Using Diabetes Mellitus as an example, understand the consequences of disturbing the balance between metabolic pathways.
To be able to indicate the role of insulin and glucagon in the control of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
To be able to recognise the major symptoms of Type I and Type II diabetes and the underlying biochemical defects. To be able to use patient history and results from blood and urine tests to aid in diagnosis.
The flow diagram at the end of this exercise outlines how the energy producing pathways are connected.
During the session we will look at the changes in metabolism that occur in diabetes, the diagnosis and long term problems and use the information to evaluate two clinical cases.
Bring textbooks and notes covering biochemical and medical aspects of energy metabolism and diabetes. This work session will help you understand and revise the lecture material on metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids.
You should be getting a picture of how the pathways interact and are regulated to provide an appropriate blood glucose level, and mobilise and maintain energy reserves. Diabetes mellitus is caused by a failure to secrete, or to respond to, the hormone insulin. Diabetic neuropathy and cardiovascular disease are the major causes of death in patients over 50 years of age.
Also the polyol pathway uses NADPH - required to keep levels of reduced glutathione in cells.
Type II, and even in Type 1 the administered insulin is also likely to be above physiological levels some of the time.
You should be aware of the principle diabetic complications and how tight control of glucose and insulin levels may help to reduce these problems.
Patient A: A 55 year old bus driver reported that he had cut one of his toes while trimming his nails and, several weeks later, the toe had still not healed properly and was very uncomfortable.
The handling of glucose can be studied by the glucose tolerance test, in which a standard amount of glucose is taken by the subject and the concentration of blood glucose determined at suitable intervals thereafter.

During the glucose tolerance test, two urine samples from Patient A and B and a normal urine sample were tested qualitatively for glucose and ketone bodies using Multistix reagent strips. The shape of the glucose tolerance curve is, in part, dependent upon the efficiency of insulin secretion and information about this can be obtained by measuring plasma insulin concentrations during the glucose tolerance test by an immunoassay. Circulating levels of most hormones are very low and cannot be measured by normal chemical methods.
All immunoassays rely on highly specific antibodies which bind specifically to the hormone being measured. Your use of this website constitutes acknowledgement and acceptance of our Terms & Conditions.
Normal blood sugar levels chart for adults, This simple chart shows target blood sugar levels for before and after meals, after fasting, before exercise, and at bedtime, as well as an a1c target.. High blood sugar : medlineplus medical encyclopedia, High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin the right way. High blood sugar : read about hyperglycemia causes, Learn about high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) in people with diabetes.
Home « blood sugar basics, Blood sugar basics: get to your goals is a simple, step-by-step plan designed to help you understand the importance of working with your healthcare team to set….
Blood sugar – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, The blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or animal. In insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD, Type I DM), the b cells of the pancreas are destroyed by an autoimmune response, leading to failure of insulin secretion. He was considerably overweight and admitted that he had been feeling rather tired for some time. European, 19 years old) visited the Student Health Centre saying he felt 'really tired and out of sorts'.
He was advised to 'take it easy and get more sleep', but replied that he had to keep getting up in the night to 'get rid of all that beer'.
Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was previously commonly used for assaying hormones but is now being replaced by immunometric type assays.
The hormone-antibody interaction is measured by using a labelled hormone or antibody during the assay incubation and then separating the bound and free fractions.

Einfach einePause im schnellebigen Alltag machenohne der Zeit Beachtung zu schenkenist ein Erlebnis, das ich gerne teile. In non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDD Type II DM), there is usually still insulin secreted, sometimes in excess amounts, but the cells do not respond to the signal as effectively, i.e. He tried cutting down the beer, but he was still going to the bathroom quite frequently, and the tiredness was getting more debilitating. Use these, together with the case histories, to come to a reasoned, evidence-based diagnosis. Immunoassays are capable of extreme specificity, sensitivity and precision and can allow many samples to be assayed rapidly.
Previously, the label was radioactive (RIA), but now more frequently, fluorimetric, colorimetric, chemiluminescent or enzymatic labels are used which have a lower risk in terms of health and safety.
Normally the system is well balanced ? excess energy intake is stored as glycogen or fat and blood glucose levels are kept within a narrow range.
He retruned to the Student Health Centre and a more thorough examination showed that his weight was beolw normal, though he claimed to be eating normally. Consequently they are especially useful for hormones whose concentrations are very low, or for distinguishing between compounds of very similar chemical structure.
The main limitation of immunoassays is that they do not distinguish biologically inactive molecules from biologically active molecules since both have the same antigenic determinants.
Use the proforma on the following page and highlight the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
To understand what happens in diabetes and why it is a serious problem, it is necessary to understand how the system is normally regulated.

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  1. 12.03.2014 at 23:14:48

    Fluctuate a bit considering how the intervention group and.

    Author: Karolina
  2. 12.03.2014 at 10:14:31

    Patient is suspected of having diabetes, his associated with.

    Author: Arzu