Informed consent must be obtained from participants in this experiment (parental consent must be granted for minors). Follow all safety precautions when using the blood glucose monitoring kit and when handling blood, as described in the Procedure. You are probably very familiar with the fact that over time, exercise changes your muscles, your lungs, your bones, and even your mindset; but did you know it has an immediate effect on your body's biochemistry?
Investigate how blood glucose (sugar) levels change with exercise, and how to stabilize those levels during and after exercise.
Fortunately, for most of us, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are unlikely to occur because our bodies carefully regulate our blood glucose levels. This video shows how blood glucose levels change over time for people with and without diabetes (Khan Academy, 2011). Of course, in order to regulate glucose, our bodies need to have some to work with in the first place.
Although blood glucose levels stay in a safe range for most people, they do fluctuate over the course of a day based on when, how much, and what you eat. Exercise also either increases or decreases blood glucose levels, depending on the person and other factors (the effects of exercise will be further explained in the next paragraph). This video shows how glucose is normally taken up from the blood by cells, and how problems with this process occur in diabetes. Blood glucose monitoring system and additional test strips and lancets, which are small surgical blades used to obtain a drop of blood. We also do our best to make sure that any listed supplier provides prompt, courteous service.
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Before participating, discuss the science project (and any exercise routine required) with his or her doctor. Limit exercise to 1–2 sessions a day (to avoid hypoglycemia) unless the person regularly and safely exercises more frequently than this and takes proper safety precautions. Not exercise within 2 hours of going to sleep (to avoid changes in blood glucose levels while the person is asleep). Before testing how exercise affects a volunteer's blood glucose levels, establish a baseline of blood glucose levels for that person. Become familiar with the blood glucose monitoring system and how to use it to check a person's blood glucose levels.
In your lab notebook, make a data table to record your volunteer's baseline blood glucose measurements.
Right before the volunteer eats either breakfast or lunch, use the blood glucose monitoring system to measure his or her blood glucose levels.
Touch the test strip down onto the drop of blood, allowing the blood to be drawn into the strip. Once you are done taking the measurement, properly dispose of the test strip and have the volunteer wash his or her hands.
Two hours after the volunteer started eating the meal, check his or her blood glucose levels again, as you did in step 3, above. Repeat steps 3–4 for the next two days so that you have taken these measurements for three days in a row. If possible, try to also have the volunteer keep his or her diet relatively consistent over the three-day period, before and while you take measurements.
How did the person's blood glucose levels change from before eating a meal to after eating a meal? You will now measure the volunteer's blood glucose levels before, during, and after exercising for 20 minutes. Note: A person with diabetes should limit exercise to 1 to 2 sessions a day (to avoid hypoglycemia) (unless the person regularly and safely exercises more frequently than this and takes proper safety precautions). Choose which exercise activity (or combination of activities) you want your volunteer to do.
Figure out when to have the volunteer do the exercise activity (either right before they eat breakfast or lunch, or 2 hours after he or she has started eating the meal). If the volunteer does not have diabetes, and their blood glucose levels are not abnormal, it should be safe to have them exercise at either time. If the volunteer has diabetes, it is recommended that exercise is done after eating a meal to prevent low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). In your lab notebook, make a data table to record your volunteer's blood glucose measurements. Right before the volunteer starts the exercise activity, use the blood glucose monitoring system to measure his or her blood glucose levels, as you did in step 3 of the previous section. After the volunteer has finished exercising (for 20 minutes), measure his or her blood glucose levels again, as you did in step 3 of the previous section.
Safety Note: Checking blood glucose levels after exercising is important for a person with diabetes so he or she can prevent low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) hours later. Repeat steps 6–8 for the next two days so that you have taken these exercise-related measurements for three days in a row. If possible, before the measurements are taken each day, try to also have the volunteer keep his or her diet relatively consistent over the three-day period, and consistent to when you took the original blood glucose measurements. Calculate the average glucose levels for before exercising, during exercising, and after exercising for the three days.
Look at your graph and the average glucose levels you calculated and try to interpret your data. Did the volunteer's blood glucose levels generally increase, decrease, or stay about the same when they exercised? You will now investigate how the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels could be managed and lessened, keeping the blood glucose levels more stable.
Look at your results from the previous section and figure out whether the blood glucose levels were relatively high or low at any point. For an idea of blood glucose level ranges, see step 6 in the "Creating a Baseline" section, above, and the resources in the Bibliography in the Background section.
Make a plan for how to lessen the effects of exercise on the volunteer's blood glucose levels by changing only one of the following three factors: (1) eating food, (2) intensity of exercise, and (3) exercise time. Eating food: If a person's blood glucose levels clearly drop during exercise, then eating a carbohydrate snack may help increase his or her blood glucose levels. Intensity of the exercise and time spent exercising: If a person's blood glucose levels clearly decrease or increase during exercise, then doing a less intense exercise or exercising for less time may help. Safety note: If your volunteer has diabetes, they should talk to their doctor before doing a more intense, or longer, exercise activity.


If you have more than one volunteer, make a plan for each volunteer based on their individual results. Once you have planned how the activity will be changed, repeat steps 4–9 of the "Investigating the Effects of Exercise" section, but this time use your modified activity. If you want, you can make a line graph of the averages from the modified activity and the original activity.
You should end up with six lines, with three from the averages of each type of activity tested.
Look at your graphs and the average blood glucose levels you calculated and try to interpret your data.
Did the volunteer's blood glucose levels generally increase, decrease, or stay about the same when he or she exercised?
Does it look like your plan helped make the volunteer's blood glucose levels more stable when he or she exercised? Overall, were you able to help lessen the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels by changing the volunteer's exercise routine or having them eat?
Eating food changes our blood glucose levels, and different types of foods may affect it differently.
How does eating a certain, defined amount of glucose affect a person's blood glucose levels immediately and over time? Compared to a typical science class, please tell us how much you learned doing this project. My group had problems with making sure we recorded what we ate, our levels, and what time we took the reading. The Ask an Expert Forum is intended to be a place where students can go to find answers to science questions that they have been unable to find using other resources. Who does a diabetic turn to if they have questions or do not understand how to manage their disease?
Ever wondered who plans the school lunch, food for patients at a hospital, or the meals for athletes at the Olympics? You may print and distribute up to 200 copies of this document annually, at no charge, for personal and classroom educational use.
Reproduction of material from this website without written permission is strictly prohibited. When your blood sugar is too high or too low, Sometimes, no matter how hard you try to keep your blood sugar in the range your doctor has advised, it can be too high or too low. Insulin therapy that helps you control blood sugar from meals is called bolus insulin , meaning it?s released in a burst.
Insulin is important for lactation, but its effects are so widespread that its specific effects on mammary gland biology are difficult to study. This problem was overcome by the development of laboratory mice missing the insulin receptor in milk-producing cells. Using these mice, a profound effect of insulin on mammary gland development during pregnancy was revealed.
Metabolic disorders caused by obesity and gestational diabetes may have similar effects in pregnant and lactating mothers.
We know insulin as a regulator of blood sugar, but it also influences cell growth and differentiation. Insulin is a ubiquitous hormone found throughout the tissues of the body and is essential to life.
Knowing that a number of growth factors related to insulin—insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)—may use the same receptors as insulin, Neville and her team set out to prove that the effects were due to insulin, and not these other factors, but how to do this was the challenge.
Finally, the team analyzed the differences in the expression profiles of 22,000 genes from milk producing cells with and without the insulin receptor. These findings suggest significant implications for the current surge in gestational diabetes seen throughout the western world and highlight the potential impact of metabolic disturbances caused by obesity and diabetes on lactation. Neville MC, Webb P, Ramanathan P, Manninno MP, Pecorini C, Monks J, Anderson SM, Maclean PS. The experimental design (including consent forms) must be approved by your fair's Scientific Review Committee (SRC). If somebody who has diabetes wants to participate in this science project, review the safety notes at the beginning of the Procedure before starting.
You can see this in the amount of glucose (a type of sugar your body uses for fuel) circulating in your blood. The level of glucose in your blood is regulated by insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas.
This graph shows how a person's blood glucose levels may change over the course of a day, and how eating a meal with lots of sugar (sucrose) can affect blood glucose levels.
Levels can decrease because glucose in the blood (and stored glucose) is used up during exercise. It's not as smart as you are, and it may occasionally give humorous, ridiculous, or even annoying results!
Note: You will test blood glucose levels at least 24 times, and since a lancet and test strip are needed for each test, you will need at least 24 lancets and 24 test strips that work with the monitoring system. A baseline is a typical amount that can be used to compare to experimental amounts to see if they are much larger, or smaller, than normal. Be sure to read through all of the instructions that came with the system before you start using it.
After a drop of blood has been touched to the test strip, you can read the test strip results on the blood glucose meter.
Big changes in the type of food the volunteer eats could significantly affect his or her blood glucose levels (as shown in Figure 1, in the Background tab), but you are taking measurements over three days to try and account for these fluctuations. So if your volunteer has diabetes, find out his or her schedule for the three days you will be doing exercise testing.
The volunteer will exercise for 20 minutes, so make sure that the exercise planned is not too vigorous for your volunteer. Include space to record the date, time, and whether the measurements are before or after eating a meal. Be sure to do it around the same time (right before or after the same meal you decided on in step 3) for each day.
Hint: You may want to refer to the information in the Introduction to help you explain the results. Based on your results from the previous section, you will pick one of the following factors to explore over three days: (1) eating food, (2) intensity of the exercise, or (3) time spent exercising. Research what factors affect blood glucose levels and then investigate how exactly they affect it using a blood glucose monitoring system.


Do some background research into this topic to investigate how blood glucose levels change (over time) when a person eats different foods. How do the results from urinalysis strips compare to the results from a glucose monitoring system? If you have specific questions about your science fair project or science fair, our team of volunteer scientists can help.
Athletic trainers help athletes, and other physically active people, avoid such injuries, while also working to improve their strength and conditioning. Monitoring and keeping track of your readings can be a hassle at times, but it doesn’t have to be. This has made the study of insulin a little complicated since any attempts to modulate the level of insulin have a marked impact on the entire system, and without careful regulation, will result in metabolic meltdown. The gain in weight of these pups was severely restricted, indicating that the mother was unable to produce enough milk for normal growth rates.
They turned to their experience with cell culture systems, especially the growth of a test tube version of the mammary gland milk-producing cell structure, variously referred to as acini or mammospheres. They found a definite pattern of differences in gene families that were associated with mammary gland differentiation and function. Diabetic, obese mothers have a difficult time producing milk, and we’re just now starting to understand why. When blood glucose levels rise after eating a meal, the pancreas releases insulin, which causes cells in the body (such as liver, muscle, and fat cells) to take up glucose, removing it from the blood and storing it to use for energy. To prevent blood glucose levels from dropping too much (and causing hypoglycemia), it is sometimes recommended that people with type 1 diabetes have a snack before and while exercising. The volunteer will be exercising for 20 minutes, so make sure to pick an activity that is not too vigorous for your volunteer.
To create a baseline of blood glucose levels, you will measure the volunteer's blood glucose levels over three days, twice a day: right before the volunteer eats a meal (which is called the preprandial plasma glucose) and 2 hours after they started eating the meal (called the postprandial plasma glucose). If there are too many ketones in the blood, it could mean that a person does not have enough insulin to lower his or her blood glucose levels.) The ketone results may affect whether the person can later safely do the exercise activity required for participating in this science project, and whether you may need to find a new volunteer(s) because of this.
Base this on the average baseline glucose levels you determined in step 7 (and any ketone data from step 4) of the previous section, as well as any known medical history the person has. If the investigation is being done on a person with diabetes, they should talk to their doctor before doing testing. Our Experts won't do the work for you, but they will make suggestions, offer guidance, and help you troubleshoot. Should a sports injury occur, athletic trainers help to evaluate the injury, determine the treatment needed, and design a fitness regime to rehabilitate the athlete so he or she is ready to go out and compete again. You can use the Excel Blood Glucose Level Chart featured on this page to monitor your glucose readings daily! A role for insulin in lactation has been accepted for some time, but some questions have remained about its role during pregnancy when the mammary gland is developing—and the relative roles of insulin and insulin-like growth factors.
Understanding its role in mammary gland development during pregnancy needed a clever approach.
In fact, their growth rate was only about 25% of normal, and at weaning, the mice were very small.
The patterns indicated that insulin is important for turning on the cell program that leads to milk production in late pregnancy.
When the blood glucose levels start falling, the pancreas stops releasing insulin, and the stored glucose is used for energy. However, exercise can also cause blood glucose levels to increase if too much stored glucose gets released when a person exercises and it is not used up while exercising. Some dietitians and nutritionists also work to educate people about good food choices so they can cook and eat their own healthy meals.
A recent study by Peggy Neville and her colleagues from the University of Colorado, (Neville MC et al., 2013) demonstrated that insulin is a primary driver of cellular transformation during pregnancy. Clarifying the role of insulin in lactation was the aim of the study by Neville and colleagues. When the mammary gland structure and contents were examined, the investigators found far fewer milk-producing cells than in normal mice, and most of the milk protein and fat normally found in these cells was lacking. Once formed, they were induced to secrete milk, and again, the secretion was found to be insulin-sensitive, but was not IGF-sensitive. Watch this video to see how blood glucose levels can change over time for different people. If there is not enough insulin around, the glucose in the blood will not get stored again, and will remain in the blood (which can cause hyperglycemia). They used a mouse model system, and in an elegant approach, bred a mouse line in which the receptor for insulin was selectively deleted in the cells that produce milk. In fact, all of the relevant actions and effects of insulin happen inside cells as a result of the signals that insulin receptors convey to the cellular machinery, including the engine room of the cell, structures called mitochondria, and the genes that turn “on” and “off.”  Neville found a way to understand the effects of insulin by targeted deletion of the insulin receptor in the mammary gland of selected mice.
Thus, there was a reduction in both the total amount of mammary tissue, and of the milk-producing capacity of the remaining tissue. For people with diabetes, this can be addressed by taking an insulin shot after exercising.
Once you have a clear idea of the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels, you will try to diminish the changes by eating food, or by changing the intensity of the exercise or the exercise time. In this way, the insulin continued to have its normal effect on all tissues in the body except for the mammary glands. Clearly, the ablation of the insulin receptor had profound effects on the mammary glands of these mice. Within each day is space for three individual readings.The first step in using the chart is to input the first date of your first reading and the remaining corresponding days of the week.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when a person has insulin resistance, which means the person's body does not respond to insulin, or their pancreas does not make enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes is managed by increasing exercise, changing diet, and possibly by taking medications such as insulin. You can add or remove spaces depending upon how you would like to monitor your glucose levels.Once the blood sugar levels have been added to the template, you can move on to the second page of the Excel blood glucose level chart. It’s critical to be as accurate as possible when placing information in the data page so you will get an accurate graph. This graph will show your blood sugar levels throughout the day and week.Download: Excel Blood Glucose Level ChartNot what you were looking for?



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Comments

  1. 13.05.2015 at 22:39:32


    Can sometimes break this cycle.

    Author: rebeka
  2. 13.05.2015 at 23:22:21


    Burcelin the pancreas produces insufficient known as, 'Insulin.' An organ called the, 'Pancreas.

    Author: blero