Brain and spinal cord tracts ppt,regular show think positive watch cartoon,easy ways to make extra money on the side jobs,how do pension funds invest - Videos Download

Author: admin, 14.02.2016. Category: Positive Affirmations Quotes

The spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum at the base of the skull to the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
The spinal cord is divided into 31 segments, with each segment giving rise to a pair of spinal nerves. For more information about anatomy of brain and CNS, go to the Nervous System section of the Anatomy & Physiology module on this Web site.
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The spinal cord, protected by several solid and liquid membranes, is the source of 31 pairs of spinal nerves; it connects them to the brain.
Bulge made up of nerve cell bodies forming a chain on both sides of the spinal cord; it mainly controls contraction of the visceral muscles. Thin and highly veined inner meninx directly covering the spinal cord and the roots of the spinal nerves. Part of the central nervous system located in the spinal column; it receives and transmits nerve information and releases the reflexes.
Nerve formed by the union of the sensory and motor roots; it communicates nerve messages between the spinal cord and the various parts of the organism.
Each of three fibrous membranes surrounding and protecting the central nervous system (spinal cord, brain). Thick and resistant outer meninx fusing with the tissue covering the spinal nerves; it does not adhere directly to the bony vertebral wall. Section of the spinal cord made up of nerve fibers (axons) and surrounding the gray matter.
Each of the terminal parts of two masses of gray matter enclosing the cell bodies of motor neurons and from which the motor root originates. Each of the terminal parts of the two masses of gray matter enclosing the associative neurons through which the sensory root enters the spinal cord. Bulge of the posterior sensory root of the spinal nerve; it encloses the cell bodies of the neuron sensors.
Bundle of sensory nerve fibers (axons) communicating information from the periphery of the body to the spinal cord. Bundle of motor nerve fibers (axons) communicating information from the spinal cord to the periphery of the body, especially the muscles. Cranial nerves are peripheral nerves associated with the brain and, thus, provide sensory, motor, and autonomic innervation to the head and parts of the body. FIGURE 14-1 View of the ventral surface of the brain depicting the sites of entry or exit of most of the cranial nerves. Several cranial nerves, such as the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII), are associated only with motor functions. The overall strategy employed in this topic is to first characterize cranial nerves in terms of the established and accepted classification scheme that has been in use in the literature for many years. At this time, it is appropriate to review this classification scheme in more detail and to indicate the categories of classification to which each of the cranial nerves are associated. A general somatic efferent (GSE) fiber is one whose cell body lies within the brainstem or spinal cord and whose axons innervate skeletal muscle. A special visceral efferent (SVE) fiber is functionally identical to nerves categorized as GSE. A general visceral efferent (GVE) fiber is one whose cell body lies within the CNS and whose fibers innervate smooth muscles or glands. A general somatic afferent (GSA) fiber is one whose cell body (usually termed pseudo-unipolar neuron) lies outside the CNS.
Special sensory afferent (SSA) fibers are similar to GSA fibers except that they convey information to the brain from very highly specialized kinds of somatic receptors.
Special visceral afferent (SVA) fibers are similar to SSAs in that they also serve special senses and have specialized receptors. General visceral afferent (GVA) fibers have their receptors located principally in the serous linings or muscle layers of the body viscera.
GVA components of cranial nerves convey signals associated primarily with changes in blood pressure. As a brief review, this material is presented here and depicts the anatomical positions of cranial nerve nuclei within the brainstem of the cranial nerves (Fig. FIGURE 14-2 Longitudinal view of the brainstem depicting the position and arrangement of the sensory, motor, and autonomic cell groups that comprise first-order and second-order neurons associated with cranial nerves. FIGURE 14-3 Frontal section taken through the middle of the medulla depicting the loci of the different cell columns that comprise the various components of the cranial nerves. The relationship between cranial nerve nuclei and the sulcus limitans is the key point to note.
Thus, cranial nerves situated medial to the sulcus limi-tans have motor functions, those located lateral to the sul-cus limitans have sensory functions, and cranial nerve nuclei that lie near the sulcus limitans carry out autonomic functions. FIGURE 14-4 Diagram illustrates the origin and distribution of the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII [general somatic efferent]) with its innervation of the muscles of the tongue.
A paralysis of the tongue, called supranuclear paralysis, may also result from a cortical lesion involving the region of the precentral gyrus, which supplies axons to the hypoglossal nucleus.

Brain Stem controls things we do without thinking, like our heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing.
There are three layers of meninges: Dura mater (closest to the bone), Arachnoid loosely around the brain, Pia mater is closely attached to the brain and spinal cord surface.
Neurons are nerve cells that transmit nerve signals to and from the brain at up to 200 mph.
Myelin coats and insulates the axon (except for periodic breaks called nodes of Ranvier), increasing transmission speed along the axon. The cell body (soma) contains the neuron's nucleus (with DNA and typical nuclear organelles).
A typical neuron has about 1,000 to 10,000 synapses (that is, it communicates with 1,000-10,000 other neurons, muscle cells, glands, etc.).
Sensory neurons or Bipolar neurons carry messages from the body's sense receptors (eyes, ears, etc.) to the CNS. Unlike most other cells, neurons cannot regrow after damage (except neurons from the hippocampus). At the distal end of the cord, many spinal nerves extend beyond the conus medullaris to form a collection that resembles a horse's tail. Note that the olfactory nerve (cranial nerve [CN] I) is not shown in this illustration and that the trochlear nerve exits the brainstem on the posterior surface and then passes along the exterior of the lower midbrain to enter the cavernous sinus along with CN VI. Others are associated with only specific sensory functions, such as the optic nerve (CN II), and still others are associated with a combination of functions.
The following cranial nerves include GVE components: oculomotor (CN III), facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus (CN X).
The peripheral limb of this nerve typically innervates skin, skeletal muscle, tendons, or joints.
The cranial nerves with SSA fibers include the optic (CN II) and auditory-vestibular (CN VIII) nerves. The receptors may include Pacin-ian corpuscles, free nerve endings, or even nerve endings that are poorly encapsulated. Some authors include chemoreception as well (see discussion below concerning chemoreception and CN IX and X). Motor nuclei of cranial nerves (CN) III, IV, VI, and XII are classified as general somatic efferent (GSE) and are located near the midline.
Although this illustration is taken through the medulla, this arrangement applies for other parts of the brainstem as well.
As shown in Figure 14-3, the GSE and SVE columns are both located medial to the GVE column and close to the sulcus limitans. The hypoglossal nerve is mainly a motor nerve (but contains some muscle spindle afferents). The hypoglossal nerve originates from the hypoglossal nucleus, which is located within the dorsomedial aspect of the lower medulla (Figs.
The general functions of the hypoglossal nerve are to control the shape and position of the tongue by virtue of its innervation of the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles.
A hypoglossal paralysis can occur if either the cell bodies of the hypoglossal nucleus or axons that form the hypoglossal nerve are damaged. Also shown in this illustration is the corticobulbar projection to the hypoglossal nucleus, which, for this cranial nerve, is crossed and uncrossed.
Because many of the cortical fibers that supply the hypoglossal nucleus are crossed, the con-tralateral hypoglossal nucleus and nerve are affected. It is a clear, water-like fluid, also called spinal fluid, found between the arachnoid and pia mater.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that roughly 200,000 Americans were living with spinal cord injuries. The lawyer must have experience in medical cases to possess both legal and medical knowledge, which is necessary for winning the lawsuit. Most cranial nerves exit the central nervous system (CNS) at the level of the brainstem (Fig. After analysis of this classification scheme, the anatomy, functions, and clinical correlations associated with each of the cranial nerves is considered separately.
The following cranial nerves, which include GSE components, are derived from the neural tube and are associated with specific somites: oculomotor (CN III), trochlear (CN IV), abdu-cens (CN VI), and hypoglossal (CN XII). The only reason for the change in classification of these cranial nerves is that these neurons innervate skeletal muscle derived from the mesenchyme of the branchial arches. The receptors associated with such nerves mediate sensations of pain and temperature, conscious (and nonconscious) proprioception, touch, and pressure. The conscious sensations of visceral pain are generally not specific and are poorly localized. Cranial nerves associated with GVA inputs into the brain include the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and vagus (CN X) nerves. Motor nuclei of CN V, VII, IX, X (nucleus ambiguus for nerves IX and X), and XI are classified as SVE and are located slightly lateral to GSE neurons.
Note that the motor nuclei of cranial nerves are located medial to those of sensory nuclei.

Those structures that lie medial to the sulcus limitans are derived from the basal plate, and those found lateral to the sulcus limitans are derived from the alar plate. Concerning sensory structures, the SSA and GSA cell columns are located in a far lateral position, whereas the SVA and GVA cell columns lie close to the sulcus limitans.
When an individual who has unilateral hypoglossal nerve damage attempts to protrude his tongue, it will deviate to the side of the lesion. In some patients, however, lesions of this corticobulbar pathway produce contralateral weakness. Therefore, during attempts to protrude the tongue, it will deviate to the side contralateral to the lesion. The senses (taste, smell, sight, hearing, touch), emotions, thoughts, and movement are controlled by the brain. Fill out our short form to get a free initial consultation for brain and spinal cord injury claims.
The anatomical and functional properties of each of the cranial nerves (except CN I, II, and VIII to which separate topics are dedicated) will be discussed in this topic. Though the rationale underlying the order of presentation of cranial nerves may be viewed as somewhat arbitrary, cranial nerves in this topic are presented beginning with the CN XII and ending with CN I.
Chemoreceptors include those receptors that respond principally to olfactory and taste signals. The afferent fibers associated with these sensations convey such signals as thirst, hunger, visceral pain, and general unpleasant feelings.
Of significance is the relationship between the locations of cranial nerve nuclei and the cell columns with which they are associated. Autonomic nuclei (general visceral efferent) are derived from CN III (Edinger-Westphal nucleus), VII (superior sali-vatory nucleus), IX (inferior salivatory nucleus), and X (dorsal motor nucleus) and are situated slightly more laterally. The GSE (general somatic efferent) motor column is located in the most medial position; next to the GSE column lies the special visceral efferent (SVE) and general visceral efferent (GVE) columns. This relationship closely resembles that described previously for the spinal cord in which the ventral horn, which is derived from the basal plate, is associated with motor functions, whereas the dorsal horn, which is derived from the alar plate, is associated with sensory functions.
This arrangement of sensory, motor, and autonomic nuclei remains relatively constant throughout the brainstem, and knowledge of this organization serves as a useful aid in identification of cranial nerve nuclei.
Axons of the hypoglossal nucleus pass ventrolateral^ and exit the brain between the pyramids and the inferior olivary nucleus.
This occurs because the genioglossus muscle on the intact side will attempt to pull the half of the tongue, which it innervates forward, whereas the genioglossus muscle on the affected side cannot do so. The right side of the brain controls the left side of the body and the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body.
Cranial nerves that include SVE components are: trigeminal (CN V), facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), vagus (CN X), and the spinal accessory (CN XI).
Olfaction is mediated by the olfactory (CN I) nerve, and taste is mediated by the facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus (CN X) nerves. On the lateral side of the sulcus limitans lie the sensory columns, the most medial of which give rise to general visceral afferent (GVA) and special visceral afferent (SVA) neurons.
The hypoglossal nerve exits the brain through the hypoglossal canal and innervates both extrinsic muscles (the styloglossus, hyoglossus, and genioglossus, which control the shape and position of the tongue) and intrinsic muscles (which control the shape of the tongue).
In other words, the genioglossus muscle on the affected side serves as a pivot with respect to the actions of the genioglossus muscle of the intact side. Only one cranial nerve, the accessory nerve (cranial nerve [CN] XI), does not emerge from the brain. 14-2 and 14-3) of sensory, motor, and autonomic components of cranial nerves are best observed at the level of the medulla and pons.
In the far lateral column lie the special somatic afferent (SSA) and general somatic afferent (GSA) columns. There is about 140 cc (about ½ can of soda) of spinal fluid that surrounds the brain and spine. Because this relationship can best be demonstrated with CN V to CN X and CN XII, it was accordingly deemed useful to begin with a discussion of these cranial nerves.
They include the vagus (CN X), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and facial (CN VII) nerves, which are all associated with the skin of the ear. CN I (not shown in figure), VII, IX, and X include special visceral afferent (SVA) components (involving the nucleus of the solitary tract [solitary nucleus] for each of these nerves except for CN I). The brain and spinal cord are bathed and cushioned by this spinal fluid, which flows and circulates around the brain and spine. General somatic afferent (GSA) and special somatic afferent (SSA) components lie lateral to GVA and SVA components. It is our belief that the consistency of this approach will further aid in the learning of this complex subject. GSA components are found among CN V (main sensory nucleus of CN V), IX, and X (spinal nucleus of CN V receives inputs from CN IX and X). Cranial nerves that are classified as SSA include CN II (optic) and VIII (auditory-vestibular), which are not shown in this illustration.

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