Apply what you have learned about diabetes mellitus by completing the following questions. Describe what happens to the blood glucose level when there is an oversecretion of insulin.
Explain what other hormone may also be oversecreted as the pancreas tries to deal with the low blood glucose levels. Hyperglycemia occurs when blood glucose levels rise significantly over normal values and stay at an elevated level.
When a person, such as Emily, is hypoglycemic, he or she becomes anxious, nervous, develops trembling in his or her hands, and has a feeling of weakness. Through negative feedback, low blood glucose levels stimulate the alpha cells in the pancreas to secrete glucagon, which instructs cells to convert glycogen back to glucose as well as to convert non-carbohydrates such as fats and proteins to glucose. Emily can raise her blood glucose levels by eating something with a lot of glucose in it or she can inject glucagon. Aim 8: Diabetes is having an increasing effect on human societies around the world, including personal suffering due to ill health from the diabetes directly but also from side-effects such as kidney failure. TOK: The causes of the variation in rates of type II diabetes in different human populations could be analysed. Why are the organs of the endocrine system seemingly geographically unrelated and unconnected? Aim 7: Data logging using a surface temperature sensor to investigate the warming by nasal passages could be carried out here. In a negative feedback loop, the body detects an internal change and activates mechanisms that reverse, or negate, the change. The counterpart to negative feedback is a positive feedback loop, a process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that accelerate or increase that change. As per the American Diabetes Association, diabetic shock refers to the condition of abnormally low level of glucose in the blood. It is usually found in type 1 diabetics, particularly the ones who keep a very rigid control on their blood sugar level.
According to the Diabetic Medicine journal, almost 15% of Type II diabetic patients who receive a regular insulin shot suffer from severe diabetic shock. These people are also more prone to suffer from severe hypoglycemia that can result in an insulin shock at least once per year.
Medically, an over dose of anti-diabetic medication, especially insulin, certainly results in extremely low glucose levels. However, at the same time, the patient does not maintain the appropriate level balance by increasing the food intake. As early as two weeks after conception, hormonal changes may make your breasts tender, swollen, tingly or sore. Sometimes a small amount of spotting or vaginal bleeding is one of the first symptoms of pregnancy. Morning sickness, which can strike at any time of the day or night, is one of the classic symptoms of pregnancy. Nausea seems to stem at least in part from rapidly rising levels of estrogen, which causes the stomach to empty more slowly. Food preferences during pregnancy can be chalked up to hormonal changes — especially in the first trimester, when hormonal changes are the most dramatic.
Early in pregnancy, increased blood circulation caused by hormonal changes may trigger frequent, mild headaches. It is perfectly normal to feel mixed emotions, excitement and depression, joy and sorrow, laughter and tears.
As your blood vessels dilate and your blood pressure drops, you may feel lightheaded or dizzy.
Your basal body temperature is your oral temperature when you first wake up in the morning. If you are worrying about possible early symptoms of pregnancy, you can use the pregnancy test. Air 7 seas is leading freight forwarder, nvocc, oti, cargo consolidator, custom broker, carrier, and shipping agents for ship lines, airlines, truckers, shipper.
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Recommended Essential Oils: Bergamot, chamomile, clary sage, frankincense, juniper berry, lavender, melissa (true), neroli, rose otto, ylang ylang.
Suggested Herbal Remedies: Chamomile, lemon balm, lime blossom, orange flower, valerian (also available in tablet form).
Description: Depression is characterised by excessive sadness, lethargy, a pronounced inability to concentrate and strong feelings of inadequacy. Possible Causes: Chronic depression is usually symptomatic of an underlying physical illness or a psychological disorder. Suggested Herbal Remedies: Lemon balm, lime blossom, ginger (available in tablet form), rosemary. Nutritional Supplements: Depends on cause, but generally a good multi-vitamin and mineral supple­ment containing the full B-complex range of vitamins.
Methods of Use: Icy compress, massage (especially to head, neck aid shoulders), dry inhalation (a few drops on a handkerchief or a single drop inhaled from the palm), headache balm.
Possible Causes: Nervous tension, low blood sugar, high blood pressure, food allergy, Lack of sleep, muscle spasm at the base of the skull, structural mis-alignment, constipation, inhalation of toxic fumes and so on.
Recommended Essential Oils: Chamomile (German and Roman), dry sage, eucalyptus, lavender, lemon-grass, marjoram, peppermint, rose otto, rosemary. Description: A frustrating problem that can leave you feeling drained, irritable and muddle-headed.

Methods of Use: Bath, massage (especially back massage), vaporiser, drops of essential oil on your pillow (or on a handkerchief placed nearby). Possible Causes: Excitement or anxiety, worry, overwork (especially mental work), lack of fresh air and exercise, eating a heavy meal late at night, caffeine, nervous tension, nutritional deficiencies, depression. Recommended Essential Oils: Chamomile (German and Roman), hops, lavender, mandarin, marjoram, melissa (true), rose otto, sandalwood, vetiver, ylang ylang. Description: Symptoms may include fatigue, insomnia swollen ankles, menstrual disturbances, general malaise. Methods of Use: Massage (for puffy ankles, generally massage beneath and above the swelling, always towards the heart), aromatic oath, epsom sails bath.
Aggravated By: Alcohol contributes to dehydration, so drink plenty of bottled water instead. Nutritional Supplements: To reduce stress levels take 2 x 100 mg Vitamin C, a good multi-vitamin and mineral formula containing the full range of B-complex vitamins. Further Advice: During the flight, elevate your feet by resting them on a hold-all or small suit-case to help prevent swollen ankles. Description: Although common in young adults studying for their exams, it may also affect harassed parents and office workers too. Further Suggestions: Deep-breathing exercises, preferably in the fresh air or an open window.
Description: Migraine occurs when blood vessels in the brain contract then dilate, causing seething pain.
Methods of Use: As a preventive regular aromatherapy massage, especially to head neck and shoulders. Possible Causes: Could be triggered by one or several factors, for exam pie, stress, structural misalignment, muscle spasm at the base of the skull, depression, shock, hormonal disturbance (menopause, the pill), food allergy, extremes of temperature, personality (often anxious, hard working, restless, perfectionists), heredity. Suggested Herbal Remedies: Feverfew, passion flower, valerian (also available in tablet form). Aggravated By: Possibly by foods containing tyramine, chocolate, citrus, cured meats, herring, cheese, caffeine, alcohol, yeast products, onions, peanut butter, pork vinegar, yoghurt. Description: A disease of the central nervous system (brain and spiral cord) where the myelin sheath, which insulates the nerve fibres, is destroyed.
Recommended Essential Oils: Generally, choose according to aroma preference (to uplift the spirits) though you could also try rosemary in a base of hypericum oil. Description: Pain arising along the course of a nerve,which maybe severe, dull, or stabbing. Possible Causes: A symptom occurring when a nerves irritated or compressed or where there is inflammation and infection. Recommended Essential Oils: Chamomile (German or Roman), coriander, eucalyptus, geranium, hops, lavender, marjoram nutmeg, peppermint, pine, rosemary. Suggested Herbal Remedies: As for Anxiety, though Siberian Ginseng may also help (available in tablet form). Aggravated By: The longer the “stressed out feeling” remains, especially if there is no outlet for pent-up emotions, the more harmful it can be. Recommended Essential Oils: Almost any, but especially citrus essences, cedarwood, camomile (German and Roman), clary sage, cypress, frankincense, geranium, lavender, juniper berry, marjoram, patchouli, peppermint, pine, rose otto, rosemary, sandalwood, ylang ylang. Description: A wide range of symptoms, including headache, eye-strain, irritability, insomnia, nausea, muscular aches and pains or a general feeling of malaise. Possible Causes: The effects of low-level radiation as a result of spending long hours each day in front of a computer screen. Further Suggestions: Take regular breaks preferably in the fresh air and do simple stretching exercises.
Complete the flow chart that illustrates normal blood glucose regulation through negative feedback. The completed flow chart representing normal regulation of blood glucose through negative feedback should resemble the following. Insufficient glucose to the brain cells causes disorientation, which may progress to convulsions, coma, and possibly death. Rates can be particularly high when individuals consume a diet very different to the traditional one of their ancestors, for example, when having migrated to a new country. Nerve impulses are measured in millivolts; but a dynamite fuse is a better analogy for an axon nerve than an electrical wire. The resting potential (-70mV) is caused by a chemical concentration gradient established by pumping Na+ and K+ ions selectively across the axon membrane. The action potential (+40mV) is the dramatic reversal (and subsequent restoration) of the resting potential. There is a refractory period as concentration gradients of Na+ and K+ ions are restored by active transport. Protein hormones bind to receptors in the membrane, which causes the release of a secondary messenger inside the cell. This can also aid homeostasis, but in many cases it produces the opposite effect and can be life-threatening. So, when the level of glucose drops so drastically such that even the desired or the normal quantity is not maintained, it results in diabetic shock that is also known as insulin shock or hypoglycemia. Further, a majority of people with Type I diabetes experience symptomatic hypoglycemia at least twice per week.
Irrespective of the type of diabetes, insulin shock is life-threatening, and therefore, needs instant medical treatment. Over-treatment is characterized by the excessive intake of anti-diabetes prescriptions such as anti-hyperglycemic drugs and insulin for controlling the elevated blood glucose levels. Apart from the insulin injections, even the oral medications such as glipizide, chlorpropamide, tolazamide, and acetohexamide, can trigger insulin shock, as per the Medline Plus.
Its presence itself excites the pancreas for producing too much of insulin such that the glucose levels drop drastically. This possible sign of pregnancy is often what causes women to search for more details about the other pregnancy symptoms. At the same time your nipples may feel sore or extra sensitive; some women notice their nipples darken in color.

You may start going to bed sooner, or find it harder than usual to get out of bed in the morning.
Your friends and family members may comment that you seem to be going off to the ladies room quite often lately. Known as implantation bleeding, it happens when the fertilized egg attaches to the lining of the uterus - between 6 to 12 days past ovulation (on average about 9 days after ovulation).
Pregnant women also have a heightened sense of smell, so various odors — such as foods cooking, perfume or cigarette smoke — may cause waves of nausea in early pregnancy. An increase in progesterone causes food to pass more slowly through the intestines, which can lead to constipation.
Going up stairs, standing up suddenly after sitting for a time, or just having to stand in line at the grocery store can make you feel light headed. This temperature increases slightly soon after ovulation and remains at that level until your next period. Pregnancy tests work best if you wait to take them until at least a day or two after you miss your period.
Sufferers experience paralysing fear of an imminent yet unspecified danger and in extreme cases fall prey to unpredictable panic attacks.
Especially if an obvious cause cannot be pin-pointed, though it may be linked to food allergy, excessive caffeine intake, or be the side-effect of certain drugs. A professional aromatherapy massage now and again is a marvellous treatment especially in conjunction with Bach flower remedies. Regular sleeping patterns are often upset with a sufferer having either too little or too much sleep.
General: angelica, coriander, cypress, grapefruit, geranium, lavender, lemon, palmarosa, pine, rose otto. It may be accompanied by altered vision, nausea, numbness, a sensation of pains, and sometimes vomiting. If you cannot track down the cause, or if there is no improvement after a couple of months of home treatment. Symptoms vary dramatically from individual to individual ranging from weakness in the limbs, numbness and tingling in some cases, paralysis and incontinence.
Also, do seek the advice of a holistic nutritionist as many sufferers have found that diet can have a beneficial effect on their symptoms.
If symptoms continue, consult an osteopath or chiropractor who will be able to correct any structural misalignment. Prolonged stress weakens the body’s immune system and can be the source of many health problems ranging from general aches and pars, to heart attacks and stomach ulcers. Hypoglycemia occurs when blood glucose levels fall significantly below normal values and are not raised.
There are genetic differences in our capacity to cope with high levels of refined sugar and fat in the diet. This depolarization depends on the sudden, localized opening of gated channels in the axon membrane, allowing N+ ions to rush into the interior.
However, for obtaining the most appropriate treatment, one needs to know the exact cause of such a condition.
According to Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals, an overdose of such medications is the common culprit of diabetes shock because it makes the insulin to last for long, resulting in excessive drop of the glucose level. Such an approach surely results in extremely low glucose levels, regardless of the exercise levels. However, this cause is really very rare, as the tumor takes place in hardly one out of every 250,000 folks. You may notice this pregnancy sign at bedtime when you are trying to get comfortable and go to sleep, when exercising or showering, or when getting dressed. A well-known cliche is the pregnancy sign-symptom of craving certain foods or unusual combinations of foods. Explain that your mood swings are very normal signs of pregnancy and that you need support and understanding. If you've been charting your basal body temperature to determine when you ovulate, its continued elevation for more than two weeks may mean that you're pregnant. The smell of fresh mowed grass, the smell of a gas station, smells of various foods, household cleaners, perfumes, cigarette smoke, etc., can all cause you to feel nauseated. Even if the pregnancy test result is negative you should try it again a few days later to be sure. Anxiety is usually a response to stressful events, but can also occur apparently without provocation. It can be a perfectly normal response to a period of crisis, emotional upheaval or excessive level of pressure and stress.
To enliven: bergarnot, eucalyptus, geranium (maximum recommended quantity), grapefruit, lemon, peppermint.
In modem life however it is rarely possible to deal with stress in this way and as a result, there is no direct outlet tor the physical and emotional effects of adrenalin production. Squeezing the trigger of a gun very gently or aggressively has no influence on the speed of the bullet. In this case, the quantity of glucose in the blood becomes insufficient to meet the body’s energy needs. You gain some weight because you are pregnant, your uterus gets bigger, and your baby grows larger every week.
Usually, this can be followed up with holistic therapy (aromatherapy massage is excellent) in preference to long-term drug treatment.
Bach flower remedies, osteopathy or chiropratlic (to correct misalignment of spine), homoeopathy. This early pregnancy symptom is caused by all of the changes that your body is going through, plus the increasing levels of hormones.

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  1. 31.05.2014 at 21:39:29

    Mainstream physicians aren't generally 6.5 percent and above absolutely dependent on insulin.

    Author: Pishik
  2. 31.05.2014 at 14:18:42

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  3. 31.05.2014 at 17:31:54

    Meters available for checking blood ketones: the two-hour test that checks your.

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  4. 31.05.2014 at 21:29:13

    Constitute a diagnosis of diabetes, since it is over 200 test your blood more often.

    Author: OCEAN