A three-year-old girl diagnosed with type 2 diabetes after reaching five and a half stone is reported to be the "youngest" on record. The girl from Texas, America, who has not been named, was reportedly admitted to an obesity clinic after suffering from common symptoms such as thirst and urination. According to the Telegraph, both the girl's parents are obese and it was revealed she had been "consistently fed foods that were high in fat and sugar".
Douglas Twenefour, clinical advisor at Diabetes UK, told HuffPost Parents: "This is clearly a sad case, but we are pleased to hear this girl’s blood glucose level has now returned to normal.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal blood glucose level. Dr Michael Yafi at the University of Texas Health Science Center, one of the first specialists to see the toddler, told the BBC: "I'm very vigilant and screen all obese children I see for signs of the disease but I was surprised to find it in someone so young.
Twenefour added: "There are a small number – probably less than 100 – children aged under 10 in the UK who have type 2 diabetes.
The three-year-old girl was put on a liquid version of the diabetes drug metformin and a calorie-controlled diet. Within just six months she weighed just over four stone and, as Twenefour stated, her blood glucose levels had returned to safe levels.
What normal blood sugar , In chart top article, patterns person' blood glucose levels follow diabetes progresses.. According to the World Health Organization was a few decades back diabetes an unusual disease, in industrial and developing countries. The character of Nigeria is not readily available, but it is estimated that more than 1.5 million people have diabetes in Nigeria.
In the developed countries that most patients are diabetes for more than 60 years, but in developing countries, diabetes affects people peaked. After a meal the liver stores glucose in the meal in the form of glycogen and pass it into the blood in between meals.
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that at any time during pregnancy in a woman designed the no diabetes.
Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin (a hormone of the pancreas to control the blood sugar), resistance to insulin, or both. In order to understand diabetes, it is necessary to know the normal process of metabolism of food. Diabetes and high blood pressure are required to each other than a comprehensive action plan care, and this revolves around the eating habits, social and environmental factors. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Regardless of these benefits, when cholesterol levels rise in the blood, they can have dangerous consequences, depending on the type of cholesterol.
Saturated fats are found predominantly in animal products, such as meat and dairy products, and are strongly associated with higher cholesterol levels. Lipoproteins are protein spheres that transport cholesterol, triglyceride, or other lipid molecules through the bloodstream. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transports about 75% of the blood's cholesterol to the body's cells. In response to oxidized LDL, the body releases various immune factors aimed at protecting the damaged arterial walls.
It removes cholesterol from the walls of the arteries and returns it to the liver for disposal from the body.
Unhealthy cholesterol, particularly low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, forms a fatty substance called plaque, which builds up on the arterial walls of the heart. Eventually these calcified and inelastic arteries become narrower (a condition known as stenosis). Smaller unstable plaques may rupture, triggering the formation blood clots on their surface.
This process is accelerated and enhanced by other risk factors, including high blood pressure, smoking, obesity, diabetes, and a sedentary lifestyle. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is caused by the buildup of plaque in the feet, legs, hands, and arms. Having adequate levels of HDL may be the most important lipid-related factor for preventing ischemic stroke, a type of stroke caused by blockage of the carotid arteries that carry blood to the brain. The build-up of plaque in the internal carotid artery may lead to narrowing and irregularity of the artery's lumen, preventing proper blood flow to the brain. The National Cholesterol Education Program’s (NCEP) clinical practice guidelines set treatment goals for LDL levels based on a patient's risk factors for heart disease.
Two or more of these risk factors increases by 20% the chance of having a heart attack within 10 years.
The LDL cholesterol level is one of the most important factors in determining whether a patient needs cholesterol therapy and whether the treatment is working properly. Although current cholesterol goals are extremely useful for most patients, sometimes results of the testing are difficult to interpret and make it difficult for doctors to decide on the appropriate treatment.
Statin therapy has been proven to decrease the incidence of major coronary events, the need for coronary revascularization procedures, and the incidence of stroke.
Fibrates or niacin are beneficial for people who need to lower triglycerides and increase HDL. There are many major dietary approaches for protecting health, such as the Mediterranean diet, which emphasizes fruits, vegetables, and healthy types of fats. Choose fiber-rich food (whole grains, legumes, and nuts) as the main source of carbohydrates, along with a high intake of fruits and vegetables. Avoid saturated fats (found mostly in animal products) and trans fatty acids (found in hydrogenated fats and many commercial products and fast foods). Controlling weight, quitting smoking, and exercising are essential companions of any diet program.
After embarking on any heart healthy diet, it generally takes an average of 3 - 6 months before any noticeable reduction in cholesterol occurs. Inactivity is one of the four major risk factors for coronary artery disease, on par with smoking, unhealthy cholesterol, and high blood pressure.
People with an active lifestyle have a 45% lower risk of developing heart disease than sedentary people. Cigarette smoking lowers HDL and is directly responsible for about 20% of all deaths from heart disease. A number of studies have found heart protection from moderate intake of alcohol (one or two glasses a day).
Manufacturers of herbal remedies and dietary supplements do not need FDA approval to sell their products. If the test results are abnormal, a second test should be performed between 1 week and 2 months after the first test. Periodic cholesterol testing is recommended in all adults, but the major national guidelines differ on the age to start testing. Adults with normal cholesterol levels do not need to have the test repeated for 5 years unless changes occur in lifestyle (including weight gain and diet). Adults with a history of elevated cholesterol, diabetes, kidney problems, heart disease, and other conditions require more frequent testing.
Have risk factors such as a family history of high cholesterol, and history of heart attacks before age 55 for men and before age 65 for women.
Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries in which fatty material is deposited in the vessel wall, resulting in narrowing and eventual impairment of blood flow. Statins are the most effective drugs for the treatment of high cholesterol, particularly for lowering LDL levels. Statins may be prescribed along with other cholesterol-lowering drugs, such as bile acid-binding resins, nicotinic acid (niacin), and fibrates. The primary safety concern with statins is an uncommon condition called myopathy, in which a patient may experience muscle pains and certain lab tests may be elevated.
In general, all statin therapy should start at a lower dose and be raised incrementally until healthy cholesterol levels are maintained.
Statins can also affect the liver, particularly at higher doses, so patients should have periodic liver function tests. About 30% of patients who take niacin experience elevated levels in blood sugar (glucose), which can be a problem for people with diabetes. They are good choices for many patients who need to lower triglyceride levels and increase HDL but who cannot take other drugs used for these purposes, such as nicotinic acid. Fibrates can produce modest reductions in LDL levels, although not as effectively as statins or other drugs. Bile-acid binding resins work, as their name suggests, by binding to bile in the digestive tract. Bile is made in the liver and is used as one of the body's primary manufacturing components. As the resins eliminate bile from the body, the liver takes more cholesterol from the bloodstream in order to produce more bile. Bile-acting drugs may contribute to calcium loss and therefore increase the risk for osteoporosis. Bile-acid binding resins may also interfere with the absorption of other medications, including digoxin (Lanoxin), thyroid replacement hormones, warfarin, beta-blocker drugs, and a number of medications used to treat low blood sugar. Vytorin, is a combination of ezetimbe and the statin simvastatin into a single fixed dose pill.
Lovaza is a prescription form of omega-3 fish oil, which may be prescribed to help lower triglyceride levels.


Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder that causes high cholesterol levels, particularly LDL, and premature heart disease. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a very rare disorder that causes depletion of lipoprotein lipase.
Obesity is particularly dangerous when it is one of the components of the metabolic syndrome, formerly known as syndrome X. Obesity is also strongly associated with type 2 diabetes, which itself poses a significant risk for high cholesterol levels and heart disease.
Children who are overweight are at higher risk for high triglycerides and low HDL, which may be directly related to later unhealthy cholesterol levels.
Hypothyroidism is a decreased activity of the thyroid gland which may affect all body functions. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Insulin is a hormone that is needed in the body to control the rate at which sugar, starch and other food to glucose as energy for daily life needs converted. The body produces little or no insulin at all, and daily injections of insulin are required to sustain life. Several changes in lifestyle such as regular exercise, a moderate body weight, reduction of fat intake and high fiber content help maintain a normal and healthy life.
A people who practically believe is preventing disease than to treat when it became stronger, better and cheaper. In addition, not health care can be separated from regular medical as the two go hand in hand. BackgroundLipids are the building blocks of the fats and fatty substances found in animals and plants.
Although the body acquires some cholesterol through diet, about two-thirds is manufactured in the liver, its production stimulated by saturated fat. Tropical oils -- such as palm, coconut, and cocoa butter -- are also high in saturated fats. Most of the information about the effects of cholesterol and triglyceride actually concerns lipoproteins. Unfortunately, in excessive quantities they cause inflammation and promote further injury to the areas they target.
Triglycerides interact with HDL cholesterol in such a way that HDL levels fall as triglyceride levels rise. Smaller plaques remain soft, but older, larger plaques tend to develop fibrous caps with calcium deposits.
As this process continues, blood flow slows and prevents sufficient oxygen-rich blood from reaching the heart. HDL may even reduce the risk for hemorrhagic stroke, a less common type of stroke caused by bleeding in the brain that is associated with low overall cholesterol levels.
More commonly, as the narrowing worsens, pieces of plaque in the internal carotid artery can break free, travel to the brain, and block blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. In particular, guidelines emphasize lower LDL levels and earlier treatment for people with coronary artery disease, or other forms of atherosclerosis, and diabetes.
Even modest lowering of high cholesterol levels, whether through drug therapy or lifestyle changes, reduces the risk of disability and death from heart disease. Studies are also evaluating the use of statins for preventing heart disease in patients who have high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels but who are otherwise healthy and have normal LDL cholesterol.
Lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise) are the first course of action for treating children who have unhealthy cholesterol levels or who are at risk for them. At this time, statins are recommended as the best drugs for improving cholesterol and lipid levels in people with diabetes.
Walnuts in particular have cholesterol-lowering properties and are a good source of antioxidants and alpha-linolenic acid. Choose unsaturated fats (particularly omega-3 fatty acids found in vegetable and fish oils). In fact, studies suggest that people who change their diet in order to control cholesterol only achieve a lower risk for heart disease when they also follow a regular aerobic exercise program. Just like a drug, herbs and supplements can affect the body's chemistry, and therefore have the potential to produce side effects that may be harmful. Contrary to popular belief, neither raw garlic nor garlic supplements significantly reduce LDL cholesterol levels. Policosanol is a nutritional supplement derived from sugar cane that has been promoted as having lipid-lowering benefits.
If the child’s cholesterol level tests normal, retesting is recommended in 3 - 5 years. Severely restricted blood flow in the arteries to the heart muscle leads to symptoms such as chest pain. Statins tend to be better tolerated than other cholesterol-lowering drugs Side effects may include gastrointestinal discomfort, headaches, skin rashes, muscle aches, sexual dysfunction, drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, constipation, and peripheral neuropathy (numbness or tingling in the hands and feet).
A specific myopathy, called rhabdomyolysis, can lead to kidney failure, but fortunately its occurrence is very rare. Patients should immediately tell their doctor about any unusual muscle discomfort or weakness, fever, nausea or vomiting, or darkening of urine color.
Anyone with liver problems and women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not use statins.
Statins may have some adverse interactions with other drugs, including other cholesterol-lowering medications. Niacin's effects on HDL and triglycerides, however, are especially suited for the lipid imbalances that are common in diabetes. About 3 - 5% of people taking niacin develop liver problems, which usually resolve after the medication is discontinued.
Fibrates (sometimes called fibric acid derivatives) break down the particles that make triglycerides. Side effects may include gastrointestinal discomfort, aching muscles, sensitivity to sunlight, and skin rashes.
Fibrates interact with a number of drugs and substances, including warfarin, some oral drugs used for diabetes, certain antibiotics, and grapefruit juice. Cholestyramine (Questran, Questran Light) is commonly used in a powder that is dissolved in liquid. Over time, deficiencies of vitamins A, D, E, and K may occur, and vitamin supplements may be necessary. In order to prevent drug interactions, other drugs should be taken 1 hour before or 4 - 6 hours after taking the bile acid-binding resins.
An important study found that combination does not protect arteries better than a statin alone. Children who have abnormal cholesterol levels are at increased risk of developing heart disease later in life.
This is an enzyme that appears to be important in the removal of lipoproteins that are rich in triglycerides. The primary dietary elements that lead to unhealthy cholesterol include saturated fats (found mainly in red meat, egg yolks, and high-fat dairy products) and trans fatty acids (found in fried foods and some commercial baked food products). Lack of exercise can contribute to weight gain, decreases in HDL levels, and increases in LDL and total cholesterol levels.
Smoking reduces HDL cholesterol and promotes build-up of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries.
This syndrome consists of obesity marked by abdominal fat, unhealthy cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance.
Childhood LDL levels and body-mass index (BMI) are strongly associated with cardiovascular risk during adulthood.
Low thyroid levels (hypothyroidism) are associated with higher risk for high total and LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Women with this endocrine disorder may hav increased risks for high triglyceride and low HDL levels. Association between change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Effect of rosuvastatin on progression of carotid intima-media thickness in low-risk individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis: The METEOR Trial. Effect of aerobic exercise training on serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases with statin therapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Screening for lipid disorders in children: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.
A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Currently, it is estimated that over 143 million people worldwide are affected by the disease. It is ensured that the amount of glucose in the blood at any given time not over or under the normal range. Not enough insulin glucose levels make the pancreas often normal, keep, because the body responds poorly to insulin.
The role of insulin is to move glucose from the blood into muscle, fat, and liver cells, where it can be used as fuel.People with diabetes have high blood sugar.
They are microscopic layered spheres of oil, which, in animals, are composed mainly of cholesterol, triglycerides, proteins (called lipoproteins), and phospholipids (molecules made up of phosphoric acid, fatty acids, and nitrogen).
The lowest incidence of heart disease is usually found among people with the lowest LDL levels.


However, if it is exposed to a process called oxidation, LDL can penetrate and interact dangerously with the walls of the artery, producing a harmful inflammatory response.
Larger accumulations are called atheromas or plaque and can damage artery walls and block blood flow. Coronary artery disease, commonly known as heart disease, is the leading cause of death in the U.S. On average, every time a person's total cholesterol level drops by a point, the risk of heart disease drops by 2%. Other studies suggest that high cholesterol poses a risk for stroke only when specific proteins associated with inflammation are present. Cholesterol-lowering medications are used along with healthy lifestyle habits, not in place of them. CRP is a protein that helps measure inflammation in the body, with increased CRP levels indicating more inflammation.
If LDL goals are not achieved, combinations of a statin with a bile-acid resin or niacin should be considered.
However, the issue of prescribing statins to children is being hotly debated within the medical community.
Studies suggest that they can reduce the risk for adverse heart events in people with diabetes, even if patients' cholesterol levels are normal or if their diabetes is mild. Omega-3 fatty acid fish oil supplements contain docasahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, which have significant benefits for the heart, particularly for lowering triglyceride levels.
An intensive program may be necessary to achieve significant improvements in cholesterol levels and to reduce heart risk factors. Once a person quits smoking, HDL cholesterol levels rise within weeks or months to levels that are equal to their nonsmoking peers. Although red wine is most often cited for healthful properties, any type of alcoholic beverage appears to have similar benefit. There have been a number of reported cases of serious and even lethal side effects from herbal products.
However, rigorous research has not shown that policosanol has any effect on reducing LDL levels. The FDA warns that many red yeast rice dietary supplement products sold as treatments for high cholesterol contain prescription drugs that can cause serious health problems.
A blood test for cholesterol should include the entire lipoprotein profile: LDL, total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides.
When symptoms finally occur, they usually take the form of angina (chest pain) or heart attack in response to the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque in the heart arteries. Statins inhibit the liver enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which the body uses to manufacturer of cholesterol. Rosuvastatin (Crestor), may be associated with increased risk for myopathy and rhabdomyolysis, especially when given at the highest dose level (40 mg). High doses of statins increase the risk for kidney failure, particularly for patients with other existing risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, history of heart failure). Among the drugs that increase the risk for adverse effects are cyclosporine, macrolide antibiotics, and certain antifungals. Some studies report that people with diabetes who use niacin have little trouble with blood sugar control. The extended form (Niaspan) appears to be safe for the liver, but people with chronic liver disease should not use any form of nicotinic acid.
Fibrates have been known to cause gallstones, so people with gallbladder problems should not use these drugs. Most, however, cause constipation, heartburn, gas, and other gastrointestinal problems, side effects that many people cannot tolerate. Ezetimbe is also used in combination with fenofibrate (Tricor) for reduction of total cholesterol and LDL in patients with mixed hyperglycemia (high LDL levels, high triglycerides, low HDL levels) whose cholesterol has not been adequately controlled through diet alone.
As a result, most doctors now reocmmend reserving ezetimbe for use as an add-on drug when statins do not achieve adequate LDL lowering. Metabolic syndrome is a pre-diabetic condition that is significantly associated with heart disease and higher mortality rates from all causes. Overweight and obese children who have high cholesterol should also get tested for high blood pressure, diabetes, and other conditions associated with metabolic syndrome. This risk may be due to the higher levels of the male hormone testosterone associated with this disease.
A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in Youth Committee, Council of Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, With the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing. This number will increase until 2020 are expected over 220 million people with diabetes for life, if the current trend continues. Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know that they, even though it is a serious disease. This is the pancreas because not enough insulin or their muscle, fat, and liver cells do not normally react to insulin, or both.
Oxidation is a natural process in the body that occurs from chemical combinations with unstable molecules.
Lowering cholesterol levels with lifestyle changes and drug treatment has been shown to decrease the risk of heart attacks and other complications of atherosclerosis. Researchers are studying whether this inflammation is a risk factor for heart disease, even in otherwise healthy people with normal cholesterol levels. Passive smoking also reduces HDL levels and increases the risk of heart disease in people exposed to second-hand smoke.
Pregnant women, anyone who cannot drink moderately, and people with liver disease should not drink at all. It is very difficult to measure LDL levels by themselves, but LDL levels can be reliably calculated using total cholesterol and HDL levels.
These drugs effectively reduce the risk of major coronary events, including first and second heart attacks and stroke, in adults with unhealthy cholesterol levels. The most common side effects are flushing of the face and neck, itching, headache, blurred vision, and dizziness.
Risk FactorsUnhealthy cholesterol levels (low HDL, high LDL, and high triglycerides) increase the risk for heart disease and heart attack.
After menopause, as estrogen levels decline, women catch up in their rates of heart disease. Changes in cholesterol levels occur between the ages of 8 - 18, and vary between genders and population groups. Many doctors recommend that patients with metabolic syndrome should be aggressively treated with high-dose statin therapy to lower LDL levels.
Research is mixed on whether mild hypothyroidism (subclinical hypothyroidism) is associated with unhealthy cholesterol levels. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites.
Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common due to the growing number of older Americans, increasing obesity and absence of exercise.
High triglyceride levels are also associated with the inflammatory response -- the harmful effect of an overactive immune system that can cause considerable damage to cells and tissues, including the arteries. TreatmentLifestyle changes (such as diet, weight control, exercise, and smoking cessation) are the first line of defense for treating unhealthy cholesterol levels. In addition, people of Asian heritage appear to metabolize the drug differently and should start treatment at the lowest rosuvastatin dose (5 mg).
An extended-release form (Niaspan), administered at bedtime, may have fewer side effects, including headaches and flushing, than rapidly-acting niacin drugs.
They usually occur 5 minutes to hours after taking the drug and can last for minutes to, uncommonly, hours.
Some risk factors for cholesterol can be controlled (diet, exercise, weight) while others cannot (age, gender, and family history). Cholesterol levels tend to naturally rise sharply until puberty, decrease sharply, and then rise again. Obesity also causes other effects (high blood pressure, increase in inflammation) that pose major risks to the heart. In health, despite several requests for glucose in different conditions, the blood glucose rarely exceeds this value.
Lifestyle ChangesThe absolute mandate for improving cholesterol levels is to first make changes in lifestyle (both diet and exercise). Some people who use a statin-fibrate combination withdraw from the regimen because of muscle discomfort. Although niacin is available over the counter, the active form used for cholesterol treatment is given in much higher doses. For men, LDL and triglyceride levels also rise as they age and the risks for heart disease increase as well. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. However, while statins have been shown to slow the rate of atherosclerotic progression, they have not yet been shown to reverse heart disease. It is important to take this medication under a doctor's direction in order to ensure its safety and effectiveness.



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