Fight Hypoglycemia and keep your blood sugar levels even, by making these 16 foods a part of your regular diet.
HOLIDAY NOTICE: The herbs factory will be closed from Thursday, December 24, 2015 to Friday, January 1, 2016 for the holidays. Without polarity we can have no life on this material plane, no energy flow, no breathing in and breathing out, no feelings of hot or cold, pleasure or pain, love or hate. There are seven main chakras that begin with the root, or base, chakra at the base of the spine, ascending in a column to the crown chakra at the top of the head. Solar Plexus Chakra - Control and Power struggles, anger, lack confidence, concerned with what other people think, feeling inferior, not in control.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. In response to a requirement of regulatory bodies for antidiabetic trials to now include CV outcomes assessment, data of 5 such outcomes trials are now available.
The relationships between markers of glucose homeostasis and AF have not been widely studied. In HIV+ men with undetectable viremia, associations between elevated inflammation markers and coronary stenosis and to a lesser extent CAC, suggests a relation of these factors with more advanced stages of atherosclerosis. Recent outcome trials of novel antidiabetic drugs shed new light on why diabetes patients develop heart disease.
In Korean people, the magnitude of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was associated with asymptomatic coronary atherosclerosis as measured by coronary artery calcium. Prospective cohort study data show that in high-risk T2DM patients, the relationship between HDL-C levels and CV event risk is dependent on LDL-C levels and higher HDL-c is not always beneficial.
The IAS Severe FH Panel aimed to characterise the severe FH phenotype and make recommendations on how to stratify CVD risk and whom to prescribe the novel lipid-lowering treatments.
EAS 2016 European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention from the Sixth Joint Task Force provide up-to-date accessible recommendations for lipid control for clinicians in their routine practice.
EAS 2016 Gene therapy targeted at LDLR and HMGCR decreased LDL-c level and slowed atherosclerosis in mice. Prof Lambers Heerspink reviews potential mechanisms beyond glucose lowering, explaining the positive cardiovascular outcomes of SGLT2 inhibition as seen in the EMPA REG Outcomes trial.
Despite their differences, pharmacists in the community and ambulatory care settings can share risk-reduction strategies.
High-alert medications carry a significant risk of causing serious injury or death to patients when they are used in error. For years, the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) has published a list of high-alert medications for acute care settings. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s 5 Million Lives Campaign includes the reduction of errors with high-alert medications as one of the recommended interventions, particularly focusing on anticoagulants, insulin, and opioids. In June 2006, ISMP began the process of identifying high-alert medications dispensed in community settings. In 2007, ISMP received grant funding from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to study and develop tools assessing risks and gauging the impact of system and behavioral changes on these risks.
When choosing error-reduction strategies to reduce the risk of errors in your organization, employ a mix of higher- and lower-leverage strategies that focus on system issues and address human factor issues for those who work within that system.
Because an individual cannot be expected to compensate for weak systems, routinely evaluate the error-prevention strategies being used in your organization for high-alert medications. Today, I am writing about a potential complication that can happen when treating diabetes type 2. A lot of people living with diabetes tell me that this is one complication they do not care for.
This is why it is very important that a person living with diabetes wears a medical alert bracelet letting people know they have diabetes. Medications- Medications called oral hypoglycemic agents are common causes of hypoglycemia. If you notice a co-worker, a friend or relative with diabetes type 2 start acting strange, all of a sudden ACT FAST. This is one of those situations where even if your physician is using mid-level providers such as a nurse practitioner or a physician assistant that you should request to be seen by a doctor. Make sure that if you are taking oral hypoglycemic medications or insulin that you eat shortly after taking your medications. She graduated from medical school in 1987 with awards in Obstetrics & Gynecology, Clinical Pharmacology and General Surgery. She is trained as an ontological life coach and is committed to helping professional women achieve a higher level of wellbeing as the roadmap to experiencing a more wholesome life. She is also an author of a book empowering patients to live a more powerful life with diabetes.
She graduated from medical school in 1987 with several awards in Obstetrics & Gynecology, Clinical Pharmacology and General Surgery.
She is also an author of a book on diabetes, designed to educate people about diabetes in an easy to understand way.
It is truly amazing to me how big of an impact hypoglycemia can have on a person’s life.
Polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombo-cythemia (ET) are relatively benign myeloprolif-erative neoplasms (MPNs) and require a treatment strategy mainly aimed at preventing thrombotic complications (Landolfi and Di Gennaro 2011). Thrombophilia of PV and ET patients is characterized by an increased incidence of arterial and venous thromboses and by microcirculatory disturbances which often manifest at diagnosis or in the preclinical phase of the disease. Arterial thromboses represent 60-70% of all cardiovascular events and include acute myocar-dial infarction, cerebral and peripheral arterial occlusion. Since thrombosis can be an early complication of MPNs, an effective antithrombotic strategy has to be adopted as soon as the disease is diagnosed.
The identification and appropriate management of cardiovascular risk factors and the promotion of a healthy lifestyle are in MPNs, as in the general population, a cornerstone of vascular prevention.
Interventions on lifestyle are aimed at achieving healthy eating habit, appropriate physical activity and abstinence from smoking. All patients should achieve a normal body weight, increase physical activity, reduce alcohol and sodium intake and increase consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products. Clinicians should encourage 30-60 min of moderate-intensity exercise for 3 days a week, supplemented by an increase in daily physical activities. Arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and metabolic syndrome are major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease in general population (McTigue et al. Indeed, in the particular setting of myelopro-liferative disorders, there are only short reports on the use of these drugs (Nomura et al.
Aspirin is a salicylic acid derivative having anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-rheumatic and antithrombotic activity.
Thromboxane (TX) A2 is the main platelet prostanoid and is capable to induce irreversible platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and atherogenic process (Patrono et al. In the general population, the efficacy of aspirin in reducing myocardial infarction, stroke and vascular disease death in men and women with established cardiovascular disease is well known so that life-long aspirin administration is recommended in the majority of these subjects.
A recent meta-analysis of primary prevention studies found a significant 12% relative risk reduction of vascular events by aspirin, with no significant difference among different risk categories (Baigent et al.
However, aspirin significantly increased also the risk of bleeding, mostly gastrointestinal, in both men and women so that up to a certain vascular risk (2% per annum), benefits were offset by the harms. First, one should consider that the so-called low-risk PV and ET subjects have a vascular risk of approximately 2% per annum which, in the general population, is a widely accepted threshold for aspirin use.
In PV patients, aspirin administration was first evaluated in a small size trial performed by the Polycythemia Vera Study Group.


Risks and benefits of a much lower aspirin dose were more recently reassessed by the ECLAP study which can be considered a primary prophylaxis trial (Landolfi et al.
In low-risk ET patients, low-dose aspirin has never been tested in prospective randomized clinical trial.
As in general population, another antiplatelet agent can be recommended for patients who are unable to take aspirin because of an aspirin allergy (Baigent et al. Thienopyridines (ticlopidine and clopidogrel), also known as ADP receptor antagonist, have been shown to have an important role in the management of atherosclerotic (cerebral, cardiac and peripheral) vascular disease in the general population (Patrono and Rocca 2010). Dipyridamole, by inhibiting phosphodi-esterase, increases the levels of c-AMP which serves as an intracellular signal to suppress platelet activation and subsequent aggregation. As discussed below, an aggressive antithrom-botic strategy based on the combination of aspirin with another antiplatelet drug, such as ticlopidine or clopidogrel in patients with previous myocar-dial infarction or with dipyridamole in patients with previous stroke, might be most beneficial in avoiding a recurrence of thrombotic event. Myeloproliferative NeoplasmsUpdate on the Biology of Myeloproliferative NeoplasmsDo We Need Biological Studies for Patient Management?
Any orders placed on Kirstin's Counter Store during this time will be shipped out on Monday, January 4, 2016.
For life to flow there must be poles for it to flow between, just as planet Earth needs it's North Pole and South Pole. When you are living in fear or stressed out, your emotional body starts to affect your physical body. Wherever this fear stems, the energy within that chakra system is blocked, thus causing issues in that area in many ways. Psychological Functions Survival, Vitality, Reality, Grounding, Security, Support, Stability, Sexuality, Individuality, Courage, Impulsiveness. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communuties study (ARIC) this association was studied in a population of white subjects and African-Americans.
Although mistakes may or may not be more common with these drugs, the consequences of an error are clearly more devastating to patients. In fact, that list has been the focus of medication error prevention activities in individual hospitals, large health systems, statewide initiatives, and national campaigns throughout the United States. An extensive review and analysis of medication errors submitted to the ISMP Medication Errors Reporting Program was conducted to identify medications that have led to patient harm when misused.
One of the main objectives of this research was to identify a list of high-alert medications dispensed from community pharmacies. And from my experience as a physician in clinical practice, once they experience this, they do all they can to avoid it in the future. If you must have an alcoholic beverage, check your blood sugars to make sure they are not running low. Eno Nsima-Obot is a board certified Internal Medicine Physician, with over 20 years of experience in the health & wellness industry. She was also the recipient for the quarterly award for compassion when she worked as a primary care physician with a large multi-specialty medical group in Chicago. Eno Nsima-Obot is a board certified Internal Medicine Physician, with over 20 years of experience in the health & wellness industry.
She is passionate about placing a human touch to healthcare and was the recipient for the quarterly award for compassion when she worked as a primary care physician with a large multi-specialty medical group in Chicago.
Eno is committed to helping woman living with chronic illnesses such as type 2 diabetes achieve optimal health and wellbeing, so that they are able to experience a more wholesome life. It is imperative to stay on top of your blood sugars always as the odd and life threatening consequences of not doing this can actually destroy your life, even your relationships etc. Over the last three decades, much effort has been devoted at elucidating the pathogenesis of throm-bophilia, at describing their clinical manifestations, as well as at providing effective and safe antithrombotic options. The controversial role of several disease-related abnormalities and of other individual and environmental factors accounts for some heterogeneity in treatment decisions, especially in patients with intermediate vascular risk. Also venous thromboses, such as deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are frequent manifestations in MPNs. This strategy shall include treatment of blood hyperviscosity in patients with PV, interventions on lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors, as well as aspirin use in the majority of subjects.
These haematocrit levels are associated with a high risk of major arterial and venous thrombosis at the time of PV diagnosis (Berk et al. For reducing the risk of vascular events, the treatment of hypervis-cosity is an essential and urgent need after PV diagnosis. Several epidemiological studies performed in the general population indicate that nutrition and physical activity are predictors of age-specific mortality and cardiovascular event. Particular attention has to be given to smoking habit which has an important effect on vascular risk and which was found to be surprisingly common among PV patients recruited in the ECLAP observational study (Landolfi et al. 2003) but have not been convincingly shown to be independent predictors of thrombosis in MPNs patients. It is rapidly absorbed in the stomach and upper small intestine and hydrolyzed primarily in the liver to salicylic acid. The benefit risk ratio of aspirin use as primary prevention in subjects with no vascular risk is less clear. Particularly in patients with history of gastrointestinal disease or symptoms, physicians should weigh the potential harms of aspirin being aware that available evidence indicates that the use of an alternative antiplatelet agent such as clopidogrel is associated with a hemorrhagic risk similar to that of low-dose aspirin (Chan et al. In addition, the hypothesis of a high aspirin efficacy in MPNs subjects is supported by both clinical and pharmacological studies. Recently, the benefit of low-dose aspirin was retrospectively investigated in a low-risk ET population (Alvarez-Larran et al. Therefore, this agent, when used in conjunction with aspirin, has been demonstrated to have a role particularly in the secondary prevention of stroke (Halkes et al. Interestingly, clopidogrel has been reported to reduce parameters of leukocyte activation (Evangelista et al. Chakras are spinning energy centers located throughout your body that influence and reflect your physical health as well as your mental, emotional and spiritual wellbeing. For example, The Joint Commission published the ISMP list of high-alert medications in its November 19, 1999 Sentinel Event Advisory, and urged health care organizations to implement selected risk-reduction strategies around the use of these drugs.
ISMP then distributed a survey to learn if ambulatory care practitioners believed the medications identified and listed in the survey should be considered high-alert medications. Although lower-leverage strategies may be used initially, we must realize that they will not be as effective for long-lasting error prevention when used alone.
And without enough glucose, a diabetic may slip into a hypoglycemia coma.  If this is reversed early, by giving glucose, then no permanent damage occurs. When a diabetic starts an exercise program, over time it may be necessary to adjust their medications. If you have several episodes of unexplainable hypoglycemia,  make an urgent appointment to discuss this with your primary care physician. The availability of safer cytoreductive drugs and the wider use of aspirin have contributed to reduce the incidence of both neoplastic and vascular complications and to improve life expectancy of these patients (Cervantes et al.
Age and vascular history are to date the two main risk factors for thrombosis in PV or ET subjects and still guide clinicians in the stratification of individual risk and in therapeutic decisions.The role of classical risk factors is, however, likely to be important, and in addition recent data draw attention toward the possible association of thrombotic risk with the inflammation and with old and novel MPNs-related mutations. Splanchnic thromboses, which include portal vein thrombosis, mesenteric thrombosis and thrombosis of the hepatic veins, have an unusually high prevalence among young female subjects (Chait et al. An accurate evaluation of the vascular risk is then used for appropriately tailoring the cytoreductive intervention in each patient. Thus, phlebotomy is recommended to bring and maintain the haematocrit below 45% in males and below 42% in females (Pearson and Wetherley-Mein 1978; Pearson 1997).
Only one multivariate analysis on ET patients demonstrated the independent contribution of hypercholesterolemia in predicting thrombosis (Besses et al.


The clinical pharmacology of platelet COX inhibition by aspirin has been investigated through measurements of serum and urinary excretion of TXB2 metabolites (Patrono et al. The risk of myocar-dial infarction was reduced, as in secondary prevention, by approximately 30% while there was no significant effect on stroke. All micro-vascular disturbances in PV and ET have been also attributed to platelet aggregate formation and have been shown to be selectively sensitive to low dose of aspirin.
After a follow-up of about 17 months, the trial was stopped due to an excess of major gastrointestinal bleedings in the aspirin arm (Tartaglia et al.
2005) , history of gastrointestinal disease or symptoms should only lead to more carefully weigh the potential harms of aspirin use against its benefits (Chan et al.
The mechanism of action of thienopyridine antiplatelet agents (ticlo-pidine and clopidogrel) and dipyridamole is showed in Fig. 2005), and thus its use may be more appropriate in MPNs patients in whom the thrombophilic state is increasingly attributed to platelet and leukocyte activation and to platelet-leukocyte interaction. Open chakras allow energy to flow cleanly and easily, resulting in an increase in energy and awareness along with arousing your natural intuitive abilities. However, if the low blood sugars levels persists for many hours, the nerve cells in the brain could begin to suffer damage.
They are commonly used to treat heart disease, hypertension and early kidney disease in diabetes type 2. There are a small number of diabetics who can control their blood sugar with diet and exercise alone. In a PVSG study, the incidence of major vascular episodes was correlated with haematocrit levels (Messinezy et al.
In this view, the presence of MPN disorder should raise further attention toward the need for adequately recognizing and treating any modifiable risk factor and for encouraging the patient toward a healthy lifestyle. Generally, hypercholester-olemia resistant to diet and physical activity is rare in MPNs, but when present, it should be adequately treated. The aspirin half-life is approximately 20 min, but its antiplatelet effect lasts for the all lifespan of circulating platelets due to the permanent inactiva-tion of prostaglandin PGH-synthase, also referred to as COX-1 (Patrono 1994). This evidence allowed to attribute the pathogenesis of these disturbances to a TXA2-dependent mechanism (Van Genderen et al. After a follow-up of about 3 years, data analysis showed a significant reduction (RR 0.41) of major thromboses (both arterial and venous) without a significant increase of hemorrhagic complications in the aspirin group. The authors compared the incidence rates of arterial and venous thrombosis in low-risk ET patients treated with antiplatelet drugs with that of patients who did not receive this treatment.
These drugs are, however, particularly indicated as adjunctive therapy during percutaneous coronary intervention.
However, no data are available as to a different efficacy or safety of clopidogrel in this specific setting. Fatal cardiovascular events and disease transformation to myelofibrosis or leukemia account for most of the deaths in PV and ET.
A successful intervention on lifestyle and all modifiable risk factor requires full patient adherence, and this underlines the importance of sharing with him treatment decisions and goals. We recommend an appropriate treatment of all these risk factors and the fully adoption of the seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Statins have antiprolifera-tive, antiangiogenic and antithrombotic effects, which may be helpful in MPNs subjects (Hasselbalch and Riley 2006) .
This isozyme catalyzes, as prostaglandin PGH-synthase 2 or COX-2, the conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin (PG)H2, which is a substrate for several downstream isomerases that generate different bioac-tive prostanoids, including thromboxane (TX) A2 and prostacyclin (PGI2) (Vane 1971).
Single oral doses of 5-100 mg of aspirin result in dose-dependent inhibition of platelet COX activity, with 100 mg almost completely suppressing the biosynthesis of TXA2 in normal subjects and in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease as well as in PV and ET subjects with very high platelet count (Landolfi et al. The high aspirin efficacy and the uniform sensitivity of all events to this agent support the hypothesis of a key role of platelet thromboxane in the pathogenesis of PV thrombophilia.
This is an important issue since, as reported above, several findings indicate that the thrombotic diathesis of PV and ET patients may have, in comparison to that of general population, peculiar features which include an increased of sensitivity to aspirin. Sacral Chakra - Addictions, uncontrollable appetite, obsession with sex, emotional attachments. The mortality rate is increased in PV patients in an age-dependent manner, while life expectancy may be normal in the majority of patients with ET (Cervantes et al.
The efficacy of statins in MPNs has yet to be tested in prospective studies, but their possible use in MPNs deserves clinical and scientific attention. On the other hand, TXA2 biosynthesis in vivo is markedly increased in the majority of PV and ET patients, as shown by the stable increase in the urinary excretion of the major TX A. Certainly many of MPNs patients are being given clopidogrel after an acute coronary syndrome or a percutaneous revascularization, but at the moment, there is a paucity of data on the use of thienopyri-dines in prevention or therapy of thrombosis in myeloproliferative disorders.
As regard to diabetes, there is a clear increase risk of developing cardiovascular disease and stroke in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Greenland et al. In the next future, a more aggressive antiplatelet regimen, such as that based on the combined antiplatelet therapy, might be proposed and tested in subjects with very high risk of thrombosis and low bleeding risk as it has been suggested in particular cases, such as recurrence of thrombosis in aspirin-treated patients ; This issue is further discussed in the primary prevention section.
Microcirculatory disturbances are represented by erythromelalgia, headache, dizziness, hearing and visual disturbances, Raynaud-like phenomena and superficial thrombophlebitis (Landolfi et al. Future prospective studies are needed to answer this question in PV patients with different vascular risk. Therefore, smoking cessation is absolutely recommended and can be achieved with the help of techniques which may include counselling, nicotine replacement and oral smoking cessation medications.
Waiting for these studies, it seems prudent to maintain haematocrit values lower than 0.48 also in low-risk PV subjects. In addition to interventions on lifestyle, hypoglycemic drugs should be used for achieving glycemic control as assessed by near-normal HbA1c level.
Also miscarriages in women with latent or manifest MPNs are attributed to an impaired microcirculation (Griesshammer et al. In diabetic subjects, an aggressive treatment of hypertension with an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocking (ARB) agent is mandatory. The pathways of platelet activation targeted by aspirin and other antiplatelet drugs are shown in Fig. Thromboxane hyperproduc-tion, for being abolished by very low aspirin dose, reflects an increased platelet production in response to physiological stimuli. Erythromelalgia is the best characterized manifestation and can affect more than 5% of patients, particularly in the early phases of the disease, generally characterized by an active proliferating activity (Michiels 1997). TX biosynthesis is relatively independent from haematocrit, platelet count, treatment and clinical history, thus suggesting an abnormal in vivo platelet activation selectively sensitive to aspirin.
The inhibition of platelet prostaglandin production by aspirin is dramatically effective in reversing the attack. Microcirculatory disturbances are quite characteristic of PV and ET patients and, when observed in otherwise healthy subjects, should lead to consider a latent myeloproliferative disorder (Michiels et al.
Whether patient with past history of these disturbances should be considered at high thrombotic risk is currently unclear. In addition, diagnosis of many of these manifestations may be somewhat uncertain due to the transient and often vague nature of symptoms. A careful evaluation of history and the demonstration of rapid and complete reversal of symptoms after aspirin are considered important for diagnostic confirmation.



Random blood sugar for normal person
Why check blood sugar levels values


Comments

  1. 29.04.2014 at 19:39:17


    Diabetes are destroyed by cells that usually due to eating a meal.

    Author: apocalypse
  2. 29.04.2014 at 22:46:43


    Individuals with type 1 diabetes particularly for CAD, these advanced age, other major.

    Author: 1
  3. 29.04.2014 at 16:29:14


    Body is getting all the glucose intakes.

    Author: RAMIL