Learn how to avoid gaining too much weight, strategies for avoiding gestational diabetes and secrets for an easy delivery. Do have very specific or personal questions you don't feel comfortable discussing in public  forums? Between weeks seven and ten, your placenta starts to produce progesterone, replacing the corpus luteum as the primary source for the remainder of your pregnancy. About antiphospholipid syndrome Antiphospholipid syndrome is a condition in which your blood is at a higher risk of clotting than usual.
Glutamine - Blood levels of this amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter are particularly low in autistics. Infertility is regarded as an inability to conceive after 12 months of regular contraceptive-free sexual intercourse. Infertility is a medical definition and when a couple fulfills that definition, they should seek medical help. The management of a couple with infertility generally starts with a thorough history taking from both partners. The woman with irregular menstrual cycles with no clear evidence of regular ovulation may need to take clomiphene, a ovulation induction medication.
A condition due to the growth of endometrial type tissues outside the cavity of the uterus usually within the pelvis but sometimes found outside the pelvis (extra-pelvic sites).
The causes of endometriosis are not fully understood and are a matter of on-going research. Severe endometriosis with the pouch of douglas obliterated with scarring and endometriosis. PCOS is a disorder characterized by an imbalance in the sex hormone levels in your body resulting in higher levels of male hormones to female hormones.
For other women with difficulty ovulating despite a trial of clomiphene or ovarian drilling, ovulation induction using gonadotropins with intrauterine insemination (if there is issue with intercourse timing or mild to moderate sperm abnormality) is the next step.
Sperm are made in the testes, in the tightly packed fine tubes known as seminiferous tubules.
The causes of abnormal sperm analyses can be divided into problem due to a blockage somewhere in the male reproductive tract or abnormal sperm production.
Excessive amounts of amniotic fluid in the uterus of a pregnant woman is known as polyhydramnios.
The mother's blood may be tested for serum glucose levels in order to evaluate her risk of developing polyhydramnios.
Babies may be at risk of being born prematurely if there is too much amniotic fluid in the womb during pregnancy.
Vaginal ultrasound probes may be inserted into the vagina during pregnancy to obtain an image of the uterus. Scientists created a working guitar the size of a red blood cell to illustrate the possible uses of nanotechnology. Polyhydramnios refers to excessive amounts of amniotic fluid that accumulate in the uterus of a pregnant woman. Other symptoms of polyhydramnios may include inability to lie flat due to shortness of breath and swelling or edema in the abdominal wall area and lower extremities.
Causes of polyhydramnios may include defects of the baby's central nervous system or gastrointestinal tract, diabetes during pregnancy, and anemia of the fetus.
Complications of excessive amniotic fluid may include early or preterm birth, high blood pressure and premature breakage of membranes, or water bag. Typically, diagnosis of hydramnios include an ultrasound, which is a medical imaging test that utilizes sound waves to capture images. Treatment for this condition may include draining the excess fluid and a prescription for medication.
Because of the high tendency of your blood to clot, the condition is often referred to as 'sticky blood'. Infertility is better regarded as subfertility because many couples with infertility do actually conceive given enough time or with some help. If they have conceived previously but the pregnancy ended in a miscarriage or birth of a non livebirth and that they experience trouble falling pregnant subsequently, they are said to have secondary infertility. The next step of management would depend on the duration the couple has tried to conceive, the age of the woman, the concern level of the couple, the test results and any relevant family or past medical history. Sometimes the couple may need to undergo assisted reproduction technology (ART) to conceive.
There are many known problems described in the scientific literature but I will only focus on a few common ones, mostly the surgically related diseases of female infertility.
It is only partially explained by the back-flow of menstrual blood into the pelvic cavity via the fallopian tubes. The presence of endometriotic lesions can affect sperm function in the female reproductive tract, affect quality of eggs and development of embryo and distort anatomical relationship between ovaries and fallopian tubes due to scarring around the ovary or tubes.
It is made from a combination of the complaining symptoms, examination findings, ultrasound imaging result and surgical findings at laparoscopy. Larger fibroid or multiple fibroids can cause problems with heavy painful periods or abnormal uterine bleeding.
The need for treatment would depend on the symptoms, desire to fall pregnant, size and number of fibroids. Fallopian tube is a long trumpet like structure that is attached to the top corner of the uterus.
Reversing the blockages by microsurgery or laparoscopic surgery can often return near normal function to the tubes. Firstly, the short-term issue such as acne, hair growth, irregular cycles and infertility will need to be dealt with first.
If the number of sperm in an ejaculate is low or if the sperm are of poor quality, it can be difficult and sometimes impossible for a couple to become pregnant.
We can also look at it in another way by classifying whether the conditions are reversible or not reversible.
Leong will normally suggest that the male partner has a semen analysis with the Monash IVF laboratory and blood borne infection screening test after the first visit. A healthy body will digest food and convert it into glucose, a chemical that fuels the cells of the body. If you registered this domain name as a direct customer of Melbourne IT, please click here to renew your domain name.
In addition, hydramnios may cause a decrease in urinary production; this can be an ominous symptom because decrease in urinary output may signal a serious kidney problem. Other complications may include excess or rapid fetal growth, heavy bleeding, and even stillbirth. Other medical testing may include amniocentesis, where amniotic fluid is obtained from the uterus and analyzed.
Certain medications reduce the volume of amniotic fluid and reduce urine production of the fetus, thereby reducing the amount of amniotic fluid.
It plays a vital role in developing a healthy placenta and fetus, particularly during the first trimester.Estrogen and Progesterone perform a dance every month during a womana€™s reproductive cycle. Unfortunately, it can also cause make your skin more sensitive and dry causing rashes and itchiness. If a woman is older than 35 years old and has been trying for more than six months, a fertility specialist may regard her as having an infertility problem. As a rule, couples with secondary infertility generally carry a better chance of falling pregnant than couples with primary infertility. ART includes ovulation induction with intrauterine insemination, gamete intra-fallopian transfer (GIFT) or in-vitro fertilization (IVF).
The common areas that are affected by endometriosis in the pelvis are on the ovaries, fallopian tubes or uterus, uterosacral ligaments and pouch of Douglas (space between the uterus and the rectum), pelvic sidewalls, surface of rectum, bladder and in the vagina. Various studies estimate endometriosis to affect 10-20% of women between the ages of 12 and 50.
However a woman’s particular immune system or genetic background may have a great deal to explain why some women with retrograde menstrual flow develop endometriosis whilst others do not. Fibroids can seldom present with acute pain especially when they undergo degeneration during pregnancy. The type of treatment would depend on the presenting problem, the age of the woman, the need to preserve fertility, the size and number of fibroids, the location of the fibroids and whether you have had previous abdominal surgery.
Hence if the tubes are patent after reversal surgery, there is a very good chance of pregnancy afterwards. The alteration in the normal hormone balance upsets the body’s metabolism resulting in weight gain or difficulty controlling your weight. If there is no plan to start a family yet, commencing on the oral contraceptive pill is the best option. Leong also cares for women with recurrent miscarriages, premature ovarian failure or early menopause, abnormalities of the uterus e.g. Only one in eight infertile men has a reversible condition and after treatment couples can become pregnant naturally.
If you registered this domain name via a reseller of Melbourne IT, please contact the reseller to renew this domain. Polyhydramnios, also called hydramnios, is normally rare, and most cases are mild and transient.
Another cause of polyhydramnios may occur when the mother's and the baby's blood are incompatible.
Since maternal diabetes can be a risk factor in developing hydramnios, serum glucose testing may be employed to determine if the mother has diabetes. Unfortunately, the smooth muscle in your digestive tract is also affected which may cause heartburn, indigestion and bloating. Subfertility refers to couples with fertility rates that are less than the average rate for a given population.
They are counseled regarding timed intercourse, checking for ovulation and fertile period, keeping a menstrual diary or temperature charting.


In rare situation endometriosis can be found in remote areas such as under the diaphragm, in the groin area, in the lungs, abdominal scars and others. In women with significant period pains and infertility, the proportion of women affected by endometriosis can be as high as 50%. Occasionally endometriosis can affect the inside of the fallopian tube causing internal scarring and blocking the passage of sperm and egg.
Otherwise, ovulation induction medication such as clomiphene is used to encourage regular and predictable ovulation. Between the tubules are Leydig cells which come under the influence of LH hormone and they produce the male sex hormone known as testosterone.
Some of these treatable conditions are due to a derangement in hormonal pattern, vasectomy (can be reverse with surgery), sperm autoantibodies (if not severe), sexual problems (e.g.
These include hormone blood tests, testicular ultrasound scan, genetic screening and a urine test. Insulin is needed in order for the body to have the energy it needs to grow and stay healthy. If the mother had polyhydramnios in the first half of her pregnancy instead of the second part, or if the fluid amount is excessive, she may have a higher incidence of complications. Sometimes the woman may need surgery or further imaging tests such as a specialized ultrasound scan to check for blockage of fallopian tubes.
Having a family history of endometriosis amongst your first degree relatives will confer a 6 times increased risk on you for developing endometriosis.
It has fimbriae which resemble the petals of an orchid flower, opening towards the ovary situated adjacent to it. The quantity and appearance of the ejaculated semen usually appears no different whether it is normal or abnormal.
Although polyhydramnios is generally mild, severe cases may cause concerning symptoms, such as difficulty breathing and early onset of labor. If maternal diabetes is a contributing factor, hydramnios may resolve once blood glucose levels have been controlled. It is important to bring along with you all previous investigations you might have had to the appointment. During ovulation, the fimbriae brush backwards and forwards over the ovary picking up the ovulated egg and sweeping it towards the opening of the tube. Moreover, the metabolic derangement also upsets fat and cholesterol profiles in the body.
The long-term management consists of focusing on a healthy diet, exercise and lifestyle modification to manage one’s body weight. In the other 40% cases that do have an underlying reason, less than half have a treatable or reversible cause. Within a testis, sperm can be at different stages of development with some sperm at early stages and others at later stages. A specialized semen analysis test is required to determine the quantity and quality of the sperm. The causes of both types of diabetes are still unknown, however, type I is though to have genetic causes while type II is more strongly linked to lifestyle factors such as obesity, lack of exercise and poor diet. My parents and I all had to learn about nutrition to make sure that I was eating in a controlled and healthy way. When the antibodies bind to these proteins and phospholipids, the consistency of your blood changes and it becomes more likely to clot.
One thing we know for certain, fertility rate decreases with the advancing age of the woman, much more so than the man. It is key-hole surgery where small cuts are made on the abdomen and long slender instruments are passed via ports into the abdomen and pelvis to look for pathology such as endometriosis. Quite often these implants have a deeper component below the surface and these can only be felt by touch. It is contentious whether fibroids will ever become cancerous but there exists a possibility that a cancerous growth within an otherwise benign fibroid may co-exist. Usually the fibroids will return to its original size once the medications are stopped after 3-4 months' time. The egg meets the fittest and most motile of the ejaculated sperm lying in wait for the egg in the narrowest part of the fallopian tube called the isthmus.
Higher levels of male hormones in the female body interfere with ovarian function and interrupt ovulation.
The testes (come in a pair) originate in the abdomen and migrate down along the back of the abdomen to reach the scrotum just before birth. Please note that semen analyses performed in a general commercial laboratory with non-dedicated andrology services usually does not provide a high enough quality of evaluation. Conditions that are not reversible are due to problems intrinsic to the sperm production pathway e.g. Being of African American, Hispanic American, American Indian, Native Hawaiian or some Pacific Island descent also increases the risk for type II diabetes.
Routine pelvic swabs and pap smear are performed on the woman as well as an internal examination. Once the egg is fertilized, the zygote (a newly fertilized egg) will divide and double its cell content every day and eventually enters the cavity of the womb around day five or six.
Hence the ovary develops the characteristic polycystic appearance (multiple tiny cysts) seen on ultrasound scan or at laparoscopy.
Anti-diabetic medication can also be used in some patients to help reduce weight and decrease insulin resistance. This process is crucial because the cooler scrotum (about 3°C below normal body temperature) is important for sperm production and normal testicular function when puberty arrives! Now that I have a better understanding of how to control my glucose levels and a better understanding of what is in the foods I eat, I don't have to keep written records, but I do keep mental track of what I'm eating. Some women with few and only small patches of endometriosis may have debilitating pain during their menses.
This is so because the follicles do not grow to maturity and their development are stunted. Some women may not response to clomiphene and may benefit from laparoscopic ovarian drilling to re-address the hormonal imbalance in the ovaries and help to kick-start ovulation.
Leong would repeat a semen analysis with the Monash IVF’s andrology laboratory to ensure the highest quality interpretation. Sometimes the sperm count is normal or near normal but high proportion of the sperm are abnormal looking or very sluggish. This is expected to be 366 MILLION by 2030 - mainly due to a huge rise in the numbers in African and Asian countries.It is a very serious condition and is life-threatening. I try to stick to a routine so that I eat at the same times every day and maintain a balanced and consistent diet.
Usually, a series of time sensitive hormone tests, blood borne infection screening, ovarian reserve test and ultrasound scan are ordered for the woman. When they are found as islands of endometrial tissues within the muscle wall of the uterus they are called adenomyosis. Occasionally, surgery may be limited to alleviating pain and IVF is the only option for the woman to fall pregnant.
Hence they are used predominantly to shrink a very large fibroid uterus in order for surgery to be performed safely. In addition, the menstrual cycles become irregular and ovulation unpredictable or if it happens at all! The good news is that Artificial Reproductive Technology can help men achieve a pregnancy even if they produce very few sperm. I do still keep written records of my glucose level, which I measure every day."I also make sure that I take regular exercise for around 20 minutes each day and take the medication suggested by my doctor. Period pains felt in the lower abdominal area, low back pain, vagina pain, pain with intercourse, irritable bladder pain and sometimes passing blood in the urine, irritable bowel or constipation symptoms and sometimes irregular vaginal spotting may indicate endometriosis. One advantage of operating on a shrunken fibroid uterus is that it allows for a minimally invasive laparoscopic approach e.g. These include semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm morphology, presence of white blood cells, semen pH and sperm antibodies. Provided they produce sperm even if none was observed in the ejaculate then sperm may be retrieved directly from the testes with a needle biopsy or sometimes open biopsy.
Staying healthy and fit will reduce my risk of getting complications such as diabetic eye disease, kidney disease or damage to my cardio-vascular system."If you have already been diagnosed with diabetes, it is extremely important to maintain a healthy lifestyle which keeps your glucose levels as close to normal as possible. In some situation, hormone and genetic screening blood tests may also be required for the man.
Having difficulty conceiving may also be due to endometriosis, with or without any other symptoms. This is important because the fallopian tube is a delicate structure and can be damaged quite easily either deliberately in the case of tubal ligation (tying your tubes) or destroyed by infections (sexually transmitted or after delivery or post curettage) or diseases such as endometriosis.
The epididymis sits at the top of the testis and also functions as a temporary reservoir for sperm before ejaculation. However about one in nine infertile men have no sperm in their semen or in their testes and unfortunately these men are sterile and cannot be treated. It's also important for you to know the risks associated with diabetes and the common complications that can arise from the disease.In this section, we will discuss how diabetes can affect the eyes and vision. Over time, these superficial implants start to work their way into the ovary and then appear as chocolate cysts or endometrioma. The advantages of minimally invasive surgery vs open surgery will be covered in greater details in later text. The tubes can be damaged in numerous places singularly or at multiple sites along the tube including the fimbrial end. From the epididymis a tube called the vas deferens transports the sperm pass the prostate to join the tube called the urethra that opens up on the glans (head) of the penis. Sperm concentration is another word for sperm count which is measured as the number of sperm in a given volume of ejaculate normally expressed as number of sperm per ml of semen.


Sperm producing cells in the testes either did not develop or have been irreversibly destroyed. Diabetes is a serious disease which, untreated, can result in permanent eye damage or even blindness. The reason for the name is because the content of the cyst appears like liquid chocolate when the cyst is cut open.
Occasionally if the fimbrial end is damaged with scarring either due to previous infections or endometriosis, careful dissection can sometimes free the adherent tube and one might see a return of function. A gland called seminal vesicle produces much of the fluid that forms the ejaculate (semen). The other procedural approaches are uterine artery embolisation and MRI guided focus ultrasound (MRgfUS) treatment. Semen is a mixture of fluids from the different glands of the male reproductive tract with 90% coming from the prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Sperm motility measures the ability of sperm to move and progressive motility measures the ability to swim forward. A blockage in the reproductive tract can be induced surgically such as in the case of vasectomy, occur after an infection or sometimes due to a congenital problem (most commonly cause from congenital absence of the vas deferens seen in men who are carrier for the cystic fibrosis gene or have full-blown cystic fibrosis). Uterine artery embolisation involves injecting polyvinyl particles into your artery in the groin under local anaesthetic to block off blood supply to the fibroid uterus. A fine catheter was used to push through obstruction at the start of the tube or surgery to the fimbriae to open up the clubbed end were frequently attempted.
The number of motile sperm compared to non-motile sperm is reported as a percentage of the total number of sperm present. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive use of spas and saunas, certain recreational drugs and environmental or occupational toxins e.g. Even if the tubes were deemed open or patent, there is no guarantee that the delicate function of the cilia within the tube is not affected. When the timing is favourable such as around ovulation, the cervical mucous is thin and watery.
The number of sperm that are abnormally shaped is compared with the number of normally shaped sperm.
A small number of men (1-2%) with abnormal sperm production may have an inheritable genetic condition that affects the Y chromosome or have abnormal chromosomes (Klinefelter’s syndrome or balanced translocation). The light from outside is projected onto the retina, much like light from a movie projector is projected onto a movie screen. It is not suitable for large fibroids and women wishing to preserve their reproductive potential. This cervical consistency allows sperm to travel very quickly up into the uterus within minutes of ejaculation. An abnormal sperm can have abnormally shaped heads or tails which can affect their motility and ability for fertilisation. A healthy retina is essential for good vision.Attached to the retina are a number of blood vessels. This is when the disease is related to another condition, most commonly another autoimmune disease called systemic lupus erythematosus. MRgfUS involves using magnetic resonance imaging to map out the fibroids first and then with direct high energy ultrasound to destroy fibroids producing instant thermal cell death. In the human species, it is quite normal for fertile men to have large number of abnormally shaped sperm, up to 85%.
In a person suffering from diabetic retinopathy, these blood vessels become damaged and swell. Its safety and suitability for use in women wishing to fall pregnant in the future are not fully established. In rare circumstances, the sperm of some men have round heads (globozoospermia) and they will have difficulty achieving a pregnancy naturally. Some can become so damaged that they fail to perform their job as carriers of nutrients to the retina. Various obstetrics and gynaecology bodies around the world have expressed caution in using MRgfUS for the treatment of young women with fibroids who wish to preserve their uterus for fertility reasons. Small number of white blood cells can be found in normal semen and this does not pose any problem. In even more advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, the body will produce more, alternative blood vessels on the surface of the retina to replace those which have been damaged.
However if large numbers are found, this may be a sign of an infection in the reproductive tract and should be treated. These new blood vessels are weak, however, and can leak blood into the main cavity of the eye. It is this leakage which causes vision loss and possibly even blindness.Don't wait for symptoms to appear!
Many people do not get any symptoms of antiphospholipid syndrome, and only become aware they have the condition when they get a blood clot. These clots can be associated with serious health problems, which are listed in the complications section below.
For this reason, it is necessary to have a comprehensive eye exam at least once a year-- even people who manage their diabetes well have a high risk of developing diabetic eye disease. If acidic and combined with low or no sperm count, this may suggest a possible blockage somewhere in the ejaculatory ducts. Sperm autoantibodies can be found in semen if sperm was previously exposed to the immune system. This widens the pupil (the dark part of the eye) so that the doctor can see more easily to the back of your eye where the retina is.Treatment for diabetic retinopathy is available.
Most commonly, a laser procedure can be used to prevent weak blood vessels from leaking blood into the eye. Hence if there are any events that would breach this barrier, the immune system will make antibodies against the sperm. Blood that has leaked into the eye blocks light from clearly passing through the eye and onto the retina, causing blotchy vision and even blindness. Antibodies attaching to sperm can reduce their motility and slowing their progress through the cervical mucous. A sperm surrounded by antibodies especially around its head will have difficulty binding to the egg via surface receptors.
But I do have to go the eye doctor more frequently to make sure that my condition is not getting worse.""I think it is important for people with diabetes to realize the risks that this disease can have for all parts of the body.
The eyes are especially important because problems can occur even before you feel any discomfort or changes in vision. I encourage everyone with diabetes to get regular (yearly) eye exams and to eat right and follow their doctor's recommendations on how to manage their diabetes. Even in people without diabetes, but who might have a risk of becoming diabetic, maintaining a healthy diet without too much sugar or salt and plenty of vegetables and fruits as well as exercise can greatly reduce the risk of contracting diabetes."Quiz1. However, not everybody with antiphospholipid antibodies in their blood will get a blood clot, or any other problems caused by the condition.
Either existing blood vessels swell and possibly leak fluid or new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina.C. You’re at greater risk of developing pre-eclampsia if you have antiphospholipid syndrome.
Stroke is a serious condition, caused when the blood supply to part of your brain is cut off. It can cause weakness or paralysis, usually just on one side of your body, slurred speech and confusion. Your doctor will usually consider antiphospholipid syndrome if you have a stroke and are under the age of 45. Although blindness can result from diabetic eye diseases, the following are all ways of reducing this risk except:Select an answerA. Symptoms of a heart attack include chest pain, pain in your arms or jaw and shortness of breath. This is when your blood has a low level of platelets (fragments of cells that help the blood clot).
In catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, you develop blood clots in many different organs within days or weeks of each other.
The exact reasons why some people have these antibodies aren't fully understood at present. Generally, the higher the levels of antiphospholipid antibodies in your blood, the greater your risk of blood clots. For example, you may need to see a haematologist (a doctor who specialises in blood disorders) or an obstetrician (a doctor who specialises in pregnancy and childbirth).
More research needs to be done to know for sure whether low-dose aspirin is helpful at preventing symptoms in people with antiphospholipid syndrome who have no history of blood clots.
The contraceptive pill can increase your risk of blood clots, so you may prefer to use another form of contraception. If used for long periods of time at high doses, it can increase your risk of getting osteoporosis.
Usually, you will only be prescribed heparin for a short period of time, for example when a clot is first diagnosed or if you're pregnant and have suffered from complications during pregnancy in the past. People with asthma may be allergic to aspirin, so make sure you tell your GP or specialist if you have asthma.



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Comments

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