cube, an octahedron, a prisma€”these are among the polyhedral structures, or frames, made of DNA that scientists at the U.S.
Chemically the same, graphite and diamonds are as physically distinct as two minerals can be, one opaque and soft, the other translucent and hard. Bioengineers at the University of California, San Diego have developed an electrical graphene chip capable of detecting mutations in DNA. In DNA samples containing no genetic variations, the pink solution became colorless within 10 minutes.
A*STAR researchers have now developed and patented a customized and elegant nanoprobe for assessing sensitivity to the drug warfarin.
In the case of warfarina€”the most frequently prescribed anticoagulanta€”there are SNP differences in specific parts of the genome that indicate whether a patient will tolerate the drug or suffer serious side effects.


These nanoprobes were exposed to fragments of DNA that had been cut out and amplified from a patient's genome. When analyzed, if the probes do not bind to the DNA fragments, they aggregate and become colorless on exposure to a salt solution. The system can also distinguish between homozygous genotypes (where a person caries the same SNP on each member of a pair of chromosomes) and heterozygous genotypes (where a person carries different SNPs on each chromosome). If they do bind to the target, they will not aggregate but will remain pink until heated to a 'melting temperature' at which the base pairing is disrupted and the DNA strands of the probe and the genome fragments separate.
For cases of partial complementaritya€”in which the fragments are mismatched by a single nucleotidea€”the melting temperature is lowered by an amount depending on the level of mismatch.



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