Get email updatesTo receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address Submit Button What's this? Arteriosclerosis is a defect occurring in the artery (blood vessels carrying oxygenated blood) walls.
Atherosclerosis is a potentially fatal condition affecting the arteries that can be extremely fulminating when it affects the cardiac arteries. Pathology of atherosclerosis is that the patient remains asymptomatic for many decades even. Symptoms of atherosclerosis are mild dizziness, light headedness, vertigo, palpitation and blurred vision. Treatment of atherosclerosis is removal of plaque and putting in a metallic stent which will prevent partial and complete blockage of the affected artery.
Arteriosclerosis is disease affecting the walls of the arteries due to ageing whereas atherosclerosis is a disorder affecting the lumen of the arteries due to plaque buildup. An acute myocardial infarction is a heart condition that happens when the blood circulation or flow is abruptly cut off from the heart. Risk factors of myocardial infarction include high blood pressure, high triglyceride and cholesterol, obesity, diabetes or high blood sugar, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet and being under too much stress.
The early sign of an acute myocardial infarction is angina which is chest pain provoked by ischemia. Signs and symptoms include anxiety, cough, dizziness, fast heart rate, heaviness in or across the chest, pain in the chest, back, jaw, and other areas of the upper body, shortness of breath and sweating. Creatine phosphokinase, Muscle Band or the CPK-MB test is used to assist diagnoses of an acute myocardial infarction.
Neurovascular compromise occurs when there are physiological indicators of injury to blood vessels or nerves. Addison’s disease is a disorder that occurs when the body produces insufficient amounts of adrenal hormones.
Symptoms of Addison’s disease may include muscle weakness and fatigue, weight loss and decreased appetite, skin darkening, low blood pressure, fainting, salt craving, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, muscle or joint pains, irritability, depression, body hair loss, and sexual dysfunction in women. Cushing syndrome, on the other hand, is a disorder that occurs when the body has a high level of the hormone cortisol. Anticholinergics are medications used to block the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. Anticholinergics are usually not prescribed to people with conditions like myasthenia gravis, hyperthyroidism, glaucoma, enlarged prostate, hypertension, blockage of the urinary tract, increased heart rate (tachycardia), heart failure, severe dry mouth, hiatal hernia, severe constipation and liver disease. The side effects of anticholinergics include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, drowsiness, sedation, hallucinations, memory impairment, difficulty in urinating, confusion, delirium, decreased sweating and decreased saliva. The main symptom of ARDS is severe shortness of breath which develops within a few days after the original disease or trauma. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition wherein blood clots form throughout the body’s small blood vessels. Symptoms of DIC are often those of an underlying condition such as sepsis or severe infection, trauma, organ destruction, solid tumors, myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative malignancies, obstetric calamities like amniotic fluid embolism and abruptio placentae, vascular abnormalities like Kasabach-Merritt syndrome and large vascular aneurysms, severe hepatic failure, and severe toxic or immunologic reactions.
Triggers for autonomous dysreflexia in persons with spinal cord injuries include a distended bladder, blocked catheter, urinary retention, urinary tract infection, bladder stones, constipation, bowel impaction, hemorrhoids, skin irritations, pressure sores, and tight clothing. Symptoms include anxiety and apprehension, irregular or racing heartbeat, nasal congestion, high blood pressure (with systolic readings often over 200 mmHg), pounding headache, flushing of skin, profuse sweating, lightheadedness, dizziness or confusion, and dilated pupils.
The pressure prevents the ventricles from fully expanding, thus, keeping the heart from functioning properly. Bell’s palsy refers to the paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Symptoms include sudden weakness or paralysis on one side of the face, drooling, eye problems such as excessive tearing or a dry eye, loss of ability to taste, pain in or behind the ear, numbness in the affected side of the face, and increased sensitivity to sound. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) are the two most common, yet threatening, diabetes-related emergencies.
Symptoms of hypoglycemia include cold, clammy skin, trembling or feelings of nervousness, lack of motor coordination and fatigue, irritability or confusion, blurred vision, headache or dizziness, nausea or stomach pain, and fainting or unconsciousness. On the other hand, the symptoms of hyperglycemia include increased thirst and urination, sweet odor to the breath, fatigue, agitation and confusion, high levels of ketones in the urine, and weight loss.
Cholecystitis is the inflammation of the gallbladder which is commonly caused by a gallstone stuck in the cystic duct.
Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) occurs when the kidneys fail to maintain the proper levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. Compartment syndrome occurs when injury causes generalized painful swelling and increased pressure within a compartment which may lead to lack of oxygen and nutrients to the muscles and nerves.
Symptoms include persistent deep ache in an arm or leg, pain that seems greater than expected for the severity of the injury, numbness, pins-and-needles or electricity-like pain in the limb, swelling, tightness and bruising. Meningitis refers to the inflammation of the lining around the brain and the spinal cord which is usually caused by an infection from viruses (Viral meningitis) or bacteria (Bacterial meningitis). The most common symptoms include a stiff or painful neck, fever, headache, vomiting, trouble staying awake, and seizures.
Diverticulitis refers to a condition where the diverticula, the small, bulging pouches that form in the lining of the digestive system, become inflamed or infected.
Symptoms include belly pain, usually in the lower left side, that sometimes worsens when you move. Dumping syndrome is a group of symptoms that usually occur after having part of the stomach removed. The symptoms of the late phase of dumping syndrome include fatigue or weakness, flushing or sweating, shakiness, dizziness, fainting or passing out, loss of concentration or mental confusion, feelings of hunger, and rapid heartbeat.
Erythropoietin is the hormone produced in the kidneys that influences the rate of production of red blood cells (erythrocytes).
The major functions of the kidneys include filtering out wastes to be excreted in the urine, regulating blood pressure via both urinary excretion of wastes and initiating the renin-angiotensin hormone regulatory system, regulating an acid-base balance via the bicarbonate system, and stimulating red blood cell production via the release of the hormone erythropoietin. The most common cause is an infection in the stomach associated with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenteritis refers to the inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small and large intestines, which is usually caused by an infection or ingestion of toxins or drugs. Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of the glomeruli, which normally remove excess fluid, electrolytes and waste from the bloodstream and pass them into the urine. Signs and symptoms of glomerulonephritis include pink or cola-colored urine (hematuria), foamy urine due to excess protein (proteinuria), high blood pressure (hypertension), fluid retention (edema) with swelling evident in the face, hands, feet and abdomen, and fatigue from anemia or kidney failure.
Guillain-Barre syndrome is a disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks the nerves.
Hemophilia is a rare inherited disorder in which the blood doesn’t clot normally because it lacks sufficient blood-clotting proteins (clotting factors). Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs and the digestive system and affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices. Signs and symptoms vary, but they usually include a persistent cough that produces thick sputum and mucus, wheezing, breathlessness, a decreased ability to exercise, repeated lung infections, inflamed nasal passages or a stuffy nose, foul-smelling and greasy stools, poor weight gain and growth, intestinal blockage particularly in newborns (meconium ileus), and severe constipation. In a hiatal hernia, the upper part of the stomach slips through the diaphragm and into the chest.
Increased Intracranial Pressure may be caused by a mass (tumor), bleeding into the brain or fluid around the brain, or swelling within the brain itself. Signs and symptoms of shock include decrease in blood pressure, rapid, weak or absent pulse, irregular heart rate, confusion, cool and clammy skin, rapid and shallow breathing, anxiety, lightheadedness, decrease in urine output, chest pain, nausea, thirst and dry mouth, low blood sugar, dilated pupils or lackluster eyes, fever in septic shock, and hives and swelling of the face and throat in the anaphylactic shock.
Intussusception refers to the condition in which a part of the intestine is pulled inward into itself, making it difficult for food to pass through.
Locked-in Syndrome is a rare neuromuscular disorder which involves total paralysis of voluntary muscles except for the eye muscles. Necrotizing Enterocolitis refers to an idiopathic injury of the inner surface of the intestine, which usually occurs in premature babies. Pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas, which may be caused by gallstones, alcohol, various drugs, certain viral infections, and digestive enzymes. Signs and symptoms of acute pancreatitis often include upper abdominal pain that radiates to the back or worsens after eating, nausea, vomiting, and tenderness when touching the abdomen. Signs and symptoms of chronic pancreatitis, on the other hand, include upper abdominal pain, weight loss without trying, and oily, smelly stools.
Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disorder in which the body fails to make enough healthy red blood cells.
Reiter’s Syndrome, or Reactive Arthritis, is a form of arthritis which may cause inflammation and pain in the joints, the skin, the eyes, the bladder, the genitals, and the mucous membrane. Signs of renal failure include weakness, shortness of breath, lethargy, confusion, and generalized swelling. Blood tests that measure levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen in the blood are needed to confirm the diagnosis.
Other blood tests may determine metabolic imbalances that occur if the decline in kidney function is severe, such as increase in blood acidity, phosphorus, and potassium levels, and decrease in magnesium and sodium levels.
There may be no symptoms in the early stage, but as the disease progresses, symptoms may include blurred vision, floating spots, blind spots, changes in color perception, sudden loss of vision, double vision, and eye pain. Increased Intracranial Pressure is a rise in pressure around the brain, which may be caused by an increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood due to an injury or a ruptured tumor. Shock may be due to trauma, heat, blood loss, an allergic reaction, severe infection, poisoning, and severe burns. Toxic shock syndrome is a group of severe symptoms, including dangerously low blood pressure, usually caused by toxins produced by staphylococci (and sometimes streptococci).
Symptoms usually start with a fever of 102 to 105 degrees Fahrenheit, followed by severe headaches, sore throat, red eyes, extreme tiredness, confusion, vomiting, profuse watery diarrhea, and a sunburn rash all over the body.
Muscle twitches may occur due to dehydration, caffeine overdose, and imbalance in electrolytes such as calcium, magnesium and sodium. An imbalance in electrolytes may be the result of fluid loss from vomiting or diarrhea, excessive sweating or inadequate dietary intake. Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) is a condition in which the ventricles of the heart beat very quickly. The most critical concerns in postoperative care are airway clearance, pain control, mental status, and wound healing. Postoperative complications include primary hemorrhage, basal atelectasis, shock, and low urine output, acute confusion, nausea and vomiting, fever, secondary hemorrhage often due to infection, pneumonia, wound or anastomosis dehiscence, deep vein thrombosis, acute urinary retention (early stage), bowel obstruction, incisional hernia, persistent sinus, recurrence of reason for surgery, and keloid formation (late stage), among others.
Late postoperative bleeding occurs several days after surgery and usually occurs when an infection damages vessels at the surgery site. Signs and symptoms for circulation deterioration include tachycardia, pale and cool extremities, normal blood pressure, oliguria (early stage), cyanosis and hypotension (late stage), and bradycardia, weak thready pulse, arrhythmia, and no cardiac contractions (arrest). Signs and symptoms for Central Nervous System include irritability, restlessness, lethargy (early stage), stupor (late stage), and unresponsive, flaccid, and tonic posturing (arrest). Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia happens when electric signals starting in the atria fire irregularly.
Episodes of Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia may often be stopped by one of several maneuvers that stimulate the vagus nerve. Adenosine is a short-acting medication that is commonly used as a first-line drug to treat Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia.
Maintaining a proper water balance in the body is important to avoid dehydration or over-hydration (hyponatremia).
The hypothalamus produces a polypeptide hormone known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which is transported to and released from the posterior pituitary gland. Another hormone responsible for maintaining electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is aldosterone, a steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone production can be stimulated by low blood pressure, which triggers a sequence of chemical release, as illustrated in [link].
Regulation of the reproductive system is a process that requires the action of hormones from the pituitary gland, the adrenal cortex, and the gonads. Regulation of the Male Reproductive SystemIn males, FSH stimulates the maturation of sperm cells. Professional baseball player Jason Giambi publically admitted to, and apologized for, his use of anabolic steroids supplied by a trainer. Some athletes attempt to boost their performance by using artificial hormones that enhance muscle performance. In females, FSH stimulates development of egg cells, called ova, which develop in structures called follicles.
Hormonal regulation of the female reproductive system involves hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries.In addition to producing FSH and LH, the anterior portion of the pituitary gland also produces the hormone prolactin (PRL) in females. Blood glucose levels vary widely over the course of a day as periods of food consumption alternate with periods of fasting. Cells of the body require nutrients in order to function, and these nutrients are obtained through feeding.
Impaired insulin function can lead to a condition called diabetes mellitus, the main symptoms of which are illustrated in [link]. A pancreatic tumor and type I diabetes will have the opposite effects on blood sugar levels. Both pancreatic tumors and type I diabetes result in the inability of cells to take up glucose.
The basal metabolic rate, which is the amount of calories required by the body at rest, is determined by two hormones produced by the thyroid gland: thyroxine, also known as tetraiodothyronine or T4, and triiodothyronine, also known as T3. T3 and T4 release from the thyroid gland is stimulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is produced by the anterior pituitary.
Regulation of blood calcium concentrations is important for generation of muscle contractions and nerve impulses, which are electrically stimulated. Blood calcium levels are regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is produced by the parathyroid glands, as illustrated in [link].
The hormone calcitonin, which is produced by the parafollicular or C cells of the thyroid, has the opposite effect on blood calcium levels as does PTH. Growth hormone directly accelerates the rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and bones. Fight-or-Flight ResponseInteractions of the endocrine hormones have evolved to ensure the body’s internal environment remains stable. When presented with a stressful situation, the body responds by calling for the release of hormones that provide a burst of energy.
Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids can cause a condition known as Cushing’s disease, characterized by a shifting of fat storage areas of the body. Water levels in the body are controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which is produced in the hypothalamus and triggers the reabsorption of water by the kidneys. The reproductive system is controlled by the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced by the pituitary gland. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is produced by the parathyroid glands in response to low blood Ca2+ levels. Name and describe a function of one hormone produced by the anterior pituitary and one hormone produced by the posterior pituitary. In addition to producing FSH and LH, the anterior pituitary also produces the hormone prolactin (PRL) in females. Thu vi?n H?c li?u M? Vi?t Nam (VOER) du?c tai tr? b?i Vietnam Foundation va v?n hanh tren n?n t?ng Hanoi Spring. A strict nutritional regimen of low calories or low carbohydrates can be hard on the body and the spirit, especially over the long haul. In the most basic format, carb cycling is a planned alteration of carbohydrate intake in order to prevent a fat loss plateau and maintain metabolism along with workout performance. It’s important to distinguish between the immediate (short term) and chronic (long term) effects of carbohydrate and calorie restriction. Although the body handles short-term deprivation relatively well, a strict nutritional regimen of low calories or low carbohydrates can be hard on the body over the long haul. For example, a recent study in the American Journal of Cardiology (Horne et al 2008) noted that occasional and short bouts of fasting (e.g. Because endocrine systems are interconnected (for instance, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis, which is the body’s Mission Control for hormones), these effects can be wide-reaching.
Not only can this have consequences for overall health, it can bring body composition gains to a standstill. If eaters plan a higher carbohydrate intake at regular intervals, their bodies won’t ever get too close to starvation mode.
Manipulating carbohydrate intake can also help one take advantage of certain anabolic hormones, namely insulin. Conversely, if people plan to elevate insulin levels at the appropriate time with a scheduled higher carbohydrate intake, they can maximize insulin’s potential anabolic effects. Re-feeds usually occur when dieting and are scheduled in order to provide a brief day of psychological relief as well as a number of physiological benefits.
An example of a re-feed is following a strict diet of 1500kcal 5 days per week and consuming 2500kcal of clean bodybuilding foods (the additional kcal coming mostly from carbohydrates) on the other 2 days.
Since carbohydrate intake will be increased on the re-feed days, it is important to scale back the fat and protein intake slightly. This consists of structuring different menus with moderate carbohydrate intake at strategic intervals during a lower carb intake phase. On the re-feed days, the body still tolerates carbohydrates best first thing in the morning and around times when physical activity is high.

Carb cycling can maximize glycogen stores and improve workouts during a low calorie period. Metabolic “up-regulation” doesn’t always scale directly with intake and too much re-feeding can result in body fat gains (Dulloo, Samec 2001).
Pick a carb cycling strategy depending on how you feel with lower carb intake days, how much muscle mass you carry, your physique goals and length of time you anticipate on the carb cycle. After a carb cycling strategy has been selected, you need to establish your calorie intake goal.
In it you’ll learn the best eating, exercise, and lifestyle strategies — unique and personal — for you. Circulation of blood is a very complex process and the entire body is connected through an extensive, intertwined network of arteries, veins and capillaries for circulation. It refers to hardening of the normally flexible walls due to loss of elasticity of the arterial musculature. If the walls of the arteries are elastic, they can withstand the turbulence of blood flowing under high pressure which happens when we participate in sports, get angry or overexert in any manner.
In atherosclerosis, there is a gradual increase in the deposition of plaque (consists of cholesterol, lipids, calcium, white blood cells and clumps of platelets) within the lumen causing narrowing or at times complete blockage of the artery. Partially blocked arteries will cause decreased oxygen supply and hence, give rise to pain in the affected part, a phenomena called ‘claudication’.
The second line of treatment is a bypass graft surgery where a bypass path is made for the adequate flow of blood only at the junction where the artery is occluded.
Atherosclerosis is the result of high cholesterol diets and poor exercise while arteriosclerosis is a genetic trait, that cannot be changed.
It measures the blood level of CK-MB, the bound combination of two variants (isoenzymes CKM and CKB) of the enzyme phosphocreatine kinase. Signs include pallor, loss of palpable pulses, paralysis, paresthesia, coolness, and severe pain. It happens when the adrenal glands are damaged, producing insufficient amounts of the hormone cortisol and aldosterone.  It occurs in all age groups and affects both sexes and can be life threatening.
It is usually caused by taking too much glucocorticosteroid medications like prednisone, dexamethasone, and prednisolone.
These drugs are used to treat conditions like asthma, incontinence, gastrointestinal cramps, and muscular spasms. More fluid in the lungs means less oxygen can reach the bloodstream, thus, depriving the organs of the oxygen they need in order to function.
Other signs and symptoms of ARDS include labored and unusually rapid breathing, low blood pressure, confusion and extreme tiredness. These clots may reduce or block blood flow through the blood vessels, which can damage the body’s organs.
Cardiac tamponade is a life threatening medical condition in which blood or fluids fill the space between the sac that encases the heart and the heart muscle, placing extreme pressure on the heart.
The heart then will not be able to pump enough blood to the rest of the body, which can lead to organ failure, shock, and even death. Damage to the facial nerve that controls muscles on one side of the face causes that side of the face to droop. The gallstone blocks the flow of fluid out of the gallbladder, which results in an irritated and swollen gallbladder. It is contagious and can be passed from one person to another through coughing, sneezing and through close contact.
The most important laboratory test for meningitis is the lumbar puncture or the spinal tap wherein a sample of fluid is removed from around the spine and tested to see if it contains organisms that cause the illness. Other symptoms include fever and chills, bloating and gas, diarrhea or constipation, nausea and sometimes vomiting, and loss of appetite. Surgery is necessary only if diverticulitis doesn’t get better with other treatment, or if there are other conditions such as long-lasting (chronic) pain, a bowel obstruction, a fistula, or a pocket of infection (abscess). Symptoms include a feeling of fullness even after eating just a small amount, abdominal cramping or pain, nausea or vomiting, severe diarrhea, sweating, flushing, light-headedness, and rapid heartbeat. When the number of red blood cells decreases or when the oxygen transported by the blood diminishes, a sensor detects the changes and the production of erythropoietin is increased. To identify this sign, the patient is placed in supine position with hips flexed 45 degrees and knees flexed 90 degrees. Other causes include prolonged use of painkillers called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and gastrinomas which are tumors of the acid-producing cells of the stomach that increases acid output. It is very rare, and the first symptoms are usually weakness and tingling sensation in the extremities.
These bodily fluids are usually thin, but in cystic fibrosis, a defective gene causes the secretions to become thick and sticky, so instead of acting as a lubricant, the secretions block the tubes, ducts and passages. Common symptoms include heartburn that gets worse when you lean over or lie down, chest pain, trouble swallowing, and belching. Shock, on the other hand, occurs when there is not enough circulating blood, which can lead to multiple organ damage, and may cause serious complications, such as heart failure. Symptoms usually include blood and mucus in the stool, vomiting, a lump in the abdomen, and lethargy. Causes may include exposure to Chlamydia or other bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, or Campylobacter. Signs and symptoms include headaches, nausea, vomiting, increased blood pressure, decreased mental abilities, confusion, double vision, shallow breathing, pupils that are not responsive to the changes in light, seizures, loss of consciousness, and even coma. Signs and symptoms include cool and clammy skin, weak and rapid pulse, nausea, lackluster eyes, and decrease in blood pressure.
It occurs when sickled red blood cells block small blood vessels that carry blood to the bones.
VT may lead to ventricular fibrillation, which may cause the heart to fail and lead to death if not treated promptly.
The triad basically consists of alterations in normal blood flow, injuries to the vascular endothelium, and alterations in the constitution of blood, or hypercoagulability. Preventing urinary retention, constipation, deep venous thrombosis, and BP variability (high or low) are also prioritized. To recognize patient deterioration, one always needs to observe and monitor the patient, acknowledge deterioration, call for help, and ask for expert intervention if needed. The condition originates in heart tissue other than that in the ventricles and is often associated with symptoms such as weakness, light-headedness, shortness of breath, and chest pain. This adversely affects the signals transmitted from the sinoatrial node which is the heart’s natural pacemaker.
These include straining as if having a difficult bowel movement, rubbing the neck just below the angle of the jaw (which stimulates a sensitive area on the carotid artery called the carotid sinus), and plunging the face into a bowl of ice-cold water.
Other treatment options for other atrial tachycardias include calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, digoxin, and amiodarone. It causes the pylorus muscles to thicken, blocking the food from entering the baby’s small intestine. The key regulatory processes that will be examined here are those affecting the excretory system, the reproductive system, metabolism, blood calcium concentrations, growth, and the stress response. The water concentration of the body is monitored by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus, which detect the concentration of electrolytes in the extracellular fluid.
In contrast to ADH, which promotes the reabsorption of water to maintain proper water balance, aldosterone maintains proper water balance by enhancing Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion from extracellular fluid of the cells in kidney tubules.
During puberty in both males and females, the hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the production and release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland.
Anabolic steroids, a form of the male sex hormone testosterone, are one of the most widely known performance-enhancing drugs.
Insulin and glucagon are the two hormones primarily responsible for maintaining homeostasis of blood glucose levels. In order to manage nutrient intake, storing excess intake and utilizing reserves when necessary, the body uses hormones to moderate energy stores. This can be caused by low levels of insulin production by the beta cells of the pancreas, or by reduced sensitivity of tissue cells to insulin. These hormones affect nearly every cell in the body except for the adult brain, uterus, testes, blood cells, and spleen. TSH binding at the receptors of the follicle of the thyroid triggers the production of T3 and T4 from a glycoprotein called thyroglobulin. Hypothyroidism, underproduction of the thyroid hormones, can cause a low metabolic rate leading to weight gain, sensitivity to cold, and reduced mental activity, among other symptoms. If calcium levels get too high, membrane permeability to sodium decreases and membranes become less responsive.
It increases blood calcium levels by targeting the skeleton, the kidneys, and the intestine. Calcitonin decreases blood calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclasts, stimulating osteoblasts, and stimulating calcium excretion by the kidneys. Growth hormone (GH), produced by the anterior portion of the pituitary gland, accelerates the rate of protein synthesis, particularly in skeletal muscle and bones. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is activated by growth hormone and also allows formation of new proteins in muscle cells and bone.
The effects of this response are familiar to anyone who has been in a stressful situation: increased heart rate, dry mouth, and hair standing up.
Glycogen reserves, which provide energy in the short-term response to stress, are exhausted after several hours and cannot meet long-term energy needs. The hormones epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) and norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline) are released by the adrenal medulla. The body cannot sustain the bursts of energy mediated by epinephrine and norepinephrine for long times.
The hormone aldosterone stimulates the reabsorption of water and sodium ions in the kidney, which results in increased blood pressure and volume.
This can cause the accumulation of adipose tissue in the face and neck, and excessive glucose in the blood. Gonadotropin release is controlled by the hypothalamic hormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The parafollicular cells of the thyroid produce calcitonin, which reduces blood Ca2+ levels. Growth hormone (GH), produced by the anterior pituitary, accelerates the rate of protein synthesis, particularly in skeletal muscles and bones. Cac tai li?u d?u tuan th? gi?y phep Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 tr? khi ghi chu ro ngo?i l?. Only people (such as physique athletes) whose nutritional adherence is extremely high, and who require a more meticulous nutritional approach, should use it.
However, the common theme behind them is that protein and fat intake stay relatively constant while carbohydrate intake is manipulated. Since carbohydrates have 4 calories per gram, adjusting carbohydrate intake while keeping fat and protein more or less the same can greatly alter calorie intake. Berardi gives a nice definition of re-feed as a planned increase in calorie intake that lasts 8 – 12 hours and usually consists of a large increase in carbohydrates. This approach steers away from an extremely high carbohydrate intake because the menu changes regularly. Unfortunately, if they grossly over-consume calories for too long they’ll probably gain bodyfat.
Menus are planned according to your weekly schedule in order to create a temporary calorie surplus.
Make sure to consume high-fiber foods and supplements and drink plenty of water to prevent constipation.
Then divide your total intake of all the nutrients up into regular feeding intervals with appropriate spacing due to workouts. Usefulness of routine periodic fasting to lower risk of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.Am J Cardiol. Uncoupling proteins: their roles in adaptive thermogenesis and substrate metabolism reconsidered. Effect of obesity and starvation on thyroid hormone, growth hormone, and cortisol secretion. Changes in energy metabolism in response to 48 h of overfeeding and fasting in Caucasians and Pima Indians. The effect of underfeeding on the physiological response to food ingestion in normal weight women. Adaptive reduction in basal metabolic rate in response to food deprivation in humans: a role for feedback signals from fat stores. As the arteries grow harder and thicker, they become more and more resistant to the blood flow and hence, the blood pressure keeps rising as age advances or disease worsens. The cause of atherosclerosis is not clear but there are multiple predisposing factors like heavy smoking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, genetic factors, and high serum levels of LDL and cholesterol, high alcohol intake etc. If it is stable, it will not move and remain at one position for many years without producing any disturbance in the circulation. There is no special treatment for arteriosclerosis as it is hardening due to loss of elasticity. Elevated levels may also be due to electrical injuries, heart defibrillation, heart injury, inflammation of the heart muscle usually due to a virus (myocarditis) and open heart surgery.
Some people develop Cushing syndrome because their bodies produce too much cortisol, which is a hormone made in the adrenal glands. Beck’s triad includes distant heart sounds, distended jugular veins, and decreased arterial pressure. It is not the result of a stroke or a transient ischemic attack; instead, most cases are caused by the herpes virus. The kidneys normally maintain the blood creatinine which is found to be a reliable indicator of kidney function. The usual causes of a hip fracture include falls to a hard surface or from a great height, blunt trauma to the hip such as from a car crash, diseases such as osteoporosis, and obesity. The height of the patellae from the foot of the table is then observed, as well as femoral length discrepancies.
Emergency symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and the inability to pass gas or empty bowels. The level of creatinine is also one of the best indicators of the degree or severity of the decline in kidney function. Symptoms include dull, sharp, throbbing, or stabbing pain in the back, knees, legs, arms, chest, or stomach. Symptoms include palpitations, dizziness or lightheadedness, shortness of breath, chest pain, syncope, and weak or absent pulse. The triad was first formulated in 1856 by a German physician named Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902). This in turn speeds up the heart rate and prevents the heart from having enough time to fill the blood before pumping out, which means that there won’t be enough blood or oxygen transported throughout the body.
The concentration of electrolytes in the blood rises when there is water loss caused by excessive perspiration, inadequate water intake, or low blood volume due to blood loss. As ADH (which is also known as vasopressin) causes direct water reabsorption from the kidney tubules, salts and wastes are concentrated in what will eventually be excreted as urine. Because it is produced in the cortex of the adrenal gland and affects the concentrations of minerals Na+ and K+, aldosterone is referred to as a mineralocorticoid, a corticosteroid that affects ion and water balance. Cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus, which regulates the functions of the nephrons of the kidney, detect this and release renin. These hormones regulate the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) and therefore are called gonadotropins. LH stimulates production of the sex hormones (androgens) by the interstitial cells of the testes and therefore is also called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone.
The adrenal cortex also produces small amounts of testosterone precursor, although the role of this additional hormone production is not fully understood. LH also plays a role in the development of ova, induction of ovulation, and stimulation of estradiol and progesterone production by the ovaries, as illustrated in [link]. Prolactin levels are regulated by the hypothalamic hormones prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH) and prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH), which is now known to be dopamine.
Insulin is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas, which are stimulated to release insulin as blood glucose levels rise (for example, after a meal is consumed).
This prevents glucose from being absorbed by cells, causing high levels of blood glucose, or hyperglycemia (high sugar). Glucagon raises blood glucose levels, eliciting what is called a hyperglycemic effect, by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in skeletal muscle cells and liver cells in a process called glycogenolysis. They are transported across the plasma membrane of target cells and bind to receptors on the mitochondria resulting in increased ATP production. Thyroglobulin is present in the follicles of the thyroid, and is converted into thyroid hormones with the addition of iodine. In children, hypothyroidism can cause cretinism, which can lead to mental retardation and growth defects. If calcium levels get too low, membrane permeability to sodium increases and convulsions or muscle spasms can result.

The sympathetic division of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system has evolved the fight-or-flight response to counter stress-induced disruptions of homeostasis.
If glycogen reserves were the only energy source available, neural functioning could not be maintained once the reserves became depleted due to the nervous system’s high requirement for glucose.
Hyposecretion of the corticosteroids can cause Addison’s disease, which may result in bronzing of the skin, hypoglycemia, and low electrolyte levels in the blood.
Aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex of the kidneys, enhances Na+ reabsorption from the extracellular fluids and subsequent water reabsorption by diffusion. FSH stimulates the maturation of sperm cells in males and is inhibited by the hormone inhibin, while LH stimulates the production of the androgen testosterone. Growth hormone (GH) is produced by the anterior pituitary and controls the growth rate of muscle and bone. Prolactin levels are regulated by the hypothalamic hormones prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH) and prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) which is now known to be dopamine. Thus, one way to optimize muscle gain over fat gain during a muscle gaining phase is with carb cycling. Look at the evidence from your photographs and body composition tests to ensure that you are on the right track. But if it is unstable, it is very vulnerable to detaching from the site of attachment in turbulent blood flow and may burst into the circulation causing a mobile plaque which can settle and block smaller lumen capillaries. CPK-MB levels do not usually rise with chest pain caused by angina, pulmonary embolism or congestive heart failure.
They help block involuntary movements of muscles associated with these diseases and they balance the production of dopamine and acetylcholine.
An increase in blood electrolyte levels results in a neuronal signal being sent from the osmoreceptors in hypothalamic nuclei.
The hypothalamus controls the mechanisms of ADH secretion, either by regulating blood volume or the concentration of water in the blood. Aldosterone release is stimulated by a decrease in blood sodium levels, blood volume, or blood pressure, or an increase in blood potassium levels. Renin, an enzyme, circulates in the blood and reacts with a plasma protein produced by the liver called angiotensinogen. In both males and females, FSH stimulates gamete production and LH stimulates production of hormones by the gonads. Other hormones that are used to enhance athletic performance include erythropoietin, which triggers the production of red blood cells, and human growth hormone, which can help in building muscle mass. PRH stimulates the release of prolactin and PIH inhibits it.The posterior pituitary releases the hormone oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth. Insulin lowers blood glucose levels by enhancing the rate of glucose uptake and utilization by target cells, which use glucose for ATP production. High blood glucose levels make it difficult for the kidneys to recover all the glucose from nascent urine, resulting in glucose being lost in urine. Glucose can then be utilized as energy by muscle cells and released into circulation by the liver cells.
In the nucleus, T3 and T4 activate genes involved in energy production and glucose oxidation. Iodine is formed from iodide ions that are actively transported into the thyroid follicle from the bloodstream.
Hyperthyroidism, the overproduction of thyroid hormones, can lead to an increased metabolic rate and its effects: weight loss, excess heat production, sweating, and an increased heart rate.
In the skeleton, PTH stimulates osteoclasts, which causes bone to be reabsorbed, releasing Ca2+ from bone into the blood. This results in excessive calcium being removed from bones and introduced into blood circulation, producing structural weakness of the bones, which can lead to deformation and fractures, plus nervous system impairment due to high blood calcium levels. Calcitonin is most important in children (when it stimulates bone growth), during pregnancy (when it reduces maternal bone loss), and during prolonged starvation (because it reduces bone mass loss). The first direct action of GH is stimulation of triglyceride breakdown (lipolysis) and release into the blood by adipocytes. Underproduction of GH in adults does not appear to cause any abnormalities, but in children it can result in pituitary dwarfism, in which growth is reduced.
In the initial alarm phase, the sympathetic nervous system stimulates an increase in energy levels through increased blood glucose levels. In this situation, the body has evolved a response to counter long-term stress through the actions of the glucocorticoids, which ensure that long-term energy requirements can be met.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine increase blood glucose levels by stimulating the liver and skeletal muscles to break down glycogen and by stimulating glucose release by liver cells.
In a long-term stress response, the hypothalamus triggers the release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary gland. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is one way that aldosterone release is controlled. FSH stimulates egg maturation in females, while LH stimulates the production of estrogens and progesterone. The direct actions of GH include: 1) stimulation of fat breakdown (lipolysis) and release into the blood by adipocytes. Atherosclerosis is another condition that refers to the deposition of fat plaques and cholesterol globules within the arteries causing narrowing of the lumen of the arteries.
This plaque or thrombus which is formed becomes an embolus once detached from the original site and can block any artery. When angiotensinogen is cleaved by renin, it produces angiotensin I, which is then converted into angiotensin II in the lungs.
An increase in gonad hormone levels inhibits GnRH production through a negative feedback loop. Estradiol produces secondary sex characteristics in females, while both estradiol and progesterone regulate the menstrual cycle.
The uterine smooth muscles are not very sensitive to oxytocin until late in pregnancy when the number of oxytocin receptors in the uterus peaks. It also stimulates the liver to convert glucose to glycogen, which is then stored by cells for later use. High glucose levels also result in less water being reabsorbed by the kidneys, causing high amounts of urine to be produced; this may result in dehydration. Glucagon also stimulates absorption of amino acids from the blood by the liver, which then converts them to glucose. This results in increased rates of metabolism and body heat production, which is known as the hormone’s calorigenic effect.
A peroxidase enzyme then attaches the iodine to the tyrosine amino acid found in thyroglobulin.
Hypoparathyroidism, the underproduction of PTH, results in extremely low levels of blood calcium, which causes impaired muscle function and may result in tetany (severe sustained muscle contraction).
This results in a switch by most tissues from utilizing glucose as an energy source to utilizing fatty acids.
This prepares the body for physical activity that may be required to respond to stress: to either fight for survival or to flee from danger.
The glucocorticoids mobilize lipid and protein reserves, stimulate gluconeogenesis, conserve glucose for use by neural tissue, and stimulate the conservation of salts and water. Additionally, these hormones increase oxygen availability to cells by increasing the heart rate and dilating the bronchioles. The adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH to release steroid hormones called corticosteroids. Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones produced by the ovaries that trigger the development of secondary sex characteristics in females as well as control the maturation of the ova. Short-term stress causes the hypothalamus to trigger the adrenal medulla to release epinephrine and norepinephrine, which trigger the fight or flight response. The posterior pituitary releases the hormone oxytocin, which stimulates contractions during childbirth.
The reabsorption of Na+ also results in the osmotic reabsorption of water, which alters blood volume and blood pressure. Angiotensin II functions as a hormone and then causes the release of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal cortex, resulting in increased Na+ reabsorption, water retention, and an increase in blood pressure. They are also banned by national and international governing bodies including the International Olympic Committee, the U.S. Stretching of tissues in the uterus and cervix stimulates oxytocin release during childbirth. Insulin also increases glucose transport into certain cells, such as muscle cells and the liver. Over time, high blood glucose levels can cause nerve damage to the eyes and peripheral body tissues, as well as damage to the kidneys and cardiovascular system.
In the intestines, PTH increases dietary CA2+ absorption, and in the kidneys, PTH stimulates reabsorption of the CA2+. The mechanisms to maintain homeostasis that are described here are those observed in the human body.
The hormones also prioritize body function by increasing blood supply to essential organs such as the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles, while restricting blood flow to organs not in immediate need, such as the skin, digestive system, and kidneys. In females, the pituitary also produces prolactin, which stimulates milk production after childbirth, and oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contraction during childbirth and milk let-down during suckling.Insulin is produced by the pancreas in response to rising blood glucose levels and allows cells to utilize blood glucose and store excess glucose for later use. Long-term stress causes the hypothalamus to trigger the anterior pituitary to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which causes the release of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids, from the adrenal cortex.
Once at the kidneys, ADH changes the kidneys to become more permeable to water by temporarily inserting water channels, aquaporins, into the kidney tubules. Angiotensin II in addition to being a potent vasoconstrictor also causes an increase in ADH and increased thirst, both of which help to raise blood pressure. Olympic Committee, the National Collegiate Athletic Association, the Major League Baseball, and the National Football League.The side effects of synthetic hormones are often significant and non-reversible, and in some cases, fatal. Contractions increase in intensity as blood levels of oxytocin rise via a positive feedback mechanism until the birth is complete. This results from an insulin-mediated increase in the number of glucose transporter proteins in cell membranes, which remove glucose from circulation by facilitated diffusion. T3 and T4 are then released into the bloodstream, with T4 being released in much greater amounts than T3.
While PTH acts directly on the kidneys to increase Ca2+ reabsorption, its effects on the intestine are indirect. In another direct mechanism, GH stimulates glycogen breakdown in the liver; the glycogen is then released into the blood as glucose. Oversecretion of growth hormone can lead to gigantism in children, causing excessive growth. Diabetes mellitus is caused by reduced insulin activity and causes high blood glucose levels, or hyperglycemia. 2) In the liver, GH stimulates glycogen breakdown, which is then released into the blood as glucose. It is rightly concluded that a patient with arteriosclerosis may not have atherosclerosis but a patient with atherosclerosis will always have arteriosclerosis.
Androgens produce several complications such as liver dysfunctions and liver tumors, prostate gland enlargement, difficulty urinating, premature closure of epiphyseal cartilages, testicular atrophy, infertility, and immune system depression. Oxytocin also stimulates the contraction of myoepithelial cells around the milk-producing mammary glands. As insulin binds to its target cell via insulin receptors and signal transduction, it triggers the cell to incorporate glucose transport proteins into its membrane. This causes insufficient glucose availability to cells, often leading to muscle weakness, and can sometimes cause unconsciousness or death if left untreated. These actions mediated by glucagon result in an increase in blood glucose levels to normal homeostatic levels. As T3 is more active than T4 and is responsible for most of the effects of thyroid hormones, tissues of the body convert T4 to T3 by the removal of an iodine ion. PTH triggers the formation of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, which acts on the intestines to increase absorption of dietary calcium.
Blood glucose levels increase as most tissues are utilizing fatty acids instead of glucose for their energy needs. There are two main corticosteroids: glucocorticoids such as cortisol, and mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone. Glucagon is released by the pancreas in response to low blood glucose levels and stimulates the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, which can be used by the body.
Contractions increase in intensity as blood levels of oxytocin rise until the birth is complete. The physiological strain caused by these substances is often greater than what the body can handle, leading to unpredictable and dangerous effects and linking their use to heart attacks, strokes, and impaired cardiac function. Rising blood glucose levels inhibit further glucagon release by the pancreas via a negative feedback mechanism. Most of the released T3 and T4 becomes attached to transport proteins in the bloodstream and is unable to cross the plasma membrane of cells. The GH mediated increase in blood glucose levels is called a diabetogenic effect because it is similar to the high blood glucose levels seen in diabetes mellitus.The indirect mechanism of GH action is mediated by insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) or somatomedins, which are a family of growth-promoting proteins produced by the liver, which stimulates tissue growth.
In adults, excessive GH can lead to acromegaly, a condition in which there is enlargement of bones in the face, hands, and feet that are still capable of growth.
The body’s basal metabolic rate is controlled by the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). As blood osmolarity decreases, a negative feedback mechanism reduces osmoreceptor activity in the hypothalamus, and ADH secretion is reduced.
Oxytocin release is stimulated by the suckling of an infant, which triggers the synthesis of oxytocin in the hypothalamus and its release into circulation at the posterior pituitary. However, this does not occur in all cells: some cells, including those in the kidneys and brain, can access glucose without the use of insulin. In this way, insulin and glucagon work together to maintain homeostatic glucose levels, as shown in [link].
These protein-bound molecules are only released when blood levels of the unattached hormone begin to decline. IGFs stimulate the uptake of amino acids from the blood, allowing the formation of new proteins, particularly in skeletal muscle cells, cartilage cells, and other target cells, as shown in [link].
The fatty acids are released into the bloodstream for other tissues to use for ATP production.
The anterior pituitary produces thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the release of T3 and T4 from the thyroid gland. ADH release can be reduced by certain substances, including alcohol, which can cause increased urine production and dehydration.Chronic underproduction of ADH or a mutation in the ADH receptor results in diabetes insipidus. Insulin also stimulates the conversion of glucose to fat in adipocytes and the synthesis of proteins. This is especially important after a meal, when glucose and amino acid concentration levels are high in the blood.
Iodine is necessary in the production of thyroid hormone, and the lack of iodine can lead to a condition called goiter.
If the posterior pituitary does not release enough ADH, water cannot be retained by the kidneys and is lost as urine. Increased T3 and T4 levels in the blood inhibit the release of TSH, which results in lower T3 and T4 release from the thyroid.The follicular cells of the thyroid require iodides (anions of iodine) in order to synthesize T3 and T4. Glucocorticoids also have anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition of the immune system. This causes increased thirst, but water taken in is lost again and must be continually consumed. Iodides obtained from the diet are actively transported into follicle cells resulting in a concentration that is approximately 30 times higher than in blood. GH release is stimulated by growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and is inhibited by growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH), also called somatostatin.
For example, cortisone is used as an anti-inflammatory medication; however, it cannot be used long term as it increases susceptibility to disease due to its immune-suppressing effects. If the condition is not severe, dehydration may not occur, but severe cases can lead to electrolyte imbalances due to dehydration. The typical diet in North America provides more iodine than required due to the addition of iodide to table salt. Inadequate iodine intake, which occurs in many developing countries, results in an inability to synthesize T3 and T4 hormones. The thyroid gland enlarges in a condition called goiter, which is caused by overproduction of TSH without the formation of thyroid hormone. Thyroglobulin is contained in a fluid called colloid, and TSH stimulation results in higher levels of colloid accumulation in the thyroid. In the absence of iodine, this is not converted to thyroid hormone, and colloid begins to accumulate more and more in the thyroid gland, leading to goiter.

Sugar level of 9.5
Normal range for blood sugar with gestational diabetes guidelines
Diabetic low sugar desserts


  1. 18.05.2014 at 23:14:14

    Cause of this patient's types in cats: insulin-dependent diabetes.

    Author: Alisija
  2. 18.05.2014 at 17:35:34

    You feel OK at 71, it's appear.

    Author: desepticon023
  3. 18.05.2014 at 10:39:17

    The warning signs of hypoglycemia occurred only four percent as often.

    Author: Lady_Brata