Brain and spinal cord quiz,advice on writing a thesis statement,positive outlook for the global oil and gas sector wiki - Downloads 2016

Author: admin, 07.11.2013. Category: Understanding The Law Of Attraction

The human brain is a 3-pound (1.4-kilogram) mass of jelly-like fats and tissues—yet it's the most complex of all known living structures. A rear view of the skull reveals the brain and the cervical spinal cord, which function together as the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide an extremely detailed, 3-D view of a living brain.
Thanks to precision cutting techniques, researchers are able to examine a paper-thin slice of human brain.
Skillful surgeons at UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, remove a tumor from a woman's brain.
A Baltimore, Maryland, epileptic patient performs tests designed to identify the source of his seizures. National Geographic explores how we can feed the growing population without overwhelming the planet in our food series. Get up close with some of the world's most fascinating underground communities, from gangs to cults to organized crime families.
As the global population soars toward nine billion by 2045, this corner of Africa shows what's at stake in the decades ahead. The spinal cord is part of the nervous system and is about 45 cm long in men and 43 cm long in women. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the nerves within the spinal canal, thereby affecting the spinal cord's ability to send and receive messages from the brain to the body's systems that control sensory, motor and autonomic function below the level of injury. The self healing capability of the body can repair some of the spinal cord injury, but surely not all. Obviously, a biological nervous system isn't equal to an electronical or mechanical machine, but there are some similarities. What similarities are there between a broken spinal cord (a biological system) and a broken camera (a electro-mechanical system)?
Can this bodypart be replaced by a machine-like part, or should it be regenerated completely biological, also to prevent a rejection from the body? The Sacral Vertebrae are the five vertebrae that run from the pelvis to the end of the spinal column.
1) Cell body - This main part has all of the necessary components of the cell, such as the nucleus (contains DNA), endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes (for building proteins) and mitochondria (for making energy). 2) Axon - This long, cable-like projection of the cell carries the electrochemical message (nerve impulse or action potential) along the length of the cell.
Note: Depending upon the type of neuron, axons can be covered with a thin layer of myelin, like an insulated electrical wire. 3) Dendrites or nerve endings - These small, branch-like projections of the cell make connections to other cells and allow the neuron to talk with other cells or perceive the environment.
Interneurons connect the anterior and posterior horns of the gray matter and are involved in the reflex arc.
Internuncial Neurons travel between segments, sending projections up to the brain stem and cerebellum. The main function of the association neurons in the spinal cord is that of inhibitory control.
Some sources, including Bhatnager and Andy, (1995), do not distinguish between interneurons and internuncial neurons. In addition, the part of the brain called the thalamus evolved to help relay information from the brainstem and spinal cord to the cerebral cortex. The Brain is made up of the cerebral cortex , sub cortical structures, brain stem and cerebellum. The spinal cord consists of grey and white matter surrounded by meninges in which cerebro-spinal fluid circulates.
Involved in control of all automatic and glandular functions, it is controlled by the hypothalamus. The brain and spinal cord are covered by a series of tough membranes called meninges, which protect these organs from rubbing against the bones of the skull and spine. These second order lower motor neurons, the spinal nerves, form part of the final common pathway for information traveling from the central nervous system to the periphery. The autonomic nervous system is involved in the control of the heart, glands and smooth muscles of the body and plays a major role in regulating unconscious, vegetative functions. Although the autonomic nervous system is considered to be one of the three main divisions of the human nervous system in its own right, parts of both the central nervous systems and the peripheral nervous systems play a role in its functions. The autonomic nervous system has two components, the sympathetic system and the parasympathetic system. The autonomic nervous system consists of four chains of nuclei or ganglia, two of which are located on either side of the spinal cord.
The brain and spinal cord are enveloped by three membranes called the meninges which serve to protect the brain and spinal cord, help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid, and also support the flow of blood to the brain.
The meninges are connective tissue and though they might not have the elasticity of muscle they are susceptible to the tightening and dysfunction to which all fascia is prone. Our bones hold us up, our muscles move us and the nerves tell the muscles to move the bones. I always return to good bony alignment and balanced muscle tone so we can live harmoniously in space. The CoreWalking Program has had great success alleviating many pain problems because learning to walk correctly means moving optimally—and this limits the unnecessary stresses that can lead to disorders of all kinds. Enter your email below to get your free ebook and get more information about the CoreWalking Program. The spinal cord is the connection center for the reflexes as well as the afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) pathways for most of the body below the head and neck.
At 31 places along the spinal cord the dorsal and ventral roots come together to form spinal nerves. The dermatomes are somatic or musculocutaneous areas served by fibers from specific spinal nerves.
Axillary nerve - innervates the deltoid muscle and shoulder, along with the posterior aspect of the upper arm. Radial nerve - innervates dorsal aspect of the arm and extensors of the elbow, wrist, and fingers, abduction of thumb. The myelin sheath in peripheral nerves consists of Schwann cells wrapped in many layers around the axon fibers. Up to one trillion nerve cells work together and coordinate the physical actions and mental processes that set humans apart from other species. The remarkable apparatus uses motor neurons to control the body's many muscles and enables humans to perform myriad physical activities. These nerve cells are interconnected, as shown in this microscopic image, so that they can transmit electrical impulses—and information—to other cells. The technique is critical for identifying abnormalities such as tumors, spotting the warning signs of some brain diseases, and revealing the extent of trauma from strokes.

Surgeons can also cut living brains without fear of hurting their patients—the organ is incapable of feeling pain. Malignant tumors indicate often lethal brain conditions, but even nonmalignant growths can preempt normal brain activity. Surgeons placed electrodes in his brain that will record which parts of the organ become active when he performs a variety of physical and mental tasks. I used to have a complete injury, but now 11 years after the accident I can feel again for about 25%, and also do a couple of muscles work again. A computer processor chip is basically an awful amount of simple switches, and a computer memory chip is simply a huge collection of buckets that do or do not contain electrons. When if a camera is broke, opening it, poring oil in it and closing it, will NOT repair it.
The vertebrae are named according to their location on the spinal column and are called the: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar and Sacral vertebrae.
SCI at cervical levels usually causes a loss of independent breathing and loss of function to the arms and legs, thereby resulting in quadriplegia. Lumbar level injury typically results in loss of control of the legs, bladder, bowel and sexual functions.
Sacral level injuries generally damage the nerves emanating from the distal spinal cord conus and typically cause lower motor neuron flaccid paralysis type lesions involving some loss of function in the legs and difficulty with bowel, bladder and sexual control.
Myelin is made of fat, and it helps to speed transmission of a nerve impulse down a long axon. Transmission of an electrical signal from one neuron to the next is effected by neurotransmittors, chemicals which are released from the first neuron and which bind to receptors in the second. For example, a single sensory neuron from your fingertip has an axon that extends the length of your arm, while neurons within the brain may extend only a few millimeters.
They conduct rapid motor impulses, with each alpha cell innervating approximately 200 muscle fibers.
They work within the same segment of the spinal cord, with a segment being defined as the horizontal section of the cord that gives rise to one pair of spinal nerves.
Even if these two types of association neurons are grouped together, they should definitely be distinguished from the spinal nerves which are lower motor neurons, forming a final common pathway for information descending from the brain. It contains sensory and motor pathways from the body, as well as ascending and descending pathways from the brain.
The brainstem controls the reflexes and automatic functions (heart rate, blood pressure), limb movements and visceral functions (digestion, urination). It integrates information from all of the sense organs, initiates motor functions, controls emotions and holds memory and thought processes. One portion, called the substantia nigra, is involved in voluntary movements; when it does not function, you have the tremored movements of Parkinson's disease. These centers govern sexual reproduction, eating, drinking, growth, and maternal behavior such as lactation (milk-production in mammals).
For further protection, the brain and spinal cord float in a sea of cerebrospinal fluid within the skull and spine. The spinal nerves provide innervation to body areas below the neck while cranial nerves (also second order neurons) carry impulses only to the head and neck, except for the vagus. This type of reflexive behavior occurs when a message from sensory fibers causes a motor reaction directly, without traveling to the brain. It works together with the endocrine system to control the secretion of hormones and is itself controlled by the hypothalamus.
The outer chains of nuclei form the parasympathetic division of the system while those closest to the spinal cord make up its sympathetic element.
Our central nervous system (CNS) takes in and processes information in a myriad of ways, before relaying that information to the rest of the body, through the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The meninges attach firmly to the skull and at the base of the spine on the tailbone.  They attach loosely at four different places along the spine through fairly lax ligaments. I was mentioning types of posture to my chiropractor, the extraordinary Lisa Kirsch, and she thought that one of them (a certain kind of forward head posture) resembled the manifestation of tight meninges.
And the lead story in the Times this morning is about an outbreak of meningitis that they are considering to be the result of too many epidurals—the pain relieving technique where cortisone injections numb pain for women during childbirth and people with back pain.
The literal connection of the nervous system into our skeletal system should be reason enough to start changing the way you walk and stand. It’s clear, and explains together the various parts and shows how they relate to posture. Diseases which destroy the myelin sheath lead to inability to control muscles, perceive stimuli etc. Schwann cells help to maintain the micro-environments of the axons and their tunnel (the neurilemma tunnel) permits re-connection with an effector or receptor. Many of these tracts travel to and from the brain to provide sensory input to the brain, or bring motor stimuli from the brain to control effectors.
Any tumor may compress regions of the brain and increase internal pressure, upsetting the organ's delicate functional balance. In a complete injury, nerve damage obstructs every signal coming from the brain to the body parts below the injury.
There are just a few types, but each neuron is unique in it's place and connections, and they are present in huge amounts, billions, arranged in such fashion that they together are the nervous system of a human body. This is why I don't believe that simply injecting stem-cells will repair an injured spinal cord.
The spinal cord is located in the vertebral foramen and is made up of 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 1 coccygeal. Neurons share the same characteristics and have the same parts as other cells, but the electrochemical aspect lets them transmit signals over long distances (up to several a few meters) and pass messages to each other.
Myelinated neurons are typically found in the peripheral nerves (sensory and motor neurons), while non-myelinated neurons are found in the brain and spinal cord. Once input exceeds a critical level, the neuron discharges a spike - an electrical pulse that travels from the body, down the axon, to the next neuron(s) (or other receptors). Below that the cauda equina consisting of projections from the spinal cord goes down to the coccygeal area.
This cushioning fluid is produced by the choroid plexus tissue, which is located within the brain, and flows through a series of cavities (ventricles) out of the brain and down along the spinal cord. Their motor fibers begin on the ventral part of the spinal cord at the anterior horns of the gray matter. For example, if you touch a hot burner on the stove, sensory information about the temperature of the burner travels along spinal nerves to your spinal cord and are carried directly to their motor nuclei by interneurons; the motor command goes out along the axons of the lower motor neuron causing you to move your hand away from the stove.
Surrounding the gray matter is white matter (lighter color shading) - this is where the axons of the spinal cord are located. This pattern is caused by the many axons going up to the brain from all levels of the spinal cord AND there are many axons traveling from the brain down to different segments of the spinal cord. The CNS is the brain and spinal cord, and the PNS is all the nerves that emanate from the spinal cord to the rest of the body.

While this hole within the spine protects the spinal cord and meninges from injury, poor alignment of the spine can have far reaching effects on the nervous system, especially if the nervous system in the form of the meninges attaches directly to the spine. If I was still teaching my college course on dance alignment, I’d use these in class! The sensory, motor, and interneurons discussed previously are found in specific parts of the spinal cord and nearby structures.
Spinal nerves are given numbers which indicate the portion of the vertebral column in which they arise. There are four voluntary plexuses (there are some autonomic plexuses which will be mentioned later): they are the cervical plexus, the brachial plexus, the lumbar plexus, and the sacral plexus. Often a nerve will run together with an artery and vein and their connective coverings will merge. One such disease is multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disorder in which your own lymphocytes attack the myelin proteins. Ascending tracts, those which travel toward the brain are sensory, descending tracts are motor. The area within the vertebral column beyond the end of the spinal cord is called the cauda equina. In an incomplete injury, some residual motor and sensory function remains below the level of SCI.
The difference between people's nervous system (including the brain) is not really the kind or amount of nerves, but the unique structure.
This spiking event is also called depolarization, and is followed by a refractory period, during which the neuron is unable to fire.
The extent to which the signal from one neuron is passed on to the next depends on many factors, e.g. Motor neurons that control muscle contractions have a cell body on one end, a long axon in the middle and dendrites on the other end; sensory neurons have dendrites on both ends, connected by a long axon with a cell body in the middle. The roots of their sensory fibers are located on the dorsal side of the spinal cord in the posterior root ganglia. As messages do not have to travel up to the brain to be processed, reactions mediated by this reflex arc can occur very rapidly. In lower segments of the spinal cord, there is less white matter because there are fewer axons traveling to and from the brain. Some fibers make synapses with other neurons in the dorsal horn, while others continue up to the brain.
There are 8 cervical (C1-C8), 12 thoracics (T1-T12), 5 lumbar (L1-L5), 5 sacral (S1-S5), and 1 coccygeal nerve. Referred pain is caused when the sensory fibers from an internal organ enter the spinal cord in the same root as fibers from a dermatome.
Nerve fibers, which are axons, organize into bundles known as fascicles with each fascicle surrounded by the perineurium. Retrograde degeneration causes the fiber to degenerate for a distance back toward the cell body. The nerves that branch out from the spinal cord to the other parts of the body are called lower motor neurons (LMNs) and dorsal root sensory neurons. To help the body repair it 100%, a lot of research and development needs to be done, which clearly is no priority of any government I know. When the motor and sensory fibers exit the spinal column through the intervertebral foramina and pass through the meninges, they join together to form the spinal nerves.
Many cell bodies in the ventral horn of the spinal cord send axons through the ventral root to muscles to control movement.
Any aberration in the spine is going to cause tension between the secure connection of the meninges at the top and bottom of the spine. Nerve C1 arises between the cranium and atlas (1st cervical vertebra) and C8 arises between the 7th cervical and 1st thoracic vertebra. The brain is poor at interpreting visceral pain and instead interprets it as pain from the somatic area of the dermatome. These nodes permit an impulse to travel faster because it doesn't need to depolarize each area of a membrane, just the nodes.
These spinal nerves exit and enter at each vertebral level and communicate with specific areas of the body. The looser connections in the middle of the spine might go with the flow but the top and bottom where the meninges connect tightly will be adversely affected. All the others arise below the respective vertebra or former vertebra in the case of the sacrum. So pain in the heart is often interpreted as pain in the left arm or shoulder, pain in the diaphragm is interpreted as along the left clavicle and neck, and the "stitch in your side" you sometimes feel when running is pain in the liver as its vessels vasoconstrict. This type of conduction is called saltatory conduction and means that impulses will travel faster in myelinated fibers than in unmyelinated ones. Most sensory tracts names begin with spino, indicating origin in the spinal cord, and their name will end with the part of the brain where the tract leads.
Also located in the gray matter are the motor neurons whose axons travel out of the cord through the ventral root.
Since the actual cord ends at the second lumbar vertebra, the later roots arise close together on the cord and travel downward to exit at the appropriate point.
Chemicals such as the myelin proteins tend to inhibit regrowth, but macrophages will enter the damaged area and phagocytize these proteins and other debris. These nerve roots are called the cauda equina because of their resemblance to a horses tail. Schwann cells will proliferate and secrete growth stimulating factors and provide the chemical and physical needs necessary for growth and re-innervation by the axon. For example the corticospinal tract begins with fibers leaving the cerebral cortex and travels down toward motor neurons in the cord. Surrounding both the spinal cord and the brain are the meninges, a three layered covering of connective tissue.
The arachnoid has abundant space within and beneath it (the subarachnoid space) which contains cerebrospinal fluid, as does the space beneath the dura mater (subdural space). This cerebrospinal fluid supplies buoyancy for the spinal cord and brain to help provide shock absorption. The pia mater is a very thin layer which adheres tightly to the surface of the brain and spinal cord.

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