Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Endocrine glands are ductless glands that produce and release hormones to the blood through diffusion.
Endocrine glands may be strictly endocrine, such as the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal and thymus; or they may be organs that have hormone production as one of many functions, such as the pancreas, gonads, hypothalamus, and others. Hormones are long-distance chemical signals that are secreted by the cells to the extracellular fluid and regulate the metabolic functions of other cells.
Most hormones are amino acid based, but gonadal and adrenocortical hormones are steroids, derived from cholesterol. Water-soluble hormones (all amino acid-based hormones except thyroid hormone) exert their effects through an intracellular second messenger that is activated when a hormone binds to a membrane receptor. Lipid-soluble hormones (steroids and thyroid hormone) diffuse into the cell, where they bind to intracellular receptors, migrate to the nucleus, and activate specific target sequences of DNA. Target cell response depends on three factors: blood levels of the hormone, relative numbers of target cell receptors, and affinity of the receptor for the hormone.
The concentration of a hormone reflects its rate of release, and the rate of inactivation and removal from the body.
The half-life of a hormone is the duration of time a hormone remains in the blood, and is shortest for water-soluble hormones.
Permissiveness occurs when one hormone cannot exert its full effect without another hormone being present (reproductive hormones need thyroxine to properly stimulate development of reproductive organs). Synergism occurs when more than one hormone produces the same effects in a target cell, and their combined effects are amplified (glucagon + epinephrine together stimulate more glucose release from the liver than when each acts alone). Antagonism occurs when one hormone opposes the action of another hormone (glucagon antagonizes insulin).
Nervous system modulation allows hormone secretion to be modified by the nervous stimulation in response to changing body needs. The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus via a stalk, the infundibulum, and consists of two lobes: the anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, and the posterior pituitary, or neurohypophysis. Two neurohormones are synthesized by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary. Growth hormone (GH) indirectly (through insulin-like growth factors, IGFs) stimulates body cells to increase in size and divide. Direct effects are insulin-sparing: mobilization of fatty acids for fuel, inhibition of insulin activity, release of glucose from liver to blood, and stimulation of amino acid uptake by cells.
The thyroid gland consists of hollow follicles with follicle cells that produce thyroglobulin, and parafollicular cells that produce calcitonin. Thyroid hormone consists of two amine hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), that act on all body cells to increase basal metabolic rate and body heat production.
The parathyroid glands contain chief cells that secrete parathyroid hormone, or parathormone.
The adrenal glands, or suprarenal glands, consist of two regions: an inner adrenal medulla and an outer adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex produces corticosteroids from three distinct regions: the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis. The adrenal medulla contains chromaffin cells that synthesize epinephrine and norepinephrine (stimulus is acetylcholine released by preganglionic sympathetic fibers).


Insulin is an anabolic hormone and will stimulate not only glucose uptake but also storage in the form of glycogen (glycogenesis), fat (lipogenesis) and amino acid incorporation into proteins (inhibits amino acid breakdown by liver to form new glucose molecules - gluconeogenesis).
Stimuli for insulin release are primarily high blood glucose levels but insulin release is also potentiated by rising blood levels of amino acids and fatty acids and release of acetylcholine by parasympathetic neurons (all of these things happen after a meal). Glucagon is released by the pancreas in response to low blood glucose levels (primarily) and raises blood glucose levels back to within normal range by stimulating glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and release of glucose to the blood by the liver.
Indirectly receives input from the visual pathways in order to determine the timing of day and night. Adipose tissue produces leptin, which acts on the CNS to produce a feeling of satiety; secretion is proportional to fat stores. Adipocytes also produce adiponectin, which enhances insulin activity, and resistin, an insulin antagonist. Osteoblasts in bone produce osteocalcin, which stimulates pancreatic beta cells to divide and secrete more insulin. Adiponectin levels are low in type II diabetes, suggesting higher levels may help reverse the insulin resistance characteristic of type II diabetes. Endocrine glands derived from mesoderm produce steroid hormones; those derived from ectoderm or endoderm produce amines, peptides, or protein hormones. Environmental pollutants have been demonstrated to have effects on sex hormones, thyroid hormone, and glucocorticoids. It may seem counterintuitive, but low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) will affect children who have diabetes.
The condition occurs when an individual has excessive insulin, perhaps as a result of taking too much insulin, skipping meals or exercising at a high level. In cases of unconsciousness or seizures, do not give liquids or food because your child could choke on them. Tweet your story to #achstories, send it through to our online form, e-mail us your story, send us a link to a video, or post it as a comment on a related post here on our site.
Inside Children's Blog is an online community that provides inspirational patient and staff stories as well as information about health and parenting, hospital news, fundraising events and more. Want to share your story?Tweet your story to #achstories, send it through to our online form, e-mail us your story, send us a link to a video, or post it as a comment on a related post here on our site. Not only are they our favourite pet, but dogs are now being used to diagnose conditions and even recognise dangerous symptoms.
Dogs have been found to reduce anxiety and aggressive behaviour in children with autism within a matter of weeksDIABETESDiabetes alert dogs are being used to alert type 1 diabetics that their blood sugar is too low and they are at risk of a dangerous a€?hypoa€™. Diabetes alert dogs are being used to alert type 1 diabetics that their blood sugar is too low and they are at risk of a dangerous 'hypo'A diabetes alert dog can detect a change in body odour that can indicate low blood sugar, says Dr Claire Guest, of the charity Medical Detection Dogs.
AUTISMDogs have been found to reduce anxiety and aggressive behaviour in children with autism within a matter of weeks.
Astonishingly, dogs can be trained to act as a warning system when someone is about to have an epileptic seizureDEMENTIALabradors and retrievers are being trained to prompt people with dementia to eat at mealtimes, take medicine, and take rest and sleep when needed. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. Diabetes chart- convert hba1c to equivalent blood glucose, Easily convert your hba1c test result to its equivalent blood glucose reading. Hba1c to estimated average glucose (eag) calculator, Nathan dm, kuenen j, borg r, zheng h, schoenfeld d, heine rj.


Printable diabetes chart- convert hba1c to estimated, Chart posted for general educational use.
Convert glycosylated hemoglobin a1c to average blood sugar, Glycosylated hemoglobin (hba1c) is formed by the attachment of glucose to hemoglobin (the oxygen carrying protein found in red blood cells).
The stimulus for GHRH release is low blood levels of GH as well as hypoglycemia, low blood levels of fatty acids, and high blood levels of amino acids. Hypersecretion of GH in childhood results in gigantism; in adulthood hypersecretion of GH causes acromegaly (increase in size of flat bones after epiphyseal plates of long bones have sealed).
Thryroid releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates TSH release; Thyroid hormone (Thyroxine) exerts negative feedback control of both TRH and TSH.
Excretion of ketoacids (with their negative charge) by the kidney is accompanied by loss of cations, particularly K+ and Na+. Secretion of resistin is proportional to fat stores; secretion of adiponectin is inversely proportional to fat stores. The condition can progress from mild discomfort to a severe, life-threatening condition in minutes.
Instead, try squeezing Instant Glucose®, Monojel® or gel-type cake frosting inside their cheek.
This can happen through not eating enough or from accidentally taking too much insulin, but some diabetics might not notice the warning signs, such as going pale and feeling shaky. Dogs for the Disabled has a free scheme that helps train the family dog to help with an autistic child. A study published recently in the Western Journal of Nursing Research found having a residential dog had helped reduce agitation in Alzheimera€™s patients and boosted social interaction.
EPILEPSY Astonishingly, dogs can be trained to act as a warning system when someone is about to have a seizure. They can give as much as 40 minutesa€™ notice a€” plenty of time for someone to take medication to prevent the seizure or to get help. It is thought that dogs smell chemical changes in the body that take place before a seizure.
All dogs have a naturally high body temperature, but as the Xolo is virtually hairless it feels hotter to the touch. Some dogs are trained to lie down next to the person having the seizure to stop them from moving and hurting themselves, or they may go and get help. When these dogs snuggle up to their owners, their body warmth provides relief similar to that provided by a heating pad. NARCOLEPSYNarcolepsy affects around 25,000 people in Britain and causes sufferers suddenly to fall asleep as they go about their everyday routine.
Theo, a cocker spaniel from Chadwell, Essex, has become the first dog in the world to be trained to wake up his owner, teenager Kelly Sears, when she has a sleeping fit. He licks and nudges her until she comes to a€” and if he is unable to wake her will go and seek help. He is also learning to pick up on a change to Kellya€™s scent when an attack is imminent, so she can sit down.



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