If you have been reading my posts for a while you will recall the concept of the functional range for blood tests. Often, the patient's glucose (blood sugar) is considered normal on their blood teat bacause it is still in the "normal" range.
Having undiagnosed pre-diabetes, as this newly published article points out, can lead to elevations in TSH. So most patients that go to the doctor with fatigue and the doctor sees elevated TSH then they immediately get put on thyroid hormone.
If you found value in this article, please use the social sharing icons at the top of this post and please share with those you know who are still suffering with a chronic thyroid symptoms despite having medical managment.
A1c chart, Another difference between different diabetes testing strips is that completely different strips need different amounts of blood to browse your blood glucose levels.. A1c chart: understanding the ac1 test, A brief, yet informative article explaining the a1c test, the a1c chart and how they are used in diagnosing, managing and treating patients with diabetes.
A1c chart & calculator using the dcct formula, A1c chart has a1c to bs conversion using dcct formula. Laboratory values provide healthcare professionals with essential clues about the patient’s condition and the medical interventions needed for his full recovery.
Complete blood count is one of the most basic laboratory examinations to determine the status of the patient’s health. On the other hand, if the total RBC count is above normal, polycythemia vera may be present. High Level:    Dehydration, cigarette smoking, congenital heart disease, pulmonary fibrosis, renal cell carcinoma, polycythemia vera.
Low Level:     Bleeding, anemia, malnutrition, overhydration, hemolysis, erythropoietin deficiency, leukemia, multiple myeloma, porphyria, thalassemia, sickle cell anemia. Drugs that may decrease RBC count: Quinidine, hydantoins, chloramphenicol, chemotherapeutic drugs.
High hemoglobin levels are usually present among people living in high altitude levels and among smokers. High Level:    Dehydration, cigarette smoking, polycythemia vera, tumors, erythropoietin abuse, lung diseases, blood doping. Low Level:     Nutritional deficiencies, blood loss, renal problems, sickle cell anemia, bone marrow suppression, leukemia, lead poisoning, Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Drugs that may decrease hemoglobin: Aspirin, antibiotics, sulfonamides, trimethadione, anti-neoplastic drugs, indomethacin, doxapram, rifampin and primaquine. High Level:    Dehydration, hypoxia, cigarette smoking, polycythemia vera, tumors, erythropoietin abuse, lung diseases, blood doping, erythrocytosis, cor pulmonale. Low Level:     Overhydration, nutritional deficiencies, blood loss, bone marrow suppression, leukemia, lead poisoning, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, chemotherapy treatment. High Level:    Cancer, allergic reactions, polycythemia vera, recent spleen removal, chronic myelogenous leukemia, inflammation, secondary thombocytosis. Low Level:     Viral infection, aplastic anemia, leukemia, alcoholism, vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency, systemic lupus erythematosus, hemolytic uremic condition, HELLP syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, vasculitis, sepsis, splenic sequestration, cirrhosis.
Drugs that may decrease platelet: Aspirin, hydroxyurea, anagrelide, chemotherapeutic drugs, statins, ranitidine, quinidine, tetracycline, vancomycin, valproic acid, sulfonamides, phenytoin, piperacillin, penicillin, pentoxifylline, omeprazole, nitroglycerin. White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, defend the body against infections and other foreign bodies. High Level:    Infections, cigarette smoking, leukemia, inflammatory diseases, tissue damage, severe physical or mental stress.
Low Level:     Autoimmune disorders, bone marrow deficiencies, viral diseases, liver problems, spleen problems, severe bacterial infections, radiation therapy. Drugs that may increase white blood cells: Corticosteroids, heparin, beta adrenergic agonists, epinephrine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, lithium.
Drugs that may decrease white blood cells: Diuretics, chemotherapeutic drugs, histamine-2 blockers, captopril, anticonvulsants, antibiotics, antithyroid drugs, quinidine, chlorpromazine, terbinafine, clozapine, sulfonamides, ticlopidine.
Pink to reddish – consumption of beets, rhubarb or blueberries, mercury poisoning, tumors, kidney diseases, prostate problems, UTI. Blue or green – consumption of asparagus, genetic disorders, excess calcium, heartburn medications, multivitamins. Once the strip is dipped into the urine, there will be some changes in the color of the partitions. Albumin is usually the first type of protein compound excreted in the urine whenever there is a kidney problem.
The presence of blood in the urine is called hematuria and this usually happens when there is an injury in the urinary tract. On the other hand, when there are many white blood cells present in the urine the leukocyte esterase level elevates and it could be detected in strips. Bilirubin is a part of bile which is the yellow fluid secreted into the intestines to aid in digestion.
When bacterial infection is present in the urinary tract, the bacterial flora can convert the urine’s nitrate compound to nitrite. In microscopic examination, the urine sample is centrifuged so sediments will settle at the bottom and the clear part can be discarded.
RBCs are present in the urine sample of a person with severe urinary tract infection, renal disorders, urinary tract injuries and inflammation.


In a normal urine specimen, there are few epithelial cells that can be seen under microscopic examination.
Casts are cylindrically shaped particles formed from coagulated protein secreted by renal cells. Crystals can be formed from the solutes of the urine especially if the urine is concentrated or when the pH is too high or too low. Low Level:     Anorexia nervosa, malnutrition, diarrhea, vomiting, poorly managed diabetes, hyperaldosteronism.
Drugs that may increase potassium: ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, NSAIDs, potassium-sparing diuretics. Drugs that may decrease potassium: Amphotericin B, gentamicin, carbenicillin, corticosteroids, beta-adrenergic agonists, potassium-wasting diuretics.
Sodium reflects a part of renal function as kidneys are responsible for the elimination of sodium from the body.
High Level: Cushing syndrome, diabetes insipidus, excessive fluid loss, malnutrition, dehydration.
Drugs that may increase sodium: NSAIDs, laxatives, birth control pills, corticosteroids and lithium. Together with sodium, potassium and carbon dioxide, chloride maintains the normal acid-base balance of the body through balancing body fluids. High Level:    Diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, compensated respiratory alkalosis, renal tubular acidosis, bromide poisoning, kidney diseases, Cushing syndrome, hyperventilation.
Low Level:     Malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, low blood level of albumin, kidney failure, magnesium deficiency, liver disease, osteomalacia, pancreatitis. Drugs that may increase calcium: Lithium, tamoxifen, thiazides, calcium supplements, vitamin D supplements.
Magnesium is important in muscle and nerve functions, blood pressure regulation and immune system.
Although half of magnesium in the body is stored in bones, magnesium can also be found in cells of organs and body tissues. High Level:    Oliguria, dehydration, Addison disease, chronic renal failure, diabetic acidosis. Low Level:     Chronic diarrhea, alcoholism, hemodialysis, ulcerative colitis, delirium tremens, hypoparathyroidism, hyperaldosteronism, hepatic cirrhosis, pancreatitis, toxemia of pregnancy. Drugs that may decrease magnesium: Insulin, antiarrhythmic drugs, digoxin amiodarone, sotalol, quinidine, bretylium,  strophanthin, diuretics, isoproterenol. Phosphorus is involved in the intracellular metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
Drugs that may decrease phosphorous: Antacids, diuretics, corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, ACE inhibitors, insulin.
BUN can also reflect protein tolerance, hydration status, degree of catabolism and risk of uremic syndrome. High Level: Hypovolemia, excessive protein levels in the gastrointestinal tract, congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, heart attack, urinary tract obstruction, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, acute tubular necrosis, kidney failure, shock.
Drugs that may increase BUN: Allopurinol, furosemide, indomethacin, cisplatin, methyldopa, propanolol, tetracyclines, rifampin, vancomycin, thiazide diuretics, gentamycin, carbamazepine, aminoglycosides, amphotericin B.
High Level: Preeclampsia, dehydration, renal problems, rhabdomyolysis, blocked urinary tract, myasthenia gravis, hyperthyroidism, muscular dystrophy.
Drugs that may increase creatinine: Aminoglycosides, methicillin, amphotericin B, cistplatin, dextran,cyclosporine, gallium, lithium, hydroxyurea, methoxyflurane, nitrofurantoin, plicamycin, pentamidine, streptozocin. As nurses are the first-line responders to the healthcare needs of patients, we should always be familiar with the common laboratory values and how to interpret them. It can help diagnose conditions such as infections, autoimmune disorders, anemia and other blood diseases. They circulate in the bloodstream and bind together to form a clot over the damaged blood vessel.
In general, there are five types of white blood cells – neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. Although the result of urinalysis cannot directly pinpoint the disease that may be present, it is often used as a supportive examination in diagnosing illnesses.
This strip has partitions impregnated by different chemicals that correspond to certain substances present in the urine, so abnormalities will be detected. Therefore, consumption of acidic or basic foods as well as the occurrence of any condition in the body that produces acids or bases will directly affect the pH of the urine.  In some circumstances, too acidic or basic urine produces crystals. Other types of protein compounds are not detectable in dip stick test and can be measured through a different urine protein test.
However, in some circumstances the renal threshold allows the excretion of glucose in the urine when the blood glucose levels are too high. Ketones are by-products of fat metabolism and they form whenever there is not enough carbohydrates present for energy production.
Other conditions that may induce hematuria include cigarette smoking, strenuous exercise, kidney problems and trauma. Normally, there are white blood cells present in the urine, but they are so few that there is no leukocyte esterase detectable in dip stick test.
However, the detection of nitrite in the urine is not used as a sole basis for the determination of UTI as some people can still have UTI with a negative nitrite result.


It can also reflect improper urine sample collection as in the case of urine specimen contaminated by vaginal secretions.
However, in cases of severe urinary tract infection, inflammation and malignancies, there will be increased number of epithelial cells in the urine.
However, in cases of urinary tract infection and improper urine collection, microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and trichomonads can be found under microscopic examination. Examples of casts that are not typically present in the urine include leucine, cystine and tyrosine. For this reason, a standard calcium test can be misleading and determination of ionized calcium is recommended. Magnesium levels are determined whenever there are changes in motor functions or when patients are suspected for metabolic diseases. It also participates in the production of ATP which is the chemical compound that supplies energy to the cell. This test is used to determine the adequacy of renal function but it may also produce false-positive result as it is dependent on renal blood flow, protein metabolism, catabolism, drugs and diet.
Whenever there is an elevation in serum creatinine levels, renal dysfunction is usually suspected since the kidneys are responsible for the excretion of creatinine in the body. She is working as a staff nurse in the pediatric ward of a private city hospital for more than two years.
On the other hand, low hemoglobin levels may be present in a variety of blood diseases like sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Determining platelet count is vital in assessing patients for tendencies of bleeding and thrombosis. The total number of white blood cells is often used as indicator of bacterial and viral infections. A standard urinalysis involves three stages – visual exam, dipstick test and microscopic exam.
If cloudiness and unpleasant odor are present, there might be infection in the urinary tract system.
Determining specific gravity is useful when you want to detect a particular substance in the urine sample. Conditions that usually produce high amounts of protein in the urine include preeclampsia, multiple myeloma, inflammation, urinary tract injuries, malignancies and other disorders that destroy red blood cells.
The conditions that can cause glucosuria are pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases and hormonal disorders. Ketones also form when insulin levels are not enough to initiate carbohydrate metabolism so the body just uses fat in order to produce the energy needed for daily activities.
It should not be present in a normal urine sample but once detected, it can reflect the presence of liver diseases.
High urobilinogen levels in the urine can signify liver diseases and other conditions that can cause RBC destruction. The sediments observed under the microscope are measured in terms of per lower power field (LPF) or per high power field (HPF).
Elevated number of epithelial cells can also signify improper collection of urine specimen, especially if it is not collected using the midstream-catch technique. Results should be correlated clinically as these microorganisms are also present externally in the genitals. When there are kidney problems present, the casts have different components inside like RBCs or WBCs.
The movement of nutrients into the cell and the transport of waste products out of the cell are also mediated by potassium. Patients are tested for serum sodium levels in cases of dehydration, edema, abnormal blood pressure levels and changes in motor functions.
Conventional chiropractic and neurometabolic services are completely separate services and each is provided in strict compliance with the rules and regulations set forth by the separate agencies. Determining hematocrit is helpful in diagnosing and assessing blood diseases, nutritional deficiencies and hydration status. For example, if you suspect that a patient secretes small amounts of protein in the urine, the first morning-void urine is the best sample because it has high specific gravity and appears concentrated. Other conditions that produce ketones in the urine are diabetes mellitus, frequent vomiting, strenuous exercise, and high protein diet. For people with liver problems and obvious signs of liver dysfunction, the absence of urobilinogen may indicate the presence of hepatic or biliary obstruction.
Whenever potassium levels are increased or decreased, the heart rhythms are affected as signified by EKG changes.
Determining serum calcium levels is important when there are existing nerve and motor dysfunctions. 5 Nursing Jobs At Home You Can Consider 6 Easy Passive Income Ideas for Busy Nurses Today's Meme: Brace Yourselves 7 Easy Stain Removal Tips Every Nurse Needs To Know 5 Things You Should Know Before Becoming a Vocational Nurse Today's Meme: Am I Going Crazy?
If you wish to receive natural health services you must first sign a Client Services Agreement.



Non fasting blood sugar level range hyperthyroidism
Glucose tolerance test labtest
Blood glucose level 3.7
What causes glucose levels to be high


Comments

  1. 03.09.2015 at 15:40:33


    Standardized hypoglycemia treatment, and making guidelines available.

    Author: Simpaty_Alien
  2. 03.09.2015 at 16:18:45


    Ability for insulin to lower blood sugar plays such significant.

    Author: L_500
  3. 03.09.2015 at 12:43:11


    About the severe kind of diabetes that children something.

    Author: ISABELLA
  4. 03.09.2015 at 23:59:38


    Controlled diabetes can but syrup?something you might make to pour stages in any of the.

    Author: Ilqar_10_LT_755