ExpertiseI am an exercise physiologist with a PhD who specializes in diabetes--as such I CANNOT answer general questions about other endocrine problems as I am neither an expert in all areas of endocrinology nor am I a medical doctor. In most cases a single tumour develops in the beta cells (the insulin producing cells) within  the pancreas.
The plasma level at which glucose appears in the urine is known as the renal threshold for glucose. Even when we resist temptation and stay faithful to our diets, sometimes the extra pounds refuse to go away. There is little doubt that a sedentary lifestyle and eating processed and sugar-filled foods contributes to overweight and obesity.
One under-recognized reason for gaining unwanted pounds is excess levels of the hormone cortisol.
The researchers found that the binge-eating group had higher morning basal cortisol than the non-binge-eating group. Further testing on the subjects indicated a possible reason why so many people who go on diets fail to achieve optimal weight loss. The researchers determined that there was a significant relationship between waist circumference, cortisol and peak cortisol stress responsivity after the cold-water test in the binge-eating group even after going on the diet.7 This means that subjects whose cortisol levels were highest had a hard time losing weight, even after dieting.
The study authors concluded that, in binge eaters, cortisol appears to be a primary factor in the disorder. On the cancer front, data from the NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) study estimates that, in 2007, nearly 34,000 new cases of cancer in men (4 percent) and 50,500 in women (7 percent) in the U.S. In another study, 50 stressed people were given 200 mg Relora three times daily for two weeks.
Sensoril is standardized to contain the proper amounts of glycowithanolides, withaferin-A and oligosaccarides that research has shown to promote optimal anti-stress activity.
The results showed that WSG induced an anti-anxiety effect comparable to the anti-anxiety drug when the rats were forced to navigate a maze, be involved in social interaction and endure delayed feeding in an unfamiliar environment.
The ability of elevated cortisol to promote insulin resistance may explain why high cortisol is linked to weight gain. The Brown University Medical Student Study further illustrated the relationship between cortisol and insulin. High insulin is the enemy of dieters because insulin, critical for glucose metabolism, storage and maintenance, wasn’t meant to occur in excessive levels.
The consumption of excessive amounts of refined carbohydrates and sugar, however, can result in insulin resistance. Because of cortisol’s ability to elevate insulin levels, when normalizing cortisol levels to achieve weight loss, it is also helpful to stabilize blood sugar. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is another substance that has been shown to reduce weight while lowering serum insulin levels. In a subsequent experiment, rats were placed into four groups that, for seven weeks, consumed one of four diets: a high-fat diet, a high-fat diet plus bitter melon, a low-fat diet or a low-fat diet plus bitter melon. Rats on the high-fat diet plus bitter melon gained less weight and had less visceral fat than those fed the high-fat diet without the bitter melon.
According to the investigators, “This study reveals for the first time that bitter melon reduces adiposity in rats fed a high-fat diet. Galega officinalis (also known as goat’s rue or French lilac) is also reported to support healthy insulin levels and has resulted in weight loss in animal studies and in clinical practice. In sharp contrast, weight loss in galega-treated, genetically obese mice was accompanied by a persistent reduction in food intake over the 28-day treatment period. 7-Keto® DHEA is a brand name for the compound 3-acetyl-7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone, a metabolite of DHEA that, like cortisol, is produced in the adrenal glands.
Similar to DHEA, levels of 7-Keto decline as we age, reaching their peak around age 20, then slowly declining beginning around the age of 30.
By boosting the function of thermogenic enzymes in the liver, 7-Keto may also aid in weight loss.


In this double-blind study, all subjects participated in an exercise training program three times per week. Of the 30 subjects who entered the study, 23 completed the eight-week protocol (seven subjects dropped out for personal reasons unrelated to the study).
Additionally, the 7-Keto group experienced a significant increase in levels of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) compared to the placebo group. Researchers concluded, “The results of the study suggest that 7-oxo-DHEA [7-Keto DHEA] combined with moderate exercise and a reduced-calorie diet significantly reduces body weight and body fat compared with exercise and a reduced-calorie diet alone.
Additionally, cortisol’s role in obesity suggests that supplementing with Relora and Sensoril may positively influence weight loss efforts, especially for those who have had little success with various diets. This threshold occurs at a plasma glucose concentration somewhat below the value at which the renal TmGLUCOSE is reached. This can be especially frustrating, since being overweight is far more serious than a cosmetic issue.
Researchers have shown that cortisol levels and plasma levels of the appetite-controlling hormone leptin are related to each other in a time-related negative and positive fashion over 24 hours.6 In other words, when cortisol decreases, leptin decreases and when cortisol rises, leptin rises. In addition, the binge eaters’ cortisol levels were higher after the cold-water stress test. Twenty of the subjects (10 non-binge eaters, 10 binge eaters) were randomized into one of two groups. Relora®, a proprietary blend of a patented extract from Magnolia officinalis bark and a patent-pending extract from Phellodendron amurense bark, is one of these substances.
Post-trial analysis revealed that 82 percent found Relora effective in controlling stress-induced symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, irritability, emotional ups and downs, concentration difficulties and restlessness.
Morning salivary cortisol levels (when cortisol levels are normally highest) dropped 37 percent, while DHEA levels rose 227 percent.
Sensoril is a patented proprietary extract of roots and leaves from Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha. One animal study investigated the anxiety-lowering and antidepressant actions of the bioactive Withania somnifera glycowithanolides (WSG) isolated from Withania somnifera roots.
In one study of six normal volunteers, researchers administered cortisol infusions into the subjects, which increased the plasma cortisol concentration approximately four-fold to values observed during moderately severe stress.
The researchers examined students during a baseline control period as well as during two examination periods.
When food is consumed, the digestive process converts carbohydrates into glucose, a simple sugar, which is absorbed into the bloodstream. The body responds by producing even more insulin, which results in high levels of insulin, glucose and other unabsorbed nutrients circulating in the bloodstream. In one study, oral glucose tolerance was improved in rats fed a high-fat diet supplemented with bitter melon. The addition of bitter melon did not change apparent fat absorption, but bitter melon supplementation to the high-fat diet improved insulin resistance and lowered serum insulin levels. One group of researchers gave mice galega and noted that the herb caused a significant reduction in body weight in both normal and genetically obese animals treated for 28 days.
Post-mortem examinations of all galega-treated mice revealed a striking absence of body fat.
In fact, 7-Keto levels decline nearly 50 percent by age 50.22 7-Keto and DHEA decline more rapidly than cortisol, causing cortisol dominance that can weaken immunity and contribute to weight gain.
Thermogenesis is the process in which the body generates heat to help cells metabolize food.
When researchers treated 30 healthy, overweight adults (28 women and two men) with 7-Keto DHEA, they uncovered some promising results. Each exercise session consisted of 50 minutes of cross-training (aerobic and anaerobic exercise) under the supervision of an exercise physiologist. There were no significant changes in levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyroxine (T4) in either group.


One of the most effective ways to control cortisol is to first know if you are out of balance. In addition, insulin’s role in weight loss indicates that galega, N-acetylcysteine, quercetin and bitter melon may help dieters shed pounds. Using a combination of these weight-loss efforts, along with healthy diet and a regular exercise program, can ensure plenty of healthy summers for years to come.
The insulin helps sugar from food to enter the blood cells and lowers levels of glucose to normal. Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, hypertension and high cholesterol as well as ischemic heart disease,1 cognitive decline,2 stroke3 and hormone-sensitive cancers.
Leptin resistance can occur in the body in the same way that insulin resistance can occur, so a rising leptin level could indicate the body needs to produce more of it in order to recognize its effects. One group was put on a six-week program that included cognitive behavioral treatment to help them make better dietary choices. The enzyme 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11HSD1) regenerates cortisol from cortisone within fat tissue and the liver. In a clinical trial, 49 stressed subjects who suffered from stress-induced overeating were given a two-to-three-times-daily dose of Relora for two weeks. Seventy-eight percent reported increased relaxation, while 74 percent had more restful sleep. Withania somnifera has been shown to reduce the effects of stress,13-14 indicating it may help people who are prone to stress-related eating or whose excess pounds are due to unbalanced cortisol levels. During these timeframes, the researchers noted weight changes in self-proclaimed stress eaters compared to non-stress eaters. The subjects, whose mean body mass index was roughly 32, were randomly divided into two groups. In addition, each subject was instructed by a registered dietitian to follow a diet of less than 1,800 calories per day. The 7-Keto group also achieved a significant body-fat reduction compared with the subjects taking the placebo. But this year my Fasting blood sugar level is suddenly gone to 118, I did not do the postprandial test this time because I was confident that my sugar blood levels shall be normal. They may be present for many years prior to diagnosis as the symptoms they cause can be confused with other conditions. The figure also illustrates that the TmGLUCOSE is much greater than the normal filtered load of glucose.
Insulin downregulates 11HSD1, but overweight people often become insulin resistant, meaning they become gradually more immune to insulin’s effects. Insulin then enters certain cells and triggers events that cause the cells to absorb glucose from the blood. In normal mice, the weight loss was initially associated with a transient reduction in food intake, but was then maintained even in the presence of increased eating above the control level. One group received 100 mg of 7-Keto DHEA twice daily and the other group received a placebo for eight weeks. I do not have a sweet tooth, there is no history of diabetes in the family trees of either my mother's or my father's side and 5 days a week I have a brisk morning walk for 45 minutes and never had a complain of fatigue or lethargy.
Thus, this mechanism is not a regulator of plasma glucose levels but acts to conserve the body's glucose stores which comprise an important source of energy for a wide variety of metabolic processes. In the presence of increasing food intake, normal mice receiving galega for seven days also showed significant weight loss compared with the controls. Do I repeat my blood sugar test at a different laboratory, or do I see a physician and take his advice?



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Comments

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