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Some familiarity with electronic circuits and using breadboards would be helpful, though it is not required for this project.
Build a model of an artificial pancreas to investigate the challenges of getting such a device to work.
First, let us step back for a moment and have a quick crash course (or a refresher if you are already familiar) on diabetes. This video shows how blood glucose levels change over time for people with and without diabetes (Khan Academy, 2011). However, in people with type 1 diabetes (which is caused by an autoimmune response, and was formerly known as juvenile diabetes), the pancreas no longer makes insulin.
While the solution for many diabetics is to take insulin, it is not that simple; many things have an effect on insulin levels in a person's body, including exercise, stress, what and how much they eat, just to name a few. As previously discussed, to take away the difficulties of managing type 1 diabetes, scientists and engineers have set out to create improved insulin pumps and an artificial pancreas.
Now that you have a better understanding of type 1 diabetes and what an artificial pancreas is, you may be wondering how you can work on something like that for a science fair project. When enough electrical current travels through the conductivity sensor, it causes a transistor in the circuit to activate a pump. Lastly, the conductivity sensor is combined with other electrical components called potentiometers, which are a type of adjustable resistor. Do you think it will be difficult to get the artificial pancreas to stop when it is supposed to, when the right amount of baking soda solution has been added to the vinegar solution? What do the different parts of the artificial pancreas model in this project represent in a real artificial pancreas system? If you are using a graduated cylinder, you will also want to have a funnel that fits with the top of the graduated cylinder. Scissors; in addition to cutting Styrofoam and a plastic straw, you will also need to cut some copper wire.
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Proceeds from the affiliate programs help support Science Buddies, a 501(c)(3) public charity. In this part of the procedure, you will make a conductivity sensor and connect it to your breadboard circuit.
If possible, one end of the segment should have the ridged, bendable part of the straw on it; this will help keep the wire on the sensor.
Wrap the end of each copper wire tightly around the straw, looping it about four times with each wire, as shown in Figure 5. The wire should be wound tightly around the straw so that the wire does not easily slide around on the straw. However, even if the wires do move some, this should be fixed when you add the Styrofoam piece next.
Carefully poke the copper wire tails from the straw through the Styrofoam piece, keeping the wires the same distance apart that they are on the straw piece, as shown in Figure 6. On the top side of the Styrofoam (opposite the side where the straw is), make a sharp bend in each wire, right above the Styrofoam, as shown in Figure 7. The sensor will be going into a bowl of liquid, and the amount of copper wire submerged in the liquid can change how much conductivity the sensor detects. Lastly, attach the unconnected alligator clip leads from your circuit to the copper wires on the sensor, as shown in Figure 8. For labeling, you can use masking tape and a permanent marker or small sticky notes and a pen or pencil.
On a scale, place a measuring cup or other small container to weigh baking soda on the scale.
Use the graduated cylinder, or a metric measuring cup, to measure out 200 milliliters (mL) of distilled water. Measure out 100 mL of distilled white vinegar and very slowly add it to the "Neutralized" bowl.
Caution: Mixing an acidic solution with a basic solution can cause a powerful chemical reaction. Once the reaction has slowed, slowly mix the solution to make sure the vinegar and baking soda have completely reacted.
Measure out 200 mL of distilled white vinegar and carefully pour it into the "Vinegar" bowl.
To find out what the pH of the baking soda solution, the vinegar and the neutralized solution is, add about 1 teaspoon of bromothymol blue indicator solution to each bowl. Carefully place your conductivity sensor in the "Neutralized" bowl, letting the straw part be submerged and the Styrofoam piece float on the surface, as shown in Figure 11. If the Styrofoam piece is not floating evenly, you can try taping the test leads onto the rim of the mixing bowl to keep things in place.
The pump may start running as soon as you put the conductivity sensor in the neutralized solution, but do not worry if the pump is not running yet. Remember that a potentiometer is a variable resistor; you can change its resistance by turning the white knob. Once the pump is running, very slowly turn the potentiometer's knob in the opposite direction to turn the pump off. While you are adjusting the potentiometers, identify which pump tube has liquid flowing out of it. Make sure all of the jumper wires and components are pushed firmly into the breadboard's holes.
Make sure no exposed metal parts (like the leads of the resistors) are touching each other, as this will create a short circuit. Be especially careful to avoid creating a short circuit by having wires from the red and blue bus strips touch each other.
Once you have normalized your artificial pancreas model so that the pump does not run when the conductivity sensor is in a neutralized solution, carefully remove the conductivity sensor from the neutralized solution (leaving the pump's tubes in the "Vinegar" bowl), and rinse the sensor briefly with some baking soda solution (over a sink or a different bowl). Note: Make sure the sensor is floating the same way that it was in the neutralized solution.
While the pump is running, carefully and continually move the end of the pump tube in the "Baking Soda" bowl so that the vinegar mixes well with the baking soda solution throughout the bowl (including under and around the sensor). When the pump stops, measure how much vinegar solution is left in the "Vinegar" bowl by carefully pouring it into a metric measuring cup or a graduated cylinder using a funnel.
Note: There may be more liquid in the bowl than can fit in the measuring cup or graduated cylinder, so you may need to fill it up (and empty it out) multiple times to measure the total amount of baking soda.
Since the baking soda solution you prepared is at the same concentration as the vinegar, they should make a neutralized solution when the same amount of each have been mixed together. Note: Because pH reactions occur on a logarithmic scale, the error measurements can be on a logarithmic scale, too. What could you physically change about your circuit, conductivity sensor, or experimental setup? Clean and dry the mixing bowls and repeat steps 1–18 to test your model again, with the changes you decided on in step 19, and analyze its results.
You can make a bar graph of your results, with a bar for each time you tested the model (labeled on the x-axis) that shows how much vinegar remained when testing each time (labeled on the y-axis in mL). Following the indicator color change of your solutions, you can analyze the pH results as well.
How did the pH, or the indicator color, of the vinegar solution change by the addition of the baking soda? Was the indicator color (pH) of the original neutralized solution the same as the indicator color (pH) of the solution when the pump stopped running?
Tip: You may want to refer to the Introduction in the Background tab to help you answer this last question. In the testing you did for this project, you should have found that the artificial pancreas model could be automated for the part you tested. Some people may want an artificial pancreas to turn on and pump insulin when they have a specific, different blood glucose level compared to other people. How could you use the artificial pancreas model you made in this project to model the delivery of other types of medicines? How could you make the artificial pancreas model used in this project more similar to what a real artificial pancreas would be like? For an advanced chemistry challenge, instead of the chemical reaction used in the artificial pancreas model in this project, you could try using a different chemical reaction. You could look into doing a titration (which is typically a color-changing reaction that depends on the exact chemicals involved). Alternatively, instead of bromothymol blue as an indicator you could use cabbage juice, which also changes color based on the pH of the solution.
For science projects on measuring sugars in foods and relating this to diabetes, see How Sweet It Is!
Compared to a typical science class, please tell us how much you learned doing this project. How is it that people who are doing what they are “supposed” to be doing –- eating healthy, exercising, maintaining a normal body composition -– still have blood sugar issues?
The second source of fuel for the mitochondria -– glucose –- has an equally important role in the function of cells. With the epidemic of diabetes and metabolic syndrome plaguing the industrial world in recent years, blood sugar and insulin have gotten their fair share of media attention. In fact, blood sugar balance is a major tenet of virtually every diet book from The Zone to The Atkins Diet.
These are health-conscious, educated individuals who do not spend their time eating Twinkies, bingeing at McDonalds and competing in the World’s Laziest Couch Potato competition. Rather, we see people who eat well, exercise regularly, have normal body composition and take supplements, but still don’t feel well. Insulin resistance, which is characterized by two things: chronically elevated blood sugar levels, and subsequent elevated insulin levels to help deal with the blood sugar. And while each of these have their separate issues metabolically, both will cause issues with the function of mitochondria because there is not a steady stream of blood sugar available for ATP (energy) production. When someone is insulin resistant, glucose cannot effectively enter into the cell –- chronically elevated insulin levels create dysfunctional insulin receptor sites on the cell.
Because blood sugar is not adequately entering the cells, it stays in general circulation rather than being stored. Characteristic symptoms of insulin resistance include: fatigue after meals, craving for sweets that doesn’t go away when sweets are eaten, increased thirst, and frequent urination. Individuals with this pattern and periods of low blood sugar will have surges of insulin, rather than chronically elevated levels.
Normally, the body should respond to low blood sugar by producing cortisol to increase blood sugar levels.
Symptoms are usually relieved after eating because meals provide a source of glucose that their body could not create itself. Because their bodies rely on adrenaline to elevate blood sugar, people with some degree of hypoglycemia can have insulin surges between meals, rather than following meals, or chronically, as in insulin resistance. But here is one of the biggest points: looking healthy, having a muscular body, and exercising regularly does not mean that you have normal blood sugar management.
Though there are a number of mechanisms involved in this cycle, here is a basic explanation. In other words, you could have a perfect diet and exercise program, but if you have elevated cortisol levels, you may also be increasing your blood sugar from the inside. Two hours after a meal, it will ideally be between 85 and 100 depending on the size and quality of the meal. You could eat a meal, and then track your blood sugar at 30 minute intervals for 2 hours following a meal. A good protein-based meal with adequate levels of healthy fat and fibre should not raise your blood sugar levels too high. For most of you, the first step toward eating properly for blood sugar management is starting with the Precision Nutrition System.   Indeed, over 85% of our clients see the types of results they’re looking for by following this program. However, for the other 15% that use the program and still need to go a bit deeper, working with a coach through Precision Nutrition Coaching is the next step.
Blood sugar dysregulation and elevated insulin levels have negative impacts on numerous physiological systems in the body. But on a fundamental level if adequate glucose cannot enter a cell, the mitochondria will not be able to produce optimal amounts of ATP to run the cells, organs and systems of the body, and we will not be optimally healthy, much less have the body we desire. The mitochondria use two primary sources of fuel to produce the energy required to run your body effectively: oxygen and glucose. These are basic fundamentals to health and fitness that must be addressed before deciding which supplement works better or whose workout program is the best for fat loss. In it you’ll learn the best eating, exercise, and lifestyle strategies — unique and personal — for you. If you think you might have the condition and you’re looking for a reactive hypoglycemia diagnosis, read this before you make an appointment with your doctor. I wouldn’t have made an appointment with my physician if I hadn’t been worried that, considering both Leo and I had the same disorder, we might have an underlying condition.
My idea was that if the doctor could find a cause and give me a reactive hypoglycemia diagnosis, he might be able to solve our problem with a simple supplement or something. I chose an Internal Medicine doctor from my health plan, thinking that an “expert” in puzzling, chronic problems would be my best choice for a reactive hypoglycemia diagnosis. He nodded thoughtfully, told me I needed to lose weight because I was at risk for diabetes (I’m 5 pounds overweight and have no history of diabetes in my family), and handed me a sheet on diabetes. I was stunned about how a physician with so much training in internal medicine could be so wrong.
According to the Mayo Clinic, the cause of reactive hypoglycemia isn’t usually pre-diabetes.
Hypoglycemia can be a symptom of pre-diabetes, but reactive hypoglycemia and hypoglycemia are two very different diseases, and need to be treated as such. There are only two ways to get a reactive hypoglycemia diagnosis: a Hyperglucidic Breakfast Test and a home blood glucose monitoring kit.
If only I knew what I knew now, I would have ordered a blood glucose monitoring device and saved Leo the uncomfortable experience.
I used a Contour blood glucose monitoring device, which cost less than a single visit to the doctor. You cannot tell by this chart alone who has reactive hypoglycemia and who has prediabetes (amongst other things, your insulin needs to be checked too, to see if you are insulin resistant or insulin sensitive).
Here are a few of my readings from the first day I tested with the home blood glucose monitoring device. At time of writing, one company out there offers a FREE home glucose monitoring kit that comes with ten free test strips.
I have read elsewhere online that reactive hypo can not be measured by a glucose meter (which doesn’t make sense to me), but I am going to buy the one you recommend and give it a try. As for the home glucose test not being able to measure your RH, there is the possibility that you test your blood too late (i.e.
I haven’t come across a link between gall bladder removal and hypoglycemia in my reading so far, but if I do, I’ll post it! Additionally, knowing you have RH (as opposed to prediabetes or other forms of hypoglycemia) is important because they are treated differently as far as diet goes. I’ve been panicking about going into a coma or something so this site already helped in that regard.
I absolutely agree–except for the meat that is (I am a vegetarian bordering on vegan). I had shakinesss,dizziness, mental confusion and feared i was going to fall or something many times for a few months.
Ive been eating bannansa when i get up or go to bed trying to eat more often had oatmeal this am, then had that bannana mid morning my stomach has hurt all day! Then when he was at work ( a new job, by the way!), he felt this panicy state coming on again, shakey legs, etc.
A few days ago, my son was explaining to me how he felt dizzy when he had been bending over on the floor and then rose up. I have been very concerned about my teenage daughter’s physical health for a while now and watched her closely on vacation.
I am not sure why, out of nowhere, I decided to look for answers to my blood sugar issues today, but I did.
I was diagnosed with reactive hypoglycemia in Feb 1986, but beyond a helpful label under which to file my symptoms I have found an absolute dearth of helpful information. I was diagnosed with epilepsy in college but after always felt it had something to do with my sugars.
I have to make appointment with my neuro, but just wanted to know if anyone has heard of or experienced this. They did the OGTT with glucose checked only at the beginning (after fasting) and at the 2 hour mark. 1) Another OGTT with values for both insulin and glucose taken at least at the 30, 60 and 120 minute marks. I’m also going to find me a cheap or free blood glucose meter to test for as long as it takes to distinguish a pattern. Even though I don’t seem to have RH, I thank you for the time and effort you put into this site. In my case, you gave me the idea to check glucose using a personal glucometer, and reminded me that I’m not the only one searching for answers. Last year, both my doctor (who is RH herself) and my naturopath suggested that I am hypoglycemic (my naturopath figured this out just by looking at me!) and this was without knowing what the other had said.
I knew many other women pregnant with twins and the vast majority did not have GD, but it does heighten the risk. That may seem like not many women to you, but when you think about how many pregnant women there are in the world at any give time you are NOT alone by far. GD does not mean for certain that your babies will be born prematurely, overly large, and does not mean you WILL have any further complications during labor and delivery.
However, if you lose the weight postpartum and go back to your former size or close, you have lower than a 1 in 4 chance of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. If you look back in my pregnancy journal you will see I was completely devastated with the GD diagnosis. Also admittedly, the thought of pricking my finger 6 times a day, changing everything about my diet overnight, running to extra doctor appointments, and walking a tightrope looking at my levels on a meter all day long made me scared and feeling overwhelmed.


It all may seem overwhelming but remember, it’s for such a short time when you think about it. Your child has been newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and we are aware that you may be feeling emotional, confused and shocked about the diagnosis and may have many questions about what is happening and where to go from here. Everything that you will need to know about diabetes and managing it will come in time but for now we will be teaching you the basics to manage your child’s diabetes in the next few days.
The rest of the information regarding the diagnosis will be done in follow up appointments in the next few days and weeks and you will be in daily telephonic contact with the doctor or your educator. There is a lot to learn about managing your child’s diabetes in the beginning and you cannot possibly learn it all in one day. YOUR CHILD IS FIRST AND FOREMOST STILL A CHILD BEFORE THEY HAVE DIABETES AND DIABETES NEEDS TO FIT INTO THEIR LIFESTYLE NOT THE OTHER WAY ROUND. You and your child are not alone in managing this condition, of course you have to do all the daily working in managing good blood glucose control, but our diabetes team will help you every step of the way. This manual is designed to help you with all the basic survival tools to look after your child, but each day will be a learning experience.
Simply defined it is lack of insulin secreted from the pancreas, resulting in high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. When your child has diabetes it means that they have too much glucose (sugar) in their blood. Diabetes is not currently curable; however with proper management such as insulin injections and blood glucose testing, proper meal plans and regular exercise your child can have a normal long happy life, both physically and emotionally. Your child should be eating meals that are balanced with carbohydrates (sugars and starches), fats and protein (mostly meat). Carbohydrates are broken down in your child’s stomach, converted to glucose and absorbed into the blood stream as one of the major sources of energy for the body. The pancreas senses the rise in blood glucose levels and secretes the right amount of insulin to move the glucose out of the blood stream into their cells.
Quite simply insulin is secreted every time we eat and a slow release in the background between meals.
As your child does not produce insulin anymore they rely on their insulin injections to provide meal time coverage and the background insulin needs.
This is a snap shot of your body during the night when your liver is releasing stored glucose back into your blood stream to supply a constant amount of glucose to the brain while you sleep. When food enters your stomach, the carbohydrates get broken down into glucose and the glucose gets absorbed into your blood stream and your blood glucose level starts rising. If your pancreas is working, it samples the amount of glucose in the blood stream and produces the right amount of insulin and releases the insulin into the blood stream The insulin opens the cells and allows the sugar in and blood sugar will come down.
If you do not have insulin you have no problem getting the carbohydrate into the blood stream but have no way of opening up the cells to let the sugar in and your blood sugar levels stay high. High blood sugar gets filtered by the kidneys and glucose ends up in the urine, therefore it causes increased urine flow and your child will urinate a lot and therefore drink a lot to catch up.
When your body cannot use glucose for energy it will find another source of energy and you will get these other sources of energy from your body breaking down your muscle and you will loose weight and feel weak and tired and you will also break down fat and produce ketones which makes you sick.
There are 5 main food groups that make up a balanced healthy diet in order for your child’s body to get all the vitamins, minerals and nutrients they require to function at its optimum.
The main food groups can be divided into 3 nutrient groups which have individual effects on the body. Proteins – These nutrients are our bodies’ growth foods and have little effect on the blood glucose levels.
Fats – These foods are also energy foods in the body; however they have twice the amount of calories than carbohydrates and therefore are to be kept to a minimum, in order to protect the heart and other vital organs. The rate of absorption of glucose in and out of the blood stream is called the glycaemia index (GI).
High GI (HGI) foods are absorbed quickly into the blood stream and tend to raise blood glucose levels quickly.
Intermediate GI (IGI) foods are absorbed at a gradual rate and have less of a rise on the blood glucose values. Low GI foods (LGI) are absorbed very slowly into the blood stream and tend to keep blood glucose values more stable for longer periods than HGI and IGI foods.
There are different ways to measure carbohydrates and relate them to the effect they will have on your blood glucose level, this concept is called carbohydrate counting and is a very useful tool to use. Carbohydrates are divided in two main groups and the sugar group is further divided in 3 groups. Most foods have nutritional information on the packaging, so these are easy to read and determine.
Diabetic products are not usually encouraged as they are poorly marketed, costly and they only remove sucrose form the product but still have other glucose products in them, therefore they are not completely free ( Unless the total carbs on the nutritional label says 0 grams) and will still raise the blood glucose levels. Your child’s Diet needs to be individualised and you should see a dietician who understands children with diabetes to structure something for your child individually.
Sugar is allowed in small to moderate amounts and will make up part of your carb value at meals. Proteins get broken down into glucose very slowly in the blood stream and only 50-60% of protein gets converted to Glucose, making it an ideal food for your child to eat as a snack or as the main portion of a meal. Testing your child’s blood glucose levels regularly, will help you to achieve daily blood glucose targets and it is your only tool to help you administer the correct dose of insulin or see what changes need to made to food or exercise etc. Before each meal and at bedtime, and at any other time you think you may be low or very high. If you are having problems with higher or lower blood sugars email or fax through the last 3-4 days results and insulin doses being used and we can help you make adjustments. The risk of long term diabetes complications is related to overall blood glucose control that is above ranges for many years. Push the plunger all the way down –if using pens, hold for 10 sec and if using syringes hold for 2 sec. Let go of your pinch before pulling out the needle, this will prevent the insulin from leaking out. If they are having lots of issues with injections or have a severe needle phobia we can use insulin ports to deliver insulin through.
Most often when you have a low blood glucose value your body will give you warning signs – here are some symptoms, it’s also best that you recognise your individual symptoms and treat a low blood glucose values as soon as possible. Don’t get into the habit of over treating low blood sugars and getting a high blood sugar thereafter by feeding them too much. Give the above treatment and recheck blood glucose values again after 15-20 min if they still complain of feeling low.
NB Insulin must be given before a meal if your child was low, you will fix the low blood glucose and then give the normal dose of insulin before that meal, you will need insulin to store that food eaten in the cells of the body otherwise the next blood sugar will be high – they will not go low again! If your child is confused and unable to swallow – rub condensed milk, syrup, honey or glucose syrup onto the gums if that does not raise the blood glucose levels Glucagon needs to be used.
Blood glucose values need to be checked every 3 hour for next 6 hours after a severe episode. High blood glucose values above target along with high HbA1c’s over many years can lead to complications associated with diabetes.
When a diabetic child is ill, it is a very unstable time as blood glucose values may fluctuate erratically. Diabetic children need there insulin when they are sick, sometimes even larger doses, even if they do not want to eat, insulin must NEVER be skipped and the types of foods or liquids may need to be adjusted along with the amount of insulin. Encourage your child to eat their usual meal or something from the list below if there stomach is upset or they are having difficulty eating. If your child is vomiting and there are no Ketones they need to have small sips of fluid every 15 minutes to avoid dehydration. Medicines for fever, pain, decongestants, runny tummy or nausea, coughs and colds may contain small amounts of sugar.
In the absence of insulin your body cannot use your glucose for energy provided by the food you eat. When Ketones are detected you should contact your Dr, Educator or the 24 hour emergency hot line, so they can advise you on clearing the Ketones. Diabetes camps are one of the best experiences that a child with diabetes can have and it is advisable that you allow your child to be involved in this experience, especially when they are newly diagnosed. Camp is a place for your child to learn self-confidence, independence from mom and dad, to be with other kids with diabetes, and simply to have a great time as well as have the opportunity to make lifelong friends. We interact with each other, learn teamwork, make friends, survival skills and time to play, be creative and do some rhythm workshop and have lots of FUN, FUN, FUN!!
The purpose of this note is to let you know the implications of diabetes and how it may affect me at school. If there are any questions please write them down and I will get my parents or my doctor to answer them for you. The main dangers that arise from diabetes at school are low blood glucose values or hypoglycemia. If I experience a low blood glucose value during class I will need to test my blood glucose values and I will need to eat foods that have glucose in them to raise my blood glucose values again. If I am unconscious or have a seizure from a low blood glucose value I will need to be injected with the following injection called glucagon that will increase my blood glucose values. When I wake up please give me sips of juice or coke and check my blood glucose every 5-10min. There may be some side effects 30 min after the injection such as: Nausea,vomiting, bloating and headache. Identify your HbA1c test score, mean blood and glucose level to know if your blood glucose is in the optimum level. One area in which that motivation is readily apparent is in the field of biomedical engineering, where an intense focus of research right now is on creating better insulin pumps and an artificial pancreas. See Figure 1 for typical blood glucose level fluctuations for a person over the course of a day. This graph shows how a person's blood glucose levels may change over the course of a day, and how eating a meal with lots of sugar (sucrose) can affect blood glucose levels. The level of glucose in your blood is regulated by insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas.
If left untreated, the blood glucose levels of a person with type 1 diabetes could be dangerously high, which is a condition called hyperglycemia. And having blood glucose levels that are too high (hyperglycemia), or too low (hypoglycemia), can cause serious health problems. Diabetics who take insulin supplements take them in the form of insulin injections (using a needle) or infusions using an insulin pump, like the one shown in Figure 2. This picture shows an insulin pump attached to a person's body to infuse specific amounts of insulin.
In this project, you will get to find out by building a simplified model of an artificial pancreas system and investigating the challenges of getting such a device to work. This flowchart shows how an artificial pancreas would work (on the left) and how those steps are similar to what is done in the model used in this project (on the right). A solution of vinegar (acetic acid, or CH3COOH), which is an acid, will represent high blood glucose levels, and a solution of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, or NaHCO3), which is a base, will represent insulin.
It has to do with the fact that acidic solutions are fairly conductive, which means that they can conduct electricity, or allow electrical current to flow through them. A transistor is an electrical component that acts like a switch; if the transistor receives a high enough voltage, it can allow electrical current to travel through a different path of the circuit.
It's not as smart as you are, and it may occasionally give humorous, ridiculous, or even annoying results! We recommend purchasing the exact parts from Jameco, listed below, unless you are confident that you can find appropriate parts with equivalent specifications. Because of this, you will need a pair of scissors that you do not mind denting, or you could use a pair of wire cutters. If you have never used a breadboard before, you should refer to the Science Buddies reference How to Use a Breadboard before you proceed. The sensor will be made using bare copper wire, a straw, scissors, and a small piece of flat Styrofoam.
Note: Cutting the wire with scissors may dent the scissors, so use a pair of scissors that may be alright to dent, or use a pair of wire cutters. If the wires move much, they could change the amount of conductivity detected by the sensor. Wrap the ends of two copper wires around a segment of straw, making about four loops with each wire.
Make sure the bend is sharp enough to keep the wires from sliding down through the Styrofoam.
Because of this, it is important that the amount of wire submerged in the liquid is always the same.
After attaching the alligator clips to the copper wires, the conductivity sensor should look like the one here. You will do this by first normalizing it to a neutralized solution to make sure the pump will turn off once your solution is neutralized. You must pour the vinegar into the bowl very slowly to give the two solutions time to slowly react, otherwise you may end up with a big mess and will need to make up fresh solutions! Final colors of the vinegar, baking soda solution and neutralized solution according to the bromothymol blue indicator color scale. Place the conductivity sensor in the neutralized solution so that the Styrofoam piece floats and the straw part with wrapped wire is submerged. When you are equilibrating the artificial pancreas circuit in a neutralized solution, your setup should look like this one.
Try turning it all the way clockwise and all the way counter-clockwise find out which way turns the pump on (which way you need to turn it will depend on which way you put the potentiometer into the breadboard).
Stop turning the knob when it reaches the point that makes the pump very slow and almost turn off.
When the pump is not running, dry the end of this tube and mark it with a small dot using a permanent marker. Note that the transistor may become warm while the pump is running, but it should not become dangerously hot.
This can make the circuit get dangerously hot and can even melt some of the plastic components. If needed, tape the alligator clip test leads to the side of the bowl to hold them in place so that the Styrofoam piece is floating evenly. When you are neutralizing the baking soda solution with vinegar, this is what the setup should look like. It is very important to have all of the vinegar and baking soda mixed well together to neutralize the baking soda solution.
If this happens, the conductivity sensor may still detect a basic solution, even though parts of the solution in the bowl have been completely neutralized (or may even be acidic). For example, could you improve the stability of your sensor if it was moving around, or build a new sensor with some changes to the design? For example, if you find that mixing is a problem in your procedure, try different ways to increase the mixing of both solutions, starting by stirring them with a spoon, swirling them or even using the conductivity sensor to stir the solution. You can draw a horizontal line across the graph at the "100 mL" point to show the ideal amount of vinegar left. In other words, when the solution is very basic (representing high blood glucose levels), the pump turns on and adds an acidic solution (representing insulin) to neutralize the solution (representing normal blood glucose levels). You could try modeling this by making solutions with different amounts of baking soda solution and vinegar mixed together (instead of equal amounts, as you use in this project) and then normalize the artificial pancreas model to the different solutions, one at a time (each one representing a different person). A Science Buddies project idea that uses the titration method is Which Orange Juice Has the Most Vitamin C? For information on how to make this pH indicator solution, check out the Science Buddies project idea Cabbage Chemistry. Are anemia and low oxygen delivery to blame?) I focused on oxygen, one of the two fuel sources for what is arguably one of the most important components of your cell, the mitochondria. And with good reason: imbalanced blood sugar levels are at the crux of many health issues, including being overweight. As a result, the body must produce higher levels of insulin to remove glucose from the blood stream, which causes even greater metabolic dysfunction. People with hypoglycemia can experience symptoms such as lightheadedness, irritability, shakiness and fatigue between meals, which is often relieved after eating. However, in this case, periodically hypoglycemic people usually have low adrenal function and rely on adrenaline to elevate blood sugar between meals, which causes the shakiness and and lightheadedness between meals. In fact, researchers have started using new terms like “non-obese insulin resistance” and “atypical metabolic syndrome” because normal-looking people are having blood sugar management issues.
A good blood chemistry screen will contain enough markers to adequately identify patterns of blood sugar mismanagement.
They usually cost around $50 and give you the ability to look at your blood sugar throughout the day. If it does, either the macronutrient ratio was off, the meal was too large, or in some cases, you might have a sensitivity to the food that causes a stress response and elevates blood sugar. Clinically, these are “high priority” situations because if either one of these processes are not working correctly, nothing will. My ten-year-old son, Leo, has the condition, so it wasn’t hard to figure out what might be causing my mental confusion, mood swings, heart palpitations, hand tremors, cold sweats and anxiety two hours after eating pizza.
An internal medicine doctor is sometimes called “the doctor’s doctor” because of their expertise in pinpointing conditions with a myriad of symptoms. Unfortunately for me, this particular doctor didn’t know that many other conditions can cause reactive hypoglycemia other things other than pre-diabetes.
In fact, without a whole lot of expensive testing, it often isn’t clear what the cause is at all.
I was floored by the amount of misinformation there is out there on what reactive hypoglycemic should and shouldn’t eat. To the contrary–it’s a good idea to go for a checkup and a basic blood test to make sure you are otherwise in good health. Once I figured out how to work the device (about ten minutes), I monitored my blood sugar every hour or so for a full day. This chart, will give you an idea of what blood glucose levels look like normally, and what they look like for reactive hypoglycemia. Not everyone’s blood glucose will drop at that point…for my son, his plummets after 3 hours (and when I say plummet…I mean plummet.
However, as gall bladder removal affects digestion of fats and essential fatty acids, it doesn’t seem too much of a stretch that it could cause hypoglycemia (Some studies indicate that a low fat, high carb diet contributes to reactive hypoglycemia). This and most other sites about reactive hypoglycemia suggest that the diagnosis can be made, or at least suspected, on the basis of typical signs and symptoms, and then recommend testing by OGTT.


Thanks to the glucose monitoring device, which I also acquired, I realised my blood sugar went to 150 after half an hour of having breakfast and an hour later it was 62, and I was already feeling shaky. I’d have either excellent results or terrible results at school with no defined pattern.
What I do to avoid nightmares and waking up in the middle of the night is eat a slice of Ezekiel toast with peanut butter. Epinephrine is a hormone that’s released when you get stressed, along with Adrenaline. I would definitely let the Endocrinologist know about your family history, and whether he has it or not, your diet advice to him seems sound.
I *think* my RH is connected to epinephrine sensitivity, but with zero actual research in this area, even my doc is relying on educated guesses.
After reading your post along with some of the other comments on here, I have felt like I am understood for the first time. There are a couple of anomalies in the glucose levels (spikes with no food to fuel them), and I don’t know what that could mean. Anybody can potentially get gestational diabetes during pregnancy, more especially if you are carrying multiples. Only your testing will tell you for sure as I didn’t really notice any symptoms myself. Normally the body makes and uses insulin for energy without any problem, but in the case of gestational diabetes you are not producing enough insulin and the sugar builds up in your blood and it doesn’t get used by your body for fuel. I believe it may show itself during pregnancy and you may be diagnosed later, but only if you were going to be diagnosed anyway.
Your child is unique and you will learn in time how diet, exercise and different life situations affect your child’s blood sugar levels.
There is a “genetic predisposition” (inherited factor) that needs to be present for the process to start and a viral infection can be the external trigger required to start the immune attack. The food your child eats’, especially carbohydrates are broken down into glucose and stored in their cells for energy now or later so that your child can perform their daily activities like, learning, running, swimming and playing and more importantly having fun. This is usually achieved by using 2 or 3 kinds of insulin, usually a long acting (background insulin) and a rapid acting insulin (meal time insulin). Half of the protein we eat gets converted to glucose over a long period of time so it has a gradual rise on the blood glucose levels. Fats are needed for cell growth and protection for organs and are a very important part in children’s growth and development. The following pictures are a few examples of the main carbohydrates consumed and they are all measured in 1 carbohydrate value. Below are a few typical foods that have been measured in 1 carbohydrate value they may not necessarily have nutritional information on them and they may need to be learned with time. Complications are obviously one of your concerns as a parent, but if you and your child work hard at getting the blood glucose values as close to target as often as possible so complications can be prevented. Injecting in the same area too often will cause scar tissue and lumps in the area and the insulin absorption is then unpredictable and poor.
Areas that can be damaged from high blood glucose levels are the: eyes, kidneys, heart and feet. Anti-nausea suppositories can be given every 6 hours, if your child needs a second suppository call your Dr. I know this may make you feel scared or worried to have me in your class as there are a lot of misconceptions about my condition. I would like to explain my diabetes and I am sure you will see that I can lead a normal life jut like any other child in your class.
Be very careful with your wiring to prevent short circuits from happening; short circuits can get very hot and cause plastic parts of the circuit to melt. When blood glucose levels rise after eating a meal, the pancreas releases insulin, which causes cells in the body (such as liver, muscle, and fat cells) to take up glucose, removing it from the blood and storing it (as glycogen) to use for energy later.
This leaves many type 1 diabetes patients constantly checking their blood glucose levels, calculating how their actions will change their levels, and adjusting their insulin doses to avoid a critical high or low. However it is a done, currently a person who takes insulin must closely monitor his or her blood glucose levels to determine when, and how much, insulin to take.
The video will give you a basic understanding of the goals of an artificial pancreas and the path to making one, but because this is a rapidly progressing field, you should do your own internet search to see what the current status of the research is. Clearly, blood, insulin, and glucose are not readily available for a science project, but you can use other components to mimic some of the interactions and start designing and fine-tuning a model of an artificial pancreas. When acids and bases (like vinegar and baking soda, respectively) are mixed, a chemical reaction occurs (shown in Equation 1) that produces water (H2O) and bubbles of carbon dioxide gas (CO2). In the circuit you will build for this project, the transistor will be connected to a pump so that when enough current flows through the conductivity sensor, it outputs a high voltage to the transistor, which allows current to flow through the pump and make it run. The conductivity sensor and the potentiometers together make up what is called a voltage divider, and this is technically what lets the conductivity sensor send the high voltage to the transistor to make the pump turn on.
When the solution has a neutral pH, the sensor outputs a low voltage, so the transistor does not let any current flow through the pump. How are the challenges encountered when making this model similar to the challenges that engineers who are trying to make a real artificial pancreas system would face?
You can follow a step-by-step slideshow that will show you how to put components in the breadboard one at a time.
Since Styrofoam floats, the Styrofoam piece will help keep the wires submerged at the same depth in the liquid for your tests. The vinegar should turn yellow, the baking soda solution blue and the neutral solution green. In this step, you will normalize your artificial pancreas model so that the pump does not run in a neutralized solution, but still runs in a solution that is slightly more acidic (which will be more conductive). If it is very hot, or if you notice any smoke or a burning smell, this probably means that you have a short circuit. The pump should start running, pumping vinegar (a drop or a few drops at a time) into the bowl with baking soda solution, and you should see bubbles being made as the acid-base reaction takes place.
It is very important to make sure that the sensor is submerged in the liquid to the same depth that it was in the neutralized solution or your results may be inaccurate. You will see that at the spot where vinegar drips into the baking soda solution, the color of the indicator will change from blue to yellow. How does the color of the indicator (the pH) now compare to the pH of the neutralized solution you made in step 7?
Note that changing the concentration of the baking soda solution will also change the amount of vinegar that you need to neutralize this solution. How are the challenges you faced in designing this model similar, and different, to the challenges faced in designing a real, accurate artificial pancreas? However, you did not test how the model works for other parts of an artificial pancreas, such as continuing to add insulin when the blood glucose levels are consistently high over time.
For some ideas, check out the Science Buddies science project idea Electrolyte Challenge: Orange Juice Vs.
Without oxygen, it is impossible for your cells to work at their full capacity or for you to be healthy. Excess sugar or carbohydrates, excessively large meals or glycemically imbalanced meals can excessively elevate blood sugar levels, causing this cycle to begin. For example, if you eat celery and almond butter, or a salad with grilled chicken, your blood sugar should not go above 120 at any point after the meal.
I told him I had monitored my blood sugar and it appeared I might have reactive hypoglycemia. Researchers think that it could be caused by a sensitivity to epinephrine, or a glucogen deficiency, to name just two.
I even found one website that said to “avoid soups and breads of all kinds.” Oh my, no wonder people have trouble managing this disorder! He convulsed and went to the emergency room more times than I’ve been to see a doctor my whole life. Reactive hypoglycemics do not need to monitor their blood glucose except to get a reactive hypoglycemia diagnosis.
Yet numerous studies have found no distinctive OGTT pattern shown by most people with reactive hypoglycemia, and all of the patterns said to be characteristic of reactive hypoglycemia are common in the general population without symptoms. There are different causes for RH, but in my case, I’m very sensitive to Epinephrine (I get the shakes when I go to the dentist after they numb me, because Novocain contains pseudo-Epinephrine!), so when I get stressed, my blood sugar plummets. My son looked like he was on the same path…exhibiting depression and hyperactivity until we fixed out diet.
I couldn’t understand why I had it, and worried about the effects on my babies to be. Just make sure to follow all instructions to assure both you and your babies are happy and healthy, ask questions and demand answers.
Sometimes a viral infection can trigger diabetes in some children, but you could not have stopped diabetes from happening. Insulin directs the uptake of glucose into the cells either to meet immediate energy needs or to store it for later use. These foods make excellent snacks between meals and will not require extra insulin, further more it can be eaten when blood glucose values are high in order to prevent them from raising further.
They raise the blood glucose values and are the foods groups that need to be kept under control in order to manage diabetes.
Unless you are sick, then it necessary for you to test more often, especially when you have ketones, then you will need to test hourly. The HbA1c is a way to measure this; it looks at the amount of glucose attached to your red blood cells. The high blood glucose levels damage all the small nerves and arteries to the organs mentioned above, however if you and your child manage your diabetes effectively you will not develop diabetes complications. Cortisone and or steroid containing medications cannot be taken, they increase Blood glucose levels aggressively the list is below. HOWEVER once your child has the above symptoms but starts to vomit and have difficulty breathing it can no longer be managed at home - the Dr needs to be contacted and your child will need to be admitted.
Such devices would help eliminate the procedures that a person living with diabetes has to do, as well as remove the nearly constant health decisions they have to make. Both table sugar (sucrose) and other types of carbohydrates, such as starch (found in large quantities in pasta and other grain-rich foods), are broken down by our bodies to make glucose.
When the blood glucose levels start falling, the pancreas stops releasing insulin, and the stored glucose is used for energy.
Insulin pumps are typically small, about the size of a cell phone, and the system usually includes a continuous glucose sensor that detects the amount of glucose in the person's blood and an electronic interface that is told how much insulin to give to the person.
Because of this conductive difference, an electrical sensor can be made that can detect if a solution is acidic or neutral.
For a detailed explanation of how the circuit works, including a circuit diagram, see the FAQ section. When the solution has a high pH, the sensor outputs a high voltage, which activates the transistor, causing current to flow through the pump, which then pumps liquid. This lets you make coarse, medium, and fine adjustments respectively to the total resistance value. Immediately disconnect the battery pack from the breadboard, and make sure that everything else is connected correctly by referring to the diagrams above.
The color change of the solution gives you an indication of what the pH of the solution in the "Baking Soda" bowl is during neutralization. Try adding more baking soda solution to the "Baking Soda" bowl after it is neutralized; does it turn the pump back on again? They are small, inexpensive gadgets, and involve a tiny pin prick on the finger, smearing a tiny drop of blood on a test strip, and waiting for the machine to beep and tell you your blood glucose level. The symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia definitely describe my experience over the past 2 and half years or so.
On a scale of 1-to-10, 10 being a double hit of hyrdrocodone, I’m usually at around 2 all day long, with the effect sometimes heightening to 4 after meals. If you don’t allow all of that extra glucose to get to your babies, they will be of normal size.
If undetected or untreated your child could develop DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (DKA), this is a medical emergency and they will need to be hospitalised. Specifically, the devices would help people with diabetes control how much sugar is in their blood.
If blood glucose levels get too low, the pancreas may produce glucagon, a hormone that increases the levels.
To see what it is like to use an insulin pump and continuous glucose sensor to manage type 1 diabetes, you can check out the video in the article by D.
For a refresher on these topics, see the Science Buddies page on Acids, Bases, & the pH Scale. Keep in mind that this is not the reaction that occurs when insulin is added to change the blood glucose levels in a person! Specifically, in the artificial pancreas model you build in this project, a conductivity sensor is made from two metal wires (or electrodes) that are a certain distance apart in the solution.
You can also read more about basic electricity concepts in the Science Buddies Electricity, Magnetism, & Electromagnetism Tutorial.
When you change the total resistance of the potentiometers, this affects how much voltage is sent to the transistor, which controls whether the pump is turned on or not.
Play around with adjusting the knobs of all three potentiometers until you are satisfied that the pump does not run in the neutralized solution (but will still run if turned slightly). Reactive hypoglycemia is an unusual condition and most doctors are simply not equipped to deal with it. I know now when my hands get sweaty that this is the first sign my glucose level is dropping, and that I need to eat).
The hypo seems worse since having my gall bladder removed in September – do you know if there’s a link between gall bladder removal and hypoglycemia? I suggest trying your best to take it easy, simplify your life as much as possible, go on vacation, whatever–for just a while, and see how that helps your anxiety. I have also been faced with the disappointing ignorance of doctors about this condition, and while I am sad that this occurs, it helps to know that others have had this frustrating experience as well. Most people will be able to get through this with only diet changes and some increased exercise. In between meals and during fasting low levels of insulin regulate the amount of glucose produced from the liver (your body’s main glucose store).
Children, especially very young children have different targets to adults as they don’t always detect there low blood glucose values and very low HbA1c‘s are not suitable for them and they are individualized to the child. It is a daunting goal; the pancreas has a very complex biological role that has to be mimicked by a combination of electronics, chemistry, and biology. This process is how the pancreas and the hormones it produces are in charge of regulating blood glucose levels. A conductivity sensor will represent the glucose sensor, and control whether a pump in the electrical circuit turns on or not.
You are using these chemicals as substitutes in your model since baking soda and vinegar are easy-to-obtain household materials. The more conductive the solution is, the more electrical current can flow through it from one electrode to the other. If you want to find out more about how this works (it involves forming a voltage divider with the conductivity sensor), try re-reading the Introduction in the Background tab and check out the FAQ section in the Help tab. Remember to make sure that the exposed metal parts of different components, like the resistors and alligator clips, are not bumping into each other, as this will also create a short circuit.
Make sure your doctor knows that you want a hyperglucidic breakfast test (HBT), or better yet, buy a home glucose monitoring kit and tell him your results before asking for the HBT. Why is it desirable to call it “hypoglycemia” and confuse it with more dangerous conditions that need more complicated testing, and treatment with hormones, drugs, or surgery? I’ve corrected this problem with strickly grassfed beef, free range poultry, salmon, organic vegetables and fruit, healthy snacks, pure water, sunshine and nutritional supplements. That should stabilize your blood sugar long enough for you to get a full night’s sleep.
For instance, when I began to suspect hypoglycemia, my doctor referred me to an endocrinologist. Every year we are closer to a cure and the tools and knowledge we have to manage diabetes improve. This project will allow you to explore some of the complexities engineers and scientists face as they strive to create an artificial pancreas. Watch this video to see how blood glucose levels can change over time for different people. When the solution is very acidic, the conductivity sensor will make the electrical circuit run a pump.
You could measure the amounts of baking soda and vinegar that are added over time and graph your results. I had to seriously argue over the phone with some people to make an appointment because they did not want to see me. Nobody wants to have gestational diabetes, but it’s not a death sentence or anything. The pump will move a basic solution, which represents insulin, into the acidic solution to neutralize it. I broke up 3 meals into six for about 2 weeks, and all that did was keep me doped up for the entire day. When the acidic solution becomes more neutralized, the conductivity sensor will make the circuit stop powering the pump. When I finally convinced them that I needed help, the endocrinologist was extremely condescending and told me that all of the symptoms I was having were also symptoms of panic attack and anxiety disorder. This represents high blood glucose levels being lowered by the addition of insulin, until the glucose levels are normal and no more insulin needs to be added to the bloodstream. She and the physician’s assistant were also very skeptical when I told them that I follow a vegan diet, until I told them that I had been a vegan for nearly five years and only started having complications within the past couple years. Figure 3 helps summarize the important information, and shows how the artificial pancreas model you will make in this project is similar to, and different from, a real artificial pancreas.



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Comments

  1. 11.10.2014 at 23:46:28


    Are on insulin, check your design, implementation, and.

    Author: RIHANNA
  2. 11.10.2014 at 20:17:59


    Early on it was thought that the.

    Author: KABIRDEN_MEKTUB
  3. 11.10.2014 at 16:25:35


    Some people have a long but temporary phase between 80 to 120, and two hours their blood.

    Author: KINQ_BOXINQ