By clicking Submit, I agree to the MedicineNet's Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of MedicineNet's subscriptions at any time. Quiz your knowledge of the most common digestive diseases and stomach problems such as acid reflux, GERD, gas, Crohn's disease, gall stones, and ulcerative colitis.
An ectopic pregnancy is said to have occurred when the fertilized egg implants itself outside the uterus. If this occurs, then the pregnancy is said to ectopic in nature and is called an abdominal pregnancy. In an abdominal pregnancy, the egg implants itself in the abdomen. Abdominal pregnancies are known to have higher mortality rates than other forms of ectopic pregnancies.
In the case of a primary abdominal pregnancy, the egg attaches to the abdomen directly without stopping anywhere in between. This form of abdominal pregnancy is comparatively common and occurs when the embryo attaches to the abdomen after initially stopping by somewhere else. Since the pregnancy symptoms of a normal uterine pregnancy and an abdominal pregnancy are the same, it would be quite difficult to ascertain the situation until the initial, distinct symptoms of an abdominal pregnancy start showing up.
In the case of an abdominal pregnancy, the individual in question would start to experience mild-severe abdominal pain after the first few weeks of conceiving.
In certain cases, the fallopian tube carrying the embryo may rupture during the initial stages of pregnancy. A pregnant woman would most probably undergo an ultrasound during the first few weeks of the pregnancy to determine the exact site of the implantation. In an abdominal pregnancy, the movement of the fetus would be more pronounced (the mother can feel them clearly). This can be attributed to the position of the fetus in the abdominal cavity (in most cases, the fetus would be positioned sideways, transverse or obliquely).
Strange as it may sound, an abdominal pregnancy can be diagnosed sometimes by sounds emanating from the abdominal cavity where the embryo is implanted. The sound is heard in the form of faint murmurs that emanate from the site of implantation in the abdominal cavity.
In certain (very rare) cases of abdominal pregnancies, the embryo implants itself to the intestine and starts feeding from the same. When this occurs, the individual in question would start experiencing a series of issues like abdominal distention and gas, abdominal cramps, jaundice, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, bad breath and high fever etc.
An abdominal pregnancy that causes intestinal obstruction can also lead to more serious complications like the development of blood, lung infections and intestinal holes.
In addition to the above mentioned symptoms, an abdominal pregnancy can be detected by some not so common symptoms as well. Usually in an abdominal pregnancy, the individual would feel as if her uterus is empty even after a couple of weeks into the pregnancy. The individual would not be able to notice a heaviness in her uterus in sharp contrast to other women (with normal pregnancies) who start to notice a bulge or heaviness in their uterus after a few weeks.
In an abdominal pregnancy, the embryo would be present in the abdominal cavity and so would not obstruct other unfertilized eggs from passing through the uterus. Atopic dermatitis is a common skin condition whose prevalence is on the rise among children and adults.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a syndrome that can occur after simple injuries such as a sprained ankle or a broken arm. Type I can occur after a simple injury such as a sprain or broken bone (hand or foot etc), after a stroke or without a known cause1. Type II can occur after injury or damage to a nerve in the arm or leg or after surgery to repair an injured nerve, for example carpal tunnel syndrome.
It can be difficult for doctors to make a firm diagnosis of CRPS early in the course of the disorder when symptoms are few or mild. If you are experiencing significant physical or emotional difficulties you should contact your GP for a referral to a qualified health care professional. You can read our CRPS pain management module to guide you about some of the current therapies that may be recommended to help you manage your pain, but bear in mind there is not strong evidence for these interventions as yet1.
If you're seeking further information about Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, we recommend you visit Cochrane Summaries and contact your local health professional for further assistance to better manage your pain. This module has been developed by Sonia Ranelli PhD, MSc, BSc(Physiotherapy), Lecturer, School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth Australia and Helen Slater, PhD, FACP, Associate Professor, School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth Australia.
Discover common skin conditions like psoriasis, rashes, and more in the collection of medical photos. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. In most cases, the egg would implant itself in the fallopian tube resulting in a tubal pregnancy. In most cases the egg implants itself to the intestines and gets its blood and nutrient supply from the same.
But in very rare cases, a patient diagnosed with an abdominal pregnancy can deliver prematurely and provide a 50% chance of survival for the infant. In most cases, the embryo would first attach itself to the fallopian tube (causing an ectopic tubal pregnancy). The embryo would then travel into the abdomen while the blood resulting from the rupture would collect in the abdominal cavity. An abdominal pregnancy can also cause excessive bleeding during delivery when the embryo and its placenta are removed from the abdominal implantation site.
In the case of an abdominal pregnancy, the fetus would fail to show up in a vaginal ultrasound, indicating that it would most probably be somewhere else in the body. This is because the embryo would be in the abdominal cavity and thus would be closer to the other organs of the body. Increased fetal movement in an abdominal pregnancy could also lead to increased pain as there is no barrier between the fetus and the nearby organs. This sound is attributed to the expansion of the placenta and the thickening of the ovarian artery.
If these murmurs are heard from the abdomen, the chances of it being an abdominal pregnancy are very high. As the fetus grows, it would start obstructing the intestine and prevent the intestinal contents from passing through.
And since the embryo is not present in the uterus, the uterine wall would shed, causing periods even when the individual is pregnant.
The fetus would press down on the other organs (including the stomach), causing pain and discomfort. I had somehow protected using condom sexual intercourse for the first time on 18 January so I’m not sure about that the sperms were touched me oe not. It is characterized by extreme itching, dry skin, scaling, erythematous papules, excoriations and exudates.
While the condition is usually seen in early childhood, AD can present initially in adulthood.
Although AD is not a curable disease, it usually can be successfully managed by a combination of skin care, avoidance of triggers, infection control, stress management and medical treatment. In most patients with AD, there is an increased production of IgE in response to environmental allergens and food proteins.
Upon exposure to allergens, mast cells degranulate and release inflammatory mediators leading to itching.


A lipid matrix made up of cholesterol, ceramides and fatty acids is crucial in protecting the skin barrier as well.
The diaper area is usually spared, but if involved, it may be secondarily infected with Candida, in which case the dermatitis does not spare the inguinal folds. It is frequently associated with eyelid dermatitis and chronic blepharitis and may result in visual impairment from corneal scarring. This is frequently irritant in nature and aggravated by repeated wetting or washing, especially in the occupational setting.
These include viral infections with herpes simplex, molluscum contagiosum, and human papillomavirus.
This is an important point since some patients with AD produce large amounts of specific IgE that does not appear clinically relevant. An effective daily skin care routine is critical in preventing recurrent episodes of symptoms. Lubrication locks in the skin’s moisture acquired from bathing, increases the rate of healing, and establishes a barrier against further drying and irritation. Although it may not be possible to avoid infections altogether, early identification and treatment is best. Side effects may include thinning of the skin, telangectasia, acne, stria, and hypo pigmentation. Ointments are more occlusive and have longer staying power, but they are often too greasy for daily use. Typical antipruritic drugs such as antihistamines may not be completely effective in controlling AD itching because it is likely caused by cytokines or neuropeptides rather than histamine release alone. The most convincing benefits in these studies were found in house dust mite-sensitized AD patients. Use of first-generation antihistamines (diphenhydramine, and hydroxyzine) at bedtime may be a good idea since they often have a sedative effect. The onset of reactions to foods may be immediate or delayed and may be associated with hives, itching and flares of AD, GI symptoms, or respiratory symptoms.
However, false positive tests are not uncommon and require a carefully monitored challenge to confirm the actual presence of food allergy.
Use of cyclosporin is limited due to possible nephrotoxicity and is reserved for severe AD cases.
It acts as a systemic immunosuppressive agent and has the risk of numerous side effects including myelosuppression, hepatotoxicity, GI disturbance and increased risk of infection. As research continues to elucidate the many factors contributing to atopic dermatitis, we are better able to treat and manage the outcome. While CRPS only affects a small proportion of people, it can be very painful and disabling. Currently there are not enough high quality studies to help make clear treatment decisions, at least for CRPS Type I1,2. The training module is not designed as a standalone approach but to work along with your health care professional advice and treatments.
Interventions for treating pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome. However, in very rare cases, the egg may get implanted in certain areas like the abdomen as well. And since the signs of an abdominal pregnancy and a normal uterine pregnancy are similar, it is very difficult to diagnose the former without an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) test. A small rupture in the tube could then propel the embryo towards the abdominal cavity where it implants itself. In some cases, the individual would continue having her periods well into her pregnancy or will miss only a few cycles in between. This in turn could cause loss of appetite wherein the individual doesn’t feel like eating or feels nauseated all the time. These symptoms may be associated with frequent skin infections, as well as an increased incidence of allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and asthma.
Typically, the rash has a symmetrical distribution, concentrating in the flexural folds of the arms, backs of the legs, and neck. These cytokines are overproduced in atopic individuals and are linked to the IgE response to allergens as well as eosinophilia.
In fact, the total IgE level can be very high in active AD, often exceeding that seen in common respiratory allergy. Acute skin lesions in patients with AD show an increased level of TH2 (helper) cells expressing Il-4, IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA. AD is associated with breakdown of this barrier, including reduced ceramide levels, increased transepidermal water loss and increased activity of endogenous proteolytic enzymes.
Chronic AD is characterized by thickened skin (lichenification) with accentuated markings and changes in pigmentation and fibrotic papules. Keratoconus is a conical deformity of the cornea that is believed to result from persistent rubbing of the eyes in patients with AD and allergic rhinitis.
A history of past or present AD at least doubles the effects of irritant exposure and doubles the risk in occupations where hand eczema is a common problem.
Daily baths in warm water lasting 10-20 minutes followed by immediate application of an effective emollient cream or ointment to lock in moisture are recommended. Using multiple soaps, lotions, fragrances, and mixes of products may cause further irritation of sensitive skin.
Key factors are proper bathing and the application of lubricants, such as creams or ointments. Particular care should be taken when treating areas such as the face, eye area and groin as these areas are more susceptible to adverse side effects. They are indicated for treatment of moderate to severe AD in non-immunocompromised adults and children older than two years.
The side effects are minimal and generally are limited to skin irritation, strong odor, photosensitivity and pustular folliculitis.
Most of the benefits of using antihistamines in AD patients may stem from their sedating and tranquilizing effects. The potential side effects of allergen immunotherapy (including anaphylaxis and worsening of AD) need to be considered. The patient must be educated regarding triggers of AD, as well as the chronic nature of this condition. Doxepin, benzodiazepines, and clonidine have been used at bedtime in AD-affected adults as sleep aids, although they are not specifically approved for this purpose. Milk, soy, eggs, wheat, peanuts, shellfish, and tree nuts are the allergens that produce 90% of food allergy reactions. However, some HSV-superinfected AD lesions may not appear vesicular, but rather as punched-out lesions with an erythematous base. The side effects of repeat or prolonged courses of systemic corticosteroids include adrenal suppression, growth retardation in children, osteoporosis, hypertension, peptic ulcer, glaucoma, cataracts, and infections due to immunosuppression.
Patients must be screened prior to treatment for levels of the enzyme thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) and the dose adjusted based on this level. Crucial to management is identification of allergic triggers, daily skin care and intense patient education.
If you are having trouble with pain control, medicines may be useful in the short term to help modify pain and allow you to undertake some mind-body re-training treatment.


Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina.
AD is considered a result of a complex relationship between genetics, environment, immune system dysregulation and skin barrier dysfunction.
There is a high concordance rate of AD among both fraternal and identical twins, indicating a definite role of genetics in development of the disease.
It is known that the breakdown of the skin barrier by scratching and irritants can cause an AD flare.
In older patients with long-standing disease, the flexural folds of the extremities are the predominant location of lesions (popliteal fossa and antecubital fossa). Anterior subcapsular cataracts may develop during adolescence or early adult life as a complication of AD. Also, an inverse relationship has been established between IL-4 and the cytopathic effect of herpes simplex, suggesting that the T cell-associated cytokine abnormalities seen in AD can enhance the effect of viral infections, like herpes.
Stimulation of the central nervous system may intensify cutaneous vasomotor and sweat responses and contribute to the itch–scratch cycle. People with atopic dermatitis should avoid hot or long baths and showers (more than 20 minutes). Lotions are generally not the best choice because they have a high water or alcohol content and evaporate quickly. The vehicle used in the preparation can also alter the penetration and efficacy of the steroid. In rare cases, patients can develop contact allergy to the steroid creams or their preservatives. It is important not to abruptly discontinue topical therapy with a high potency corticosteroid, as this may cause a flare of AD.
Diphenhydramine, because of its quick onset and short half-life may benefit children while tricylic antidepressants such as doxepin may be helpful in treating adults.
Further studies are needed to compare this therapy with conventional AD treatment before it is considered a viable option. It should be supported by elimination of the suspected food and subsequent improvement of AD symptoms. HSV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Tzanck smear, or viral culture should be obtained from the lesion while the patient is started on intravenous acyclovir or other antiviral medication. Along with the excellent treatment options we have currently at our disposal, new insights into the origins and mechanisms behind AD should yield even better therapeutic alternatives in the future.
It is not intended to replace a face-to-face clinical interview only to help screen for features of CRPS. He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology. In addition, skin scratching causes skin injury, activating keratinocytes to release further cytokines.
Further, the resulting pro-inflammatory cascade occurring within the skin can induce a patient to scratch more, further damaging the skin.
Localized AD involving the eyelids and periocular skin more often affects adults and may be an isolated manifestation, but it should be differentiated from allergic contact dermatitis.
In some instances, scratching is associated with significant secondary gain or may be a strong component of habit. When the skin is inflamed and covered with pus, gently use wet dressings to remove pus and bacteria prior to applying therapy to the underlying inflamed skin (see antibiotic treatment below).
Rarely should steroids be used under occlusion as this may cause irreversible atrophic changes to the underlying skin.
Use of topical antihistamines or topical anesthetics has been shown to cause sensitization in some patients and should be avoided.
Patients with periocular or ocular involvement should be evaluated by an ophthalmologist as an emergency. This therapy may decrease dermal IgE binding cells and down regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines. More research is needed to understand the causes of CRPS, how it progresses, and the role of early treatment. Further, more than 60% of AD-affected children are at risk for developing either respiratory allergy or asthma.
This induces the expression of adhesion molecules on vascular endothelium and facilitates movement of inflammatory cells into the tissue. Severe disease can have a significant impact on patients, leading to problems with social interactions and self-esteem. The doctor may recommend limited use of a mild soap or non-soap cleanser (Cetaphil) because soaps can be drying to the skin.
In general, oral prednisone should be used sparingly to manage AD, as its taper may be associated with a dramatic flare of AD symptoms.
In flares of AD when pustules are seen, short courses of either a semi-synthetic penicillin or a first- or second-generation cephalosporin for 7-10 days is usually effective. Since smallpox vaccine is no longer available, the resulting life threatening infection of eczema vaccinatum is no longer encountered. Similarly, photochemotherapy using oral methoxypsoralen therapy followed by UVA (PUVA) is indicated for severe cases.
In those patients with more severe disease in childhood, it is more likely to persist into adulthood.
Of considerable importance, sleep disturbance due to itching is common in this chronic disease and significantly impacts on the quality of life of patients and family members.
In flares of AD when pustules are seen, short courses of either semi-synthetic penicillins or first or second-generation cephalosporins for 7-10 days are usually effective. Short- and long-term side effects may include pruritus, erythema, pigmentation, premature aging, and cutaneous malignancies. The temperature in the home and work environments should be temperate to minimize sweating. For local areas of infection topical muropiricin (Bactroban) applied three times a day may also be effective. Natural phototherapy may also benefit patients, and sun exposure at the Dead Sea has been touted as a natural treatment for skin diseases including AD. These newer barrier creams can help restore the integrity of the dry skin in AD and offer great benefit to many patients. Treating nasal colonization of staph with nasal muropiricin twice a day for 5 days also may reduce flares of AD.
Also this area is getting up and down like a heart, and i can see that its pumping like heart.
I feel no other pain except that time when i starts my period and the pain is usually at my pelvic not in the abdomen area.



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Comments

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    Author: EPPO
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