The endocrine system, along with the nervous system, is responsible for coordinating our responses. Chemical signals Chemicals found in both systems and also as part of other signaling mechanisms bind to specific receptor proteins on or in target cells. Secreted chemical signals include –Hormones – produced by endocrine glands, travel through the blood stream to target organs ex – insulin, estrogen –Local regulators (a) paracrine signals – act on neighboring cells, ex. Multiple Effects of Hormones Hormones can have multiple effects which depends on: - the type of receptor they bind to - the specific signal transduction pathway - the specific transcription factor they activate.


Hypothalamus The hypothalamus secretes two hormones which are stored in the posterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary secretes tropic hormones A tropic hormone regulates the function of endocrine cells or glands You do not need to memorize these….just realize they are TROPIC hormones and regulate other endocrine glands. In Belgium the product is sold under the name "Rilatine" and in Brazil and Portugal as "Ritalina". Concentrate on the thyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, and sex hormones Emphasis will be on FEEDBACKS!


The hypothalamus has neurosecretory cells which secrete releasing and inhibiting hormones which control the pituitary gland which in turn controls other glands. Epinephrine (a) Liver cell Epinephrine ? receptor Glycogen breaks down and glucose is released.



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