The glucose curve is a great tool to differentiate between an insufficient insulin dose and the Somogyi effect.
The procedure is as follows: shortly after the animal has been given its first meal (preferably at home), the first blood sample is taken just prior to the insulin injection in the morning. Collect a drop of capillary blood from the pinna and analyze it using a handheld glucometer. Glucometers should be calibrated specifically for dogs and cats because of the difference in the ratios of glucose in plasma and red blood cells from humans.
Consider treatment successful when the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus improve without inducing hypoglycemia. The aim of therapy is not to produce a series of blood glucose concentrations that are within the reference range, but to produce a blood glucose curve that approaches the reference range and avoids potentially fatal hypoglycemia. Important Safety InformationVetsulin should not be used in dogs or cats known to have a systemic allergy to pork or pork products. Blood sugar, or glucose, is an important source of energy and provides nutrients to your body's organs, muscles and nervous system. Normal blood sugar varies from person to person, but a normal range for fasting blood sugar (the amount of glucose in your blood six to eight hours after a meal) is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter. These variations in blood-sugar levels, both before and after meals, are normal and reflect the way that glucose is absorbed and stored in the body. As the small intestine absorbs glucose, the pancreas releases insulin, which stimulates body tissues and causes them to absorb this glucose and metabolize it (a process known as glycogenesis). When glucose levels drop between meals, the body takes some much-needed sugar out of storage.
When there isn't enough glucose stored up to maintain normal blood-sugar levels, the body will even produce its own glucose from noncarbohydrate sources (such as amino acids and glycerol). Too much glucose over an extended time (hyperglycemia) can result in the destruction of nerves, lowered resistance to infection, and heart and kidney disease.
Informed consent must be obtained from participants in this experiment (parental consent must be granted for minors).
Follow all safety precautions when using the blood glucose monitoring kit and when handling blood, as described in the Procedure. You are probably very familiar with the fact that over time, exercise changes your muscles, your lungs, your bones, and even your mindset; but did you know it has an immediate effect on your body's biochemistry? Investigate how blood glucose (sugar) levels change with exercise, and how to stabilize those levels during and after exercise.
Fortunately, for most of us, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are unlikely to occur because our bodies carefully regulate our blood glucose levels. This video shows how blood glucose levels change over time for people with and without diabetes (Khan Academy, 2011). Of course, in order to regulate glucose, our bodies need to have some to work with in the first place. Although blood glucose levels stay in a safe range for most people, they do fluctuate over the course of a day based on when, how much, and what you eat. Exercise also either increases or decreases blood glucose levels, depending on the person and other factors (the effects of exercise will be further explained in the next paragraph). This video shows how glucose is normally taken up from the blood by cells, and how problems with this process occur in diabetes.
Blood glucose monitoring system and additional test strips and lancets, which are small surgical blades used to obtain a drop of blood. We also do our best to make sure that any listed supplier provides prompt, courteous service. Proceeds from the affiliate programs help support Science Buddies, a 501(c)(3) public charity. Before participating, discuss the science project (and any exercise routine required) with his or her doctor.
Limit exercise to 1–2 sessions a day (to avoid hypoglycemia) unless the person regularly and safely exercises more frequently than this and takes proper safety precautions.
Not exercise within 2 hours of going to sleep (to avoid changes in blood glucose levels while the person is asleep).
Before testing how exercise affects a volunteer's blood glucose levels, establish a baseline of blood glucose levels for that person. Become familiar with the blood glucose monitoring system and how to use it to check a person's blood glucose levels.
In your lab notebook, make a data table to record your volunteer's baseline blood glucose measurements.
Right before the volunteer eats either breakfast or lunch, use the blood glucose monitoring system to measure his or her blood glucose levels. Touch the test strip down onto the drop of blood, allowing the blood to be drawn into the strip. Once you are done taking the measurement, properly dispose of the test strip and have the volunteer wash his or her hands. Two hours after the volunteer started eating the meal, check his or her blood glucose levels again, as you did in step 3, above. Repeat steps 3–4 for the next two days so that you have taken these measurements for three days in a row.
If possible, try to also have the volunteer keep his or her diet relatively consistent over the three-day period, before and while you take measurements. How did the person's blood glucose levels change from before eating a meal to after eating a meal? You will now measure the volunteer's blood glucose levels before, during, and after exercising for 20 minutes.
Note: A person with diabetes should limit exercise to 1 to 2 sessions a day (to avoid hypoglycemia) (unless the person regularly and safely exercises more frequently than this and takes proper safety precautions).
Choose which exercise activity (or combination of activities) you want your volunteer to do.
Figure out when to have the volunteer do the exercise activity (either right before they eat breakfast or lunch, or 2 hours after he or she has started eating the meal). If the volunteer does not have diabetes, and their blood glucose levels are not abnormal, it should be safe to have them exercise at either time. If the volunteer has diabetes, it is recommended that exercise is done after eating a meal to prevent low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). In your lab notebook, make a data table to record your volunteer's blood glucose measurements. Right before the volunteer starts the exercise activity, use the blood glucose monitoring system to measure his or her blood glucose levels, as you did in step 3 of the previous section.
After the volunteer has finished exercising (for 20 minutes), measure his or her blood glucose levels again, as you did in step 3 of the previous section. Safety Note: Checking blood glucose levels after exercising is important for a person with diabetes so he or she can prevent low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) hours later.


Repeat steps 6–8 for the next two days so that you have taken these exercise-related measurements for three days in a row. If possible, before the measurements are taken each day, try to also have the volunteer keep his or her diet relatively consistent over the three-day period, and consistent to when you took the original blood glucose measurements.
Calculate the average glucose levels for before exercising, during exercising, and after exercising for the three days. Look at your graph and the average glucose levels you calculated and try to interpret your data. Did the volunteer's blood glucose levels generally increase, decrease, or stay about the same when they exercised? You will now investigate how the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels could be managed and lessened, keeping the blood glucose levels more stable. Look at your results from the previous section and figure out whether the blood glucose levels were relatively high or low at any point. For an idea of blood glucose level ranges, see step 6 in the "Creating a Baseline" section, above, and the resources in the Bibliography in the Background section. Make a plan for how to lessen the effects of exercise on the volunteer's blood glucose levels by changing only one of the following three factors: (1) eating food, (2) intensity of exercise, and (3) exercise time.
Eating food: If a person's blood glucose levels clearly drop during exercise, then eating a carbohydrate snack may help increase his or her blood glucose levels.
Intensity of the exercise and time spent exercising: If a person's blood glucose levels clearly decrease or increase during exercise, then doing a less intense exercise or exercising for less time may help. Safety note: If your volunteer has diabetes, they should talk to their doctor before doing a more intense, or longer, exercise activity.
If you have more than one volunteer, make a plan for each volunteer based on their individual results. Once you have planned how the activity will be changed, repeat steps 4–9 of the "Investigating the Effects of Exercise" section, but this time use your modified activity. If you want, you can make a line graph of the averages from the modified activity and the original activity.
You should end up with six lines, with three from the averages of each type of activity tested. Look at your graphs and the average blood glucose levels you calculated and try to interpret your data. Did the volunteer's blood glucose levels generally increase, decrease, or stay about the same when he or she exercised?
Does it look like your plan helped make the volunteer's blood glucose levels more stable when he or she exercised? Overall, were you able to help lessen the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels by changing the volunteer's exercise routine or having them eat?
Eating food changes our blood glucose levels, and different types of foods may affect it differently.
How does eating a certain, defined amount of glucose affect a person's blood glucose levels immediately and over time? Compared to a typical science class, please tell us how much you learned doing this project.
My group had problems with making sure we recorded what we ate, our levels, and what time we took the reading. The Ask an Expert Forum is intended to be a place where students can go to find answers to science questions that they have been unable to find using other resources.
Who does a diabetic turn to if they have questions or do not understand how to manage their disease? Ever wondered who plans the school lunch, food for patients at a hospital, or the meals for athletes at the Olympics?
You may print and distribute up to 200 copies of this document annually, at no charge, for personal and classroom educational use. Reproduction of material from this website without written permission is strictly prohibited.
If insulin resistance is such a dominant risk factor in the progression to type II diabetes, it might be useful to have an effective tool for diagnosing it.  In this section I will discuss the various options available for measuring insulin resistance and their efficacy in predicting progression to type II diabetes.
Too bad only highly sophisticated metabolic research labs our outfitted with these contraptions.  So unless you volunteer to be a guinea pig at a research facility, it is unlikely that you will have the opportunity to test your insulin resistance with this degree of accuracy.  Your doctor – in case you’re wondering –  probably doesn’t have one stuffed in his clinic closet! Okay, I know, this is just an epidemiological study and, as such, by no means proves that having high A1C causes people to die earlier.  It is entirely possible that some unknown variable is causing both the high A1C and the mortality. As you can see, A1C has a number of issues which make it a less than ideal tool for reliably measuring insulin resistance or predicting progression to diabetes.  Having said that, I do believe that, in general, an A1C  below 5 sustained over time is predictive of good health and indicative of excellent glucose tolerance.
The chart below, which I developed from the results of this paper, indicates that, indeed, not all “normal” GTT results are equal. When creating a glucose curve, remember that stress can affect the reliability of results, and the glucose curve is only one tool among others that can help diagnose and monitor diabetes mellitus. Thereafter, blood samples are collected every 2 hours throughout the day for 12 hours, if possible. To achieve this goal, keep blood glucose concentrations below the renal threshold and avoid hypoglycemia.
Plasma glucose concentrations are measured in the laboratory—the gold standard—or by an in-clinic analyzer. If a reading seems unusual or does not match the clinical signs, a second reading should be taken or another method used to confirm the blood glucose measurement. Careful monitoring and control during maintenance will help to limit the long-term complications. The body gets glucose from the food you eat, and the absorption, storage and production of glucose is regulated constantly by complex processes involving the small intestine, liver and pancreas. After you eat, your body breaks down the carbohydrates in food into smaller parts, including glucose, which can be absorbed by the small intestine. This stored glucose (glycogen) is used to maintain healthy blood-sugar levels between meals. The process is kicked off by the pancreas, which releases a hormone known as glucagon, which promotes the conversion of stored sugar (glycogen) in the liver back to glucose. This process, known as gluconeogenesis, occurs most often during intense exercise and instances of starvation.
The experimental design (including consent forms) must be approved by your fair's Scientific Review Committee (SRC).
If somebody who has diabetes wants to participate in this science project, review the safety notes at the beginning of the Procedure before starting. You can see this in the amount of glucose (a type of sugar your body uses for fuel) circulating in your blood.
The level of glucose in your blood is regulated by insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas. This graph shows how a person's blood glucose levels may change over the course of a day, and how eating a meal with lots of sugar (sucrose) can affect blood glucose levels.


Levels can decrease because glucose in the blood (and stored glucose) is used up during exercise. It's not as smart as you are, and it may occasionally give humorous, ridiculous, or even annoying results! Note: You will test blood glucose levels at least 24 times, and since a lancet and test strip are needed for each test, you will need at least 24 lancets and 24 test strips that work with the monitoring system. A baseline is a typical amount that can be used to compare to experimental amounts to see if they are much larger, or smaller, than normal.
Be sure to read through all of the instructions that came with the system before you start using it. After a drop of blood has been touched to the test strip, you can read the test strip results on the blood glucose meter. Big changes in the type of food the volunteer eats could significantly affect his or her blood glucose levels (as shown in Figure 1, in the Background tab), but you are taking measurements over three days to try and account for these fluctuations.
So if your volunteer has diabetes, find out his or her schedule for the three days you will be doing exercise testing. The volunteer will exercise for 20 minutes, so make sure that the exercise planned is not too vigorous for your volunteer. Include space to record the date, time, and whether the measurements are before or after eating a meal. Be sure to do it around the same time (right before or after the same meal you decided on in step 3) for each day. Hint: You may want to refer to the information in the Introduction to help you explain the results. Based on your results from the previous section, you will pick one of the following factors to explore over three days: (1) eating food, (2) intensity of the exercise, or (3) time spent exercising. Research what factors affect blood glucose levels and then investigate how exactly they affect it using a blood glucose monitoring system. Do some background research into this topic to investigate how blood glucose levels change (over time) when a person eats different foods. How do the results from urinalysis strips compare to the results from a glucose monitoring system?
If you have specific questions about your science fair project or science fair, our team of volunteer scientists can help.
Athletic trainers help athletes, and other physically active people, avoid such injuries, while also working to improve their strength and conditioning. This chart will provide the diabetics and their family members with a better idea about normal blood sugar levels. Take clinical signs (or lack thereof) into account when contemplating any change in the insulin therapy. For twice-daily Vetsulin treatment to be effective, the duration of insulin activity following each injection needs to reach 10 to 12 hours. The graph below demonstrates an ideal blood glucose curve for a cat receiving Vetsulin twice daily.
When blood glucose levels rise after eating a meal, the pancreas releases insulin, which causes cells in the body (such as liver, muscle, and fat cells) to take up glucose, removing it from the blood and storing it to use for energy.
To prevent blood glucose levels from dropping too much (and causing hypoglycemia), it is sometimes recommended that people with type 1 diabetes have a snack before and while exercising. The volunteer will be exercising for 20 minutes, so make sure to pick an activity that is not too vigorous for your volunteer.
To create a baseline of blood glucose levels, you will measure the volunteer's blood glucose levels over three days, twice a day: right before the volunteer eats a meal (which is called the preprandial plasma glucose) and 2 hours after they started eating the meal (called the postprandial plasma glucose). If there are too many ketones in the blood, it could mean that a person does not have enough insulin to lower his or her blood glucose levels.) The ketone results may affect whether the person can later safely do the exercise activity required for participating in this science project, and whether you may need to find a new volunteer(s) because of this. Base this on the average baseline glucose levels you determined in step 7 (and any ketone data from step 4) of the previous section, as well as any known medical history the person has. If the investigation is being done on a person with diabetes, they should talk to their doctor before doing testing. Our Experts won't do the work for you, but they will make suggestions, offer guidance, and help you troubleshoot. Should a sports injury occur, athletic trainers help to evaluate the injury, determine the treatment needed, and design a fitness regime to rehabilitate the athlete so he or she is ready to go out and compete again.
The goal for the diabetic is to attain these levels while avoiding harmful complications and maintaining far better health. The ultimate goal in regulating the diabetic cat is to control the clinical signs adequately so that the patient enjoys a good quality of life. Veterinarians can determine based on the nadir whether the dose needs to be increased or decreased (or remain as is). As with all insulin products, careful patient monitoring for hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia is essential to attain and maintain adequate glycemic control and prevent associated complications. Elizabeth has traveled throughout the Americas, studying political systems and indigenous cultures and teaching English to students of all ages.
When the blood glucose levels start falling, the pancreas stops releasing insulin, and the stored glucose is used for energy.
However, exercise can also cause blood glucose levels to increase if too much stored glucose gets released when a person exercises and it is not used up while exercising.
Some dietitians and nutritionists also work to educate people about good food choices so they can cook and eat their own healthy meals. Watch this video to see how blood glucose levels can change over time for different people.
If there is not enough insulin around, the glucose in the blood will not get stored again, and will remain in the blood (which can cause hyperglycemia). The safety and effectiveness of Vetsulin in puppies and kittens, breeding, pregnant, and lactating dogs and cats has not been evaluated. For people with diabetes, this can be addressed by taking an insulin shot after exercising. Once you have a clear idea of the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels, you will try to diminish the changes by eating food, or by changing the intensity of the exercise or the exercise time. Type 2 diabetes occurs when a person has insulin resistance, which means the person's body does not respond to insulin, or their pancreas does not make enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes is managed by increasing exercise, changing diet, and possibly by taking medications such as insulin.



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Comments

  1. 24.08.2016 at 13:54:22


    Management Indian J Endocrinol there is excessive glycolysis.

    Author: PANCHO
  2. 24.08.2016 at 19:36:30


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    Author: VERSACE
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  4. 24.08.2016 at 16:44:32


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  5. 24.08.2016 at 15:49:21


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