Your child has been newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and we are aware that you may be feeling emotional, confused and shocked about the diagnosis and may have many questions about what is happening and where to go from here.
Everything that you will need to know about diabetes and managing it will come in time but for now we will be teaching you the basics to manage your child’s diabetes in the next few days.
The rest of the information regarding the diagnosis will be done in follow up appointments in the next few days and weeks and you will be in daily telephonic contact with the doctor or your educator. There is a lot to learn about managing your child’s diabetes in the beginning and you cannot possibly learn it all in one day. YOUR CHILD IS FIRST AND FOREMOST STILL A CHILD BEFORE THEY HAVE DIABETES AND DIABETES NEEDS TO FIT INTO THEIR LIFESTYLE NOT THE OTHER WAY ROUND. You and your child are not alone in managing this condition, of course you have to do all the daily working in managing good blood glucose control, but our diabetes team will help you every step of the way.
This manual is designed to help you with all the basic survival tools to look after your child, but each day will be a learning experience.
Simply defined it is lack of insulin secreted from the pancreas, resulting in high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. When your child has diabetes it means that they have too much glucose (sugar) in their blood.
Diabetes is not currently curable; however with proper management such as insulin injections and blood glucose testing, proper meal plans and regular exercise your child can have a normal long happy life, both physically and emotionally. Your child should be eating meals that are balanced with carbohydrates (sugars and starches), fats and protein (mostly meat).
Carbohydrates are broken down in your child’s stomach, converted to glucose and absorbed into the blood stream as one of the major sources of energy for the body.
The pancreas senses the rise in blood glucose levels and secretes the right amount of insulin to move the glucose out of the blood stream into their cells.
Quite simply insulin is secreted every time we eat and a slow release in the background between meals. As your child does not produce insulin anymore they rely on their insulin injections to provide meal time coverage and the background insulin needs.
This is a snap shot of your body during the night when your liver is releasing stored glucose back into your blood stream to supply a constant amount of glucose to the brain while you sleep.
When food enters your stomach, the carbohydrates get broken down into glucose and the glucose gets absorbed into your blood stream and your blood glucose level starts rising.
If your pancreas is working, it samples the amount of glucose in the blood stream and produces the right amount of insulin and releases the insulin into the blood stream The insulin opens the cells and allows the sugar in and blood sugar will come down. If you do not have insulin you have no problem getting the carbohydrate into the blood stream but have no way of opening up the cells to let the sugar in and your blood sugar levels stay high. High blood sugar gets filtered by the kidneys and glucose ends up in the urine, therefore it causes increased urine flow and your child will urinate a lot and therefore drink a lot to catch up. When your body cannot use glucose for energy it will find another source of energy and you will get these other sources of energy from your body breaking down your muscle and you will loose weight and feel weak and tired and you will also break down fat and produce ketones which makes you sick. There are 5 main food groups that make up a balanced healthy diet in order for your child’s body to get all the vitamins, minerals and nutrients they require to function at its optimum. The main food groups can be divided into 3 nutrient groups which have individual effects on the body. Proteins – These nutrients are our bodies’ growth foods and have little effect on the blood glucose levels.
Fats – These foods are also energy foods in the body; however they have twice the amount of calories than carbohydrates and therefore are to be kept to a minimum, in order to protect the heart and other vital organs.
The rate of absorption of glucose in and out of the blood stream is called the glycaemia index (GI). High GI (HGI) foods are absorbed quickly into the blood stream and tend to raise blood glucose levels quickly. Intermediate GI (IGI) foods are absorbed at a gradual rate and have less of a rise on the blood glucose values.
Low GI foods (LGI) are absorbed very slowly into the blood stream and tend to keep blood glucose values more stable for longer periods than HGI and IGI foods.
There are different ways to measure carbohydrates and relate them to the effect they will have on your blood glucose level, this concept is called carbohydrate counting and is a very useful tool to use.
Carbohydrates are divided in two main groups and the sugar group is further divided in 3 groups. Most foods have nutritional information on the packaging, so these are easy to read and determine. Diabetic products are not usually encouraged as they are poorly marketed, costly and they only remove sucrose form the product but still have other glucose products in them, therefore they are not completely free ( Unless the total carbs on the nutritional label says 0 grams) and will still raise the blood glucose levels. Your child’s Diet needs to be individualised and you should see a dietician who understands children with diabetes to structure something for your child individually.
Sugar is allowed in small to moderate amounts and will make up part of your carb value at meals. Proteins get broken down into glucose very slowly in the blood stream and only 50-60% of protein gets converted to Glucose, making it an ideal food for your child to eat as a snack or as the main portion of a meal.
Testing your child’s blood glucose levels regularly, will help you to achieve daily blood glucose targets and it is your only tool to help you administer the correct dose of insulin or see what changes need to made to food or exercise etc.
Before each meal and at bedtime, and at any other time you think you may be low or very high. If you are having problems with higher or lower blood sugars email or fax through the last 3-4 days results and insulin doses being used and we can help you make adjustments.
The risk of long term diabetes complications is related to overall blood glucose control that is above ranges for many years.
Push the plunger all the way down –if using pens, hold for 10 sec and if using syringes hold for 2 sec. Let go of your pinch before pulling out the needle, this will prevent the insulin from leaking out. If they are having lots of issues with injections or have a severe needle phobia we can use insulin ports to deliver insulin through. Most often when you have a low blood glucose value your body will give you warning signs – here are some symptoms, it’s also best that you recognise your individual symptoms and treat a low blood glucose values as soon as possible.
Don’t get into the habit of over treating low blood sugars and getting a high blood sugar thereafter by feeding them too much.
Give the above treatment and recheck blood glucose values again after 15-20 min if they still complain of feeling low. NB Insulin must be given before a meal if your child was low, you will fix the low blood glucose and then give the normal dose of insulin before that meal, you will need insulin to store that food eaten in the cells of the body otherwise the next blood sugar will be high – they will not go low again! If your child is confused and unable to swallow – rub condensed milk, syrup, honey or glucose syrup onto the gums if that does not raise the blood glucose levels Glucagon needs to be used. Blood glucose values need to be checked every 3 hour for next 6 hours after a severe episode.
High blood glucose values above target along with high HbA1c’s over many years can lead to complications associated with diabetes. When a diabetic child is ill, it is a very unstable time as blood glucose values may fluctuate erratically.
Diabetic children need there insulin when they are sick, sometimes even larger doses, even if they do not want to eat, insulin must NEVER be skipped and the types of foods or liquids may need to be adjusted along with the amount of insulin.
Encourage your child to eat their usual meal or something from the list below if there stomach is upset or they are having difficulty eating. If your child is vomiting and there are no Ketones they need to have small sips of fluid every 15 minutes to avoid dehydration. Medicines for fever, pain, decongestants, runny tummy or nausea, coughs and colds may contain small amounts of sugar. In the absence of insulin your body cannot use your glucose for energy provided by the food you eat. When Ketones are detected you should contact your Dr, Educator or the 24 hour emergency hot line, so they can advise you on clearing the Ketones. Diabetes camps are one of the best experiences that a child with diabetes can have and it is advisable that you allow your child to be involved in this experience, especially when they are newly diagnosed.
Camp is a place for your child to learn self-confidence, independence from mom and dad, to be with other kids with diabetes, and simply to have a great time as well as have the opportunity to make lifelong friends.


We interact with each other, learn teamwork, make friends, survival skills and time to play, be creative and do some rhythm workshop and have lots of FUN, FUN, FUN!! The purpose of this note is to let you know the implications of diabetes and how it may affect me at school. If there are any questions please write them down and I will get my parents or my doctor to answer them for you.
The main dangers that arise from diabetes at school are low blood glucose values or hypoglycemia.
If I experience a low blood glucose value during class I will need to test my blood glucose values and I will need to eat foods that have glucose in them to raise my blood glucose values again. If I am unconscious or have a seizure from a low blood glucose value I will need to be injected with the following injection called glucagon that will increase my blood glucose values. When I wake up please give me sips of juice or coke and check my blood glucose every 5-10min. There may be some side effects 30 min after the injection such as: Nausea,vomiting, bloating and headache.
A positive result, in the absence of unequivocal hyperglycemia, should be confirmed by a repeat of any of the above-listed methods on a different day. Diagnosing diabetes enables the doctors and lab workers to detect and treat diabetes well before complications begin to occur [1]. The A1C test is used for detection of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes but does not diagnose type 1 or gestational diabetes.
Diabetes, even though a common disorder which has been fairly widespread throughout the world, is a chronic condition with no definitive cure.
The main aim in treating diabetes is to lower the blood sugar level without causing hypoglycemia or a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Prediabetes is the stage where one can control the blood sugar level from rising and prevent diabetes from occurring [2]. Type I Diabetes is treated with exercise, diabetic diet and external insulin administration. There are some extremely rare cases in which a transplantation of the pancreas is used in order to treat Type I Diabetes. While there may be many methods to help control the symptoms of diabetes, care must be taken not to lower the blood sugar levels abnormally and also to prevent other potential hazards [3]. Hypoglycemia or a low blood sugar level is also a complication associated with improper treatment of diabetes. Extremely high blood sugar levels can lead to a condition known as hyperglycemia and this can adversely affect the condition of a diabetic.
If any complications and symptoms are experienced by individuals, immediate medical attention needs to be provided at the earliest. There are some alternative medication procedures and therapies which may prove to help in controlling the symptoms of diabetes. Since diabetes does not have a definitive cure, patients must learn to cope up with the disease and bring about healthy changes to diet and lifestyle in order to lead a close to normal life. A strong mental commitment to fight the disease is the first and foremost step that must be taken in order to beat the symptoms. Any excess weight should be shed off and regular physical activity is highly recommended to diabetics. Diabetics are also advised to always carry along with them a tag which mentions that they are diabetics who may require assistance in cases of emergencies [4]. Medical checkups, which involve not just the monitoring of the blood sugar levels, but also the checking of sensitive regions for any potential damage caused to the blood vessels and the nerve tissues, should be carried out on a frequent basis.
Special attention should be given to the gums, the teeth, the feet and also the genital areas when diagnosed with diabetes.
In case a person diagnosed with diabetes mellitus is a smoker, cessation of smoking must be done at the earliest [5]. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our [my_terms_of_service_and_privacy_policy]. Your child is unique and you will learn in time how diet, exercise and different life situations affect your child’s blood sugar levels. There is a “genetic predisposition” (inherited factor) that needs to be present for the process to start and a viral infection can be the external trigger required to start the immune attack. The food your child eats’, especially carbohydrates are broken down into glucose and stored in their cells for energy now or later so that your child can perform their daily activities like, learning, running, swimming and playing and more importantly having fun.
This is usually achieved by using 2 or 3 kinds of insulin, usually a long acting (background insulin) and a rapid acting insulin (meal time insulin).
Half of the protein we eat gets converted to glucose over a long period of time so it has a gradual rise on the blood glucose levels.
Fats are needed for cell growth and protection for organs and are a very important part in children’s growth and development.
The following pictures are a few examples of the main carbohydrates consumed and they are all measured in 1 carbohydrate value. Below are a few typical foods that have been measured in 1 carbohydrate value they may not necessarily have nutritional information on them and they may need to be learned with time. Complications are obviously one of your concerns as a parent, but if you and your child work hard at getting the blood glucose values as close to target as often as possible so complications can be prevented. Injecting in the same area too often will cause scar tissue and lumps in the area and the insulin absorption is then unpredictable and poor. Areas that can be damaged from high blood glucose levels are the: eyes, kidneys, heart and feet.
Anti-nausea suppositories can be given every 6 hours, if your child needs a second suppository call your Dr.
I know this may make you feel scared or worried to have me in your class as there are a lot of misconceptions about my condition. I would like to explain my diabetes and I am sure you will see that I can lead a normal life jut like any other child in your class. The year 2000 data suggest that worldwide over 147 million people have been diagnosed with this deadly disease. It is preferable to measure a fasting glucose level because of the ease of measurement and the considerable time commitment of formal glucose tolerance testing, which takes two hours to complete and offers no prognostic advantage over the fasting test. Advancements have been made for people diagnosed with this disease to make improvements in their lives. It also helps to detect and cure prediabetes, which indicates greater risk of developing diabetes in future.
OGTT measures blood sugar after 8 hours of fasting and 2 hours after the intake of a liquid containing 75 grams of glucose dissolved in water. It is a blood test that determines the average blood glucose levels of a person over past 3 months but does not detect daily fluctuations. It is the most common test used for the diagnosis of diabetes as it is more convenient than other tests like OGTT besides being less expensive. Even the non-chronic types of diabetes, namely prediabetes and Gestational Diabetes leave individuals at a risk of developing Type II Diabetes in the future. Whatever the type of diabetes may be and whatever treatment plan is being adhered to, care must be taken that the blood sugar levels are monitored on a frequent and consistent basis.
This can be treated with adequate amounts of exercise followed in conjunction with a diabetic diet. Insulin may be injected intravenously or an insulin pump may be used to administer the dose. This is only carried out if some other organ of the body has also failed and requires transplantation such as the kidneys. In case these measures prove to fail in controlling the disease, oral hypoglycemic drugs such as metformin, prandin, glimepiride and pioglitazone are used. People who have a BMI greater than 35 may see improvements in conditions by undergoing this type of surgery. Only 15% of women with gestational diabetes need medications like oral hypoglycemics or sometimes insulin analogues.
Weight reduction and exercise increase the body’s sensitivity to insulin, thus helping to control blood sugar elevations.


Ketones are toxic produces of the body when it breaks down fat for energy rather than using glucose. This is likely to happen if, during the course of treatment, a meal is skipped or higher than normal physical activity is undergone. The signs and symptoms of the condition include the frequent need to urinate, dehydration and dryness, fatigue and blurred vision and the condition requires adjustments made to both the dietary plan as well as the medications used for treating diabetes. This condition is extremely serious and is known as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome and is characterized by the sugar present in the blood to turn thick and syrupy. These conditions can potentially be life-threatening and must be controlled at the earliest before too much damage has been inducted. While there are some such therapies, none of them are clinically proven and there is no established or agreed benefit upon resorting to these therapies. Diabetics must take care to adhere to a strict treatment plan which is recommended and also approved.
This means that the diabetic individual will require to actively take measures through all aspects of life and to also seek proper medical treatment.
Diabetic individuals are urged to find out as much about the disease as possible, its methods of containment and also the various complications that may be associated with diabetes.
This highly increases the sensitivity of the body to insulin and also makes sure that the cells of the body can absorb sugar more effectively.
A glucagon kit should also be carried along at all times and the close friends and family of a diabetic should learn how to properly administer insulin in cases of emergencies. Diabetics are more prone to develop infections and the healing process is also slow in diabetics.
These regions of the body are much more prone to infections than other parts and medical attention needs to be provided at the earliest in case of any problems. Not only may the alcohol and the associated mixing drinks upset the diabetic diet, but excess of alcohol can prove to cause complications in diabetics. Use of tobacco greatly increases the risks of complications and may also lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases in diabetics.
This stress will always need to be effectively managed as there is already enough abnormal pressure on the delicate blood vessels and the nerves of a diabetic. Sometimes a viral infection can trigger diabetes in some children, but you could not have stopped diabetes from happening. Insulin directs the uptake of glucose into the cells either to meet immediate energy needs or to store it for later use.
These foods make excellent snacks between meals and will not require extra insulin, further more it can be eaten when blood glucose values are high in order to prevent them from raising further. They raise the blood glucose values and are the foods groups that need to be kept under control in order to manage diabetes. Unless you are sick, then it necessary for you to test more often, especially when you have ketones, then you will need to test hourly. The HbA1c is a way to measure this; it looks at the amount of glucose attached to your red blood cells. The high blood glucose levels damage all the small nerves and arteries to the organs mentioned above, however if you and your child manage your diabetes effectively you will not develop diabetes complications.
Cortisone and or steroid containing medications cannot be taken, they increase Blood glucose levels aggressively the list is below. HOWEVER once your child has the above symptoms but starts to vomit and have difficulty breathing it can no longer be managed at home - the Dr needs to be contacted and your child will need to be admitted.
The A1C test can be performed at any time of the day and doesn’t require fasting which makes it convenient for patients.
This test requires measurement of blood glucose in a person after fasting for a minimum of 8 hours. As such, the signs and symptoms of any type of diabetes must be taken seriously and the only possible methods of treatment include controlling these signs and symptoms and trying to make the bodily functions return to normal. Monitoring is the first step in determining the severity of diabetes and it is then followed up with deciding on the appropriate measures to be taken in order to control the condition. In some rare cases, oral medication may also be prescribed, especially if there has been a history of preeclampsia or Gestational Diabetes in the past. Active medical and scientific research is being done in order to come up with newer and more convenient methods of externally administering insulin to diabetics. However, this process may yield dangerous effects on the body and also results in higher chances of infections to internal organs.
If oral medications are still insufficient, treatment with insulin or insulin analogues like insulin Lispro, insulin Glargin and insulin Aspart are considered useful. However, any female who has experienced an episode of Gestational Diabetes stands a risk of developing the condition again in subsequent pregnancies and may also develop prediabetes and Type II Diabetes in the future. This condition is known as Diabetic Ketoacidosis and is accompanied with an extreme loss of appetite, a general feeling of weakness and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, stomach pains and also fever. This condition is characterized by a feeling of dizziness, sweating, jitters, extreme hunger, blurring of the vision and palpitation of the heart, confusion, faintness and even seizures.
It causes hallucinations, loss of vision, confusion and seizures and can also lead to death. If individuals are keen on seeking alternative medications and therapies, they should do so only after proper medical consultation. Regular exercise should always be combined with a diabetic diet after taking consultation from healthcare providers or dieticians.
The recommended amount of alcohol to be consumed is not more than one drink for a woman and not more than two for a man.
Cessation of smoking is not easy and often, special alternatives and other nicotine products are the starting point to quitting smoking.
Plenty of sleep, meditation and relaxation are recommended to diabetics in order to keep stress levels in check.
Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.This website is for informational purposes only. If undetected or untreated your child could develop DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (DKA), this is a medical emergency and they will need to be hospitalised. The test results after intake of foods can steer the user to better food groups that lower the impact of damage from this disease. Insulin cannot be administered orally as the enzymes present in the human stomach interfere with the functioning of insulin. As such, care and treatment procedures will need to be continued throughout the life of the diabetic. It is recommended that diabetics have more of fruits, vegetables and whole grains in the diet. In between meals and during fasting low levels of insulin regulate the amount of glucose produced from the liver (your body’s main glucose store). Children, especially very young children have different targets to adults as they don’t always detect there low blood glucose values and very low HbA1c‘s are not suitable for them and they are individualized to the child.
Every year we are closer to a cure and the tools and knowledge we have to manage diabetes improve. If for some reason you have changed to a different test meter or just have any other number of situations that cause you to have additional boxes of test strips. A diabetic diet often involves a calorie count which is supposed to be strictly adhered to. You just might benefit by visiting our home page, you might just get a big handful of dollars in return for doing so! Please feel free to forward our web site address to other family or friends, co-workers and the such. Thank you for reading our blog and please stay tuned for further information on this subject!



Snacks to prevent low blood sugar at night
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Comments

  1. 20.06.2016 at 20:11:39


    For better blood sugar control that work for health care provider what your.

    Author: sebuhi
  2. 20.06.2016 at 15:41:22


    Glucose screening test to confirm checked my A1c levels and they were at 12, I'm pretty group of metabolic.

    Author: queen_of_snow
  3. 20.06.2016 at 20:58:18


    One of three forms of diabetes optimal intensity of monitoring and treatment of women with.

    Author: Emo_my_life
  4. 20.06.2016 at 22:26:57


    Give you glucose tablets or gel to take ??all.

    Author: Togrul
  5. 20.06.2016 at 11:51:34


    Recent research suggests tell the practitioner that your urine test paper that you.

    Author: GalaTasaraY