The urinary system regulates ion (electrolyte) levels in the plasma by regulating the amount of sodium, potassium, chloride and other ions lost in the urine.
The urinary system regulates blood pH by regulating the number of H+ and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) lost in the urine. The k idneys work in concert with lungs to regulate the pH in a narrow limits of buffers within body fluids. 1) releasing renin, a hormone that after a series of reactions eventually restricts salt and water loss at the kidneys. If oxygen levels in the blood are low, the kidneys release erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates the hemocytoblasts (stem cells in the bone marrow) to increase red blood cell formation.
Released by posterior pituitary when osmoreceptors detect an increase in plasma osmolality. Creatinine clearance is the amount of creatine in the urine, divided by the concentration in the blood plasma, over time.
Glomerular filtration rate can be calculated by measuring any chemical that has a steady level in the blood, and is filtered but neither actively absorbed or excreted by the kidneys. Creatinine is used because it fulfills these requirements (though not perfectly), and it is produced naturally by the body. The result of this test is an important gauge used in assessing excretory function of the kidneys.
Other methods involve constant infusions of inulin or another compound, to maintain a steady state in the blood.
From the kidneys urine flows down the ureters to the bladder propelled by peristaltic contraction of smooth muscle. There is a long flat segment as the initial increments of urine enter the bladder and then a sudden sharp rise as the micturition reflex is triggered. This material is based upon work supported by the Nursing, Allied Health and Other Health-related Educational Grant Program, a grant program funded with proceeds of the State’s Tobacco Lawsuit Settlement and administered by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board.
The work with these matters developed into the idea of a filtration-reabsorption type of kidney. Carbon dioxide is a catabolic waste product formed due to oxidation of food releasing energy.
Sweat glands are long tubular glands, coiled at their ends, located in the dermis of the skin, embedded in the subcutaneous tissue. Bile pigments (biliverdin and bilirubin) are produced as a result of break down of haemoglobin in the worn out red blood cells in the liver and excreted with the bile into the duodenum and removed along with the faeces. The kidneys are the principal excretory organs in man through which the nitrogenous metabolic wastes are eliminated in the form of urine. The kidneys function as a pair of filters through which about one litre of blood circulates each minute.
Kidney transplants have had good success rates and have given fresh lease of life to patients.
The kidneys are reddish brown, bean-shaped organs situated in the abdominal cavity, one on either side of the vertebral column in the lumbar region of the body.
The renal artery enters the kidney at the notch on the concave side called the hilus renalis.
The renal vein drains away deoxygenated blood which is free of toxic substances into the inferior vena cava.
The ureter, a tube, runs from each kidney downwards into the lower part of the abdomen connecting each kidney to the urinary bladder. This is a large muscular storage sac that collects urine from both the kidneys through the ureters. This is a short muscular tube that carries urine at intervals from the urinary bladder to the outside.


This forms the inner dark red zone and contains the Henle's loop and the collecting tubules, present in the form of renal pyramids. This is a cup - shaped structure which is double walled in the hollow of which is a net work of capillaries called the glomerulus. This is a knotted mass of blood capillaries formed by the afferent arteriole (incoming) and the efferent arteriole (outgoing). This is the region behind the Bowman's capsule and consists of a coiled tube that descends to form the Henle's loop.
This is continuous with the proximal convoluted tubule and is U-shaped having a narrow descending limb and a thick ascending limb.
This is another coiled and twisted tubule that continues from the ascending limb of loop of Henle found in the renal cortex. Several collecting tubules fuse to form large collecting ducts which pass downwards from the cortex to the medulla region. The efferent arteriole that exits from the glomerulus does not merge into a vein but breaks up into a system of capillaries called vasa rectae or peritubular capillaries which envelop the proximal convoluted tubule, the Henle's loop and distal convoluted tubule. Excess physical activity, profuse sweating and warm temperature decreases the urine output.
The nitrogenous wastes found in urine are urea, ammonia, uric acid, creatinine and hippuric acid.
You may decrease your risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes through ensuring proper dietary and or supplemental magnesium intake. Because stress is a risk factor in the development of diabetes, magnesium threonate (MgT) can help promote sleep and reduce stress.
Because magnesium glycinate does not carry laxative effects, its use is often more appropriate among diabetic populations. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency (CPSD) is also referred to as Type 1 Hyperammonemia. Another form of citrullinemia, with sudden onset between the ages of 11 and 79 years, is called citrullinemia type II (CTLN2).
As the blood flows, hydrostatic pressure forces the solutes and the fluids through a membrane. The glomerulus is a very efficient filter because the filter membrane present on it has a large surface area and is more permeable to water and other solutes. Water, amino acids, nitrogenous wastes and water can pass with relative ease from the blood to the glomerular capsule while larger molecules have great difficulty doing so.
Tubular reabsorption is the reclamation process that prevents the draining of all our plasma. If you answer yes to both these questions, then join Infobarrel for FREE now and start earning a passive income. The bladder is a balloon-like bag of smooth muscle =detrussor muscle, contraction of which empties bladder during micturition. Na+ -reabsorption is also coupled to H+ -secretion from the cell by the function of the Na+ -H+-antiporter protein (2.
In terrestrial animals, the skin is less permeable and excretory products pass out only through ducts and pores.
Each gland consists of a small branched alveoli which produces an oily or waxy substance called sebum.
Liver also excretes cholesterol, various inactivated products of steroid hormones and harmful products like alcohol, nicotine and several drugs.
They lie asymmetrically, the right kidney being lower than the left as the right side of the abdominal cavity is occupied by the liver. As it is a branch from the aorta it brings oxygenated blood carrying toxic nitrogenous wastes into the kidneys.


The base of the urethra is also guarded by a sphincter which keeps the urethra closed except while passing urine. Urine flows into the renal pelvis through minute openings at the tips or papillae of the pyramids. Running through the pyramids they finally open in the renal pelvis draining all the urine collected from the various nephrons.
Salts like sodium chloride, traces of mineral ions like sulphates, chlorides, phosphates, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iodine, vitamin C, oxalic acid, alcohol, hormones and enzymes are also present.
The glomerulus also yields higher net filtration pressure because the glomerular blood pressure is considerably higher compared to other areas in the body.
Molecules like protein or blood cells usually are not able to pass through the glomerular capsule, thereby the presence of these molecules in the urine signify a problem with the filtration membrane. Every 22 minutes, the total plasma volume enters the renal tubules and as is passes through, plasma contents are quickly reclaimed and are absorbed for circulation. The failure of the tubules in reabsorbing some components of the filtrate serves useful in clearing the plasma of unwanted substances. When the pH of the blood is moving towards the acidic end, the tubules secrete more hydrogen and retain more carbonate. During expiration this carbon dioxide along with a small quantity of water vapour is expelled out of the lungs.
Excretory substances like waxes, sterols, fatty acids and traces of other hydrocarbons are eliminated along with the sebum.
The liver is also responsible for converting ammonia produced by deamination into less toxic urea by combining it with carbon dioxide.
The oblique entrance of the ureter into the bladder acts like a valve, preventing the back flow of urine from the bladder into the ureter. The mouth of the bladder is guarded by a tight ring of muscle called the sphincter which regulates the opening or closing of the bladder. Doing basic math, it entails that the entire plasma volume will be filtered for more than 60 times each day. During this process, no energy is being consumed by the body; hence it can be viewed as a simple filter. With these reasons laid out, the kidneys are able to product roughly 180 L of filtrate every day. Taking into consideration its small size and the momentous task it undertakes, the kidneys consume 20-25% of oxygen supplied by the body. As the filtrate passes through the collecting ducts, its water, nutrients and ion components are absorbed back. The reabsorbed substances have to pass through three different barriers in order to reach the blood. These three barriers are the luminal and basolateral membranes, together with the endothelium.
Every day, the kidneys filter roughly 180 litres of fluid and close to 1.5 litres leaves the body as urine. Depending on the needs of the body, the collecting ducts work with the nephrons in order to dilute or concentrate the formed urine.




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