Do you suffer from low blood sugar and need a blood glucose level chart just so that you can keep up with all of the numbers?
Low blood sugar can occur when you do not have enough sugar in your body or your body doesn’t make enough glucose for your body and organs to remain equally functioning. A blood glucose level chart or blood glucose level graph comes in handy especially for new diabetics as it allows them to see normal ranges and where their levels should be to keep their organs and bodies working together and functioning smoothly. A blood glucose level chart can be found in a wide variety of places ranging from your doctor or physician, the local library or online. Cholesterol level chart – disabled world, Definition of cholesterol including ways to lower cholesterol levels in the blood and includes a cholesterol level chart.
Ldl hdl cholesterol chart for good cholesterol levels, This ldl hdl cholesterol chart complete with cholesterol numbers will give you insights into the good cholesterol levels.
Cholesterol charts: find out what the numbers mean, Read information about understanding your cholesterol levels.
High cholesterol tests and test results chart – webmd, You will need a blood test to check whether you have high cholesterol. About your cholesterol, Everything you need to know about cholesterol, high cholesterol and ways you can lower total cholesterol and minimize your risk of heart attack or stroke.. Cholesterol numbers charts: hdl, ldl, total cholesterol, Your body needs cholesterol to build new cells, insulate nerves, and produce hormones.
Normal blood sugar levels chart for adults, This simple chart shows target blood sugar levels for before and after meals, after fasting, before exercise, and at bedtime, as well as an a1c target.. Blood sugar – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, The blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or animal. When your “normal” blood sugar isn’t normal (part 1), In the next two articles we’re going to discuss the concept of “normal” blood sugar.
High and low blood sugar levels related to diabetes, When you have diabetes, you may have high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) or low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia) from time to time.. Hyperglycemia: facts on symptoms, signs and treatment, Hyperglycemia is an abnormally high blood glucose (blood sugar) level. Blood glucose in the diabetic rises and stays above normal.The healthy person regulates their glucose back to normal.
Every cell in the body needs a supply of glucose to maintain respiration and generate energy for all of its processes. Diabetes blood sugar chart – normal blood glucose ranges, Monitoring your glucose ranges is very important and must be done on a regular basis (especially if you are a diabetic). Diabetes blood sugar levels chart – what is a normal blood, When you find out about being pre-diabetic or diabetic, one of the first things you need to learn is about normal blood sugar levels, abnormal blood sugar levels, and.
Blood pressure chart – normal blood pressure range, Normal blood pressure range chart, with comments about each blood pressure level.
Blood test results with normal range reference chart, Blood test results, normal blood test ranges and blood test results for female and blood test results for male, blood testing and rare blood testing results.. Knowing what normal A1C levels for diabetics is a very important way to determine if you should be worry about your blood sugar test result. For those of you who are familiar with diabetes and the other factors related to diabetes, A1C level is the measurement of how good your body process blood sugar, or glucose, in your system, using its own insulin. As explained above, normal A1C levels for a diabetics differ from country to country, and also differ from people to people.
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I’d like to thank Jimmy for organizing this discussion on the desirability of including starches in a low-carb diet.
Our “regular” diet is not specifically directed at diabetic or metabolically damaged persons. We agree that diseases of metabolic derangement may benefit from lower carb consumption than our regular diet. On low-carb diets, is it better to eat 400 carb calories per day, as we argue, or some lower number of carb calories, say 100 calories per day? After 3 days of fasting, when the brain’s glucose consumption has been roughly halved by ketosis and the rest of the body is conserving glucose, the body’s rate of glucose manufacture in liver and kidneys is about 600 calories per day. The fasting level of glucose utilization is likely to be suboptimal for health: fasting invokes glucose-and-protein-conservation measures which evolved to make us more likely to survive famine, but almost certainly have a cost in long-term health. This fasting level of glucose production of about 600 calories per day is a key number: the body must obtain glucose at at least this level, either through diet or endogenous production, if it is to avoid a glucose deficiency. When not fasting, the body’s glucose utilization is somewhat higher – say, 800 to 1000 calories per day for a sedentary person. As I noted above, we consider Perfect Health Diet to be a low-carb diet because we favor eating fewer carbs than the body utilizes. There are about 20,000 human genes and, due to transcriptional variants and manufacture of proteins from multi-gene subunits, about 200,000 human proteins. So: whole body measurements indicate peripheral glucose utilization of around 100 to 150 g (400 to 600 calories) per day in normal humans, and a mere two of the 2,000,000 carbohydrate-containing compounds in the human body account for nearly 10% of that. Several responders argued that there cannot be such a thing as a human glucose deficiency on very low-carb diets because blood sugar levels do not leave the normal range.
However, this argument may prove a bit too much, because blood sugar levels don’t leave the normal range during human starvation either, and yet it still proves fatal. A clue is the fact that starving people develop a hacking cough in their final weeks of life. The reality is this: peripheral glucose utilization is not determined by blood glucose levels, but is hormonally regulated.
Decreased production of molecules like hyaluronan and mucin and reduced levels of T3 thyroid hormone, then, are outcome of dietary glucose deficiency. I discussed the reduced mucus production very low-carb dieters sometimes experience in an early blog post (Dangers of Zero-Carb Diets, II: Mucus Deficiency and Gastrointestinal Cancers, Nov 15, 2010). I have put up a “Results” page which has case studies drawn mainly from the comment section of my blog.
All four people in my family experienced a variety of new symptoms (seasonal allergies, constipation, worsening of heartburn, bladder spasms, dry eyes, increasing tiredness and low energy) when we did GAPS. There are many more cases; in addition to those on my “Results” page, many anecdotes can be found on PaleoHacks and in my comment thread. Low-carb diets generally improve immunity to bacteria and viruses, but not all is roses and gingerbread.
As the fungal infection case studies on our “Results” page illustrate, low-carb dieters often develop fungal infections, and these often go away with increased starch consumption. Another issue is that mucus is essential for immunity at epithelial surfaces, and glycosylation is essential for the integrity of cellular junctions and tissue barriers such as the intestinal and blood-brain barriers. Finally, a very low-carb diet is not entirely free of risks of gut dysbiosis, and not just from fungal infections. Is it possible that peripheral downregulation of glucose utilization may increase the risk of some chronic diseases?
Biomedical researchers are gradually realizing the importance of glycosylation defects in leading diseases. Cancer cells have systematically incomplete glycosylation, including deficient galactosylation of terminal beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues. A recent report in Nature Medicine found that a specific glycosylation defect may commonly underly Type 2 diabetes.
I report these papers, not because I think they tell us how many carbohydrates we should eat – they don’t – but to remind everyone of the complexity of biology. Yams, sweet potatoes, plantains and berries – all, by the way, foods our diet recommends and that we eat ourselves – contain some sugars which digest to a mix of glucose and fructose, while rice and potatoes contain starches which digest to glucose alone. Because the concepts of “glycemic index” and “glycemic load” refer to blood glucose levels, they are sensitive to the glucose content of food, not the fructose content. The body’s evolved machinery for handling glucose and fructose is a good indicator of their relative healthfulness. The toxicity of fructose is well supported by a host of biochemical, biomedical, and epidemiological data. While I think glucose should be favored over fructose, I don’t want to exaggerate the dangers of limited fructose consumption: fruits, berries, and other sugary plants are, in moderation, fine components of a healthful diet.
I do not believe that “glycemic index” or “glycemic load” are sufficient indexes of the healthfulness of foods. At higher levels of carb intake, a “glycemic load” is likely to be health-neutral – neither damaging nor beneficial.
So knowing a plant’s “glycemic index” or “glycemic load” cannot tell us whether it is good to eat some.
In interpreting the safety of glucose, there is also the issue of whether postprandial increases in blood sugar can create transient toxicity effects. But he eats a very low-carb diet, and very low-carb diets induce hormonal changes that lead to glucose conservation. Thus, an isolated glucose tolerance test is not necessarily a fair test of glycemic control in a very low-carb dieter.
Some responders were understandably confused by a line Jimmy quoted out of context from our book: “don’t count vegetables as as a carb source – they are a fiber (and therefore a fat) source” (page 45). Since we recommend counting calories only for a few days until one learns how much one must eat to obtain our recommended 400 calories per day of glucose, there is no reason to include vegetables in calorie counting. Readers may wish to open Jimmy’s post, Is There Any Such Thing as “Safe Starches” on a Low-Carb Diet?, in another window to follow along.
Colette Heimowitz does not seem familiar with our work, and to have misunderstood the basis for our recommendation of a modest amount of starch.
The fact that glucose can be formed via gluconeogenesis does not prevent the emergence of glucose deficiency conditions, because the degree of gluconeogenesis is hormonally controlled and may be insufficient to maintain all normal glucose functions.
Glycation is one thing, glycosylation and manufacture of GAGs and other glucose containing structural molecules of the human body is another.
Chris is quite right that it’s a “safe[r] bet” to meet the body’s physiological need for glucose in part by eating glucose. Dr Jonny Bowden makes an excellent point: a major advantage of starches over other carbohydrate sources is their lack of fructose. Dr Robert Su directs us to an essay of his, which makes a lot of points that I agree with, but his evidence doesn’t imply the conclusion that all carbs should be excluded, nor does it address the main issues of our diet.
Tom Naughton and I share Irish ancestry, so if he has been extinguished due to lack of ancestral potatoes then so have I.
Dr Richard Feinman may not have noticed but Shou-Ching and I were at the Ancestral Health Symposium and so were dozens of people following our diet; indeed, about two dozen people came up to us and told us that our diet had improved their health. Dana Carpender links to one of Mike Eades’s best posts, which we cite and quote in our book’s discussion of why wheat bran is unhealthy. We agree with Dana that turnips, rutabaga, Jerusalem artichokes, and jicama are fine foods. Anonymous Prominent Member makes a good point: adding carbs back into a very low-carb diet worked for me, but may not work for everyone. I would like to thank Adele Hite for her generous statements that our “overall approach is very reasonable” and “may be useful to many people,” and for her engagement on issues of substance. Adele links to Mike Eades’s excellent fiber post, which we cite approvingly in our book; see my comment to Dana Carpender. About vitamin C, I think Jimmy may have given this issue quite a bit more prominence than it deserves. Dr McCleary is quite right that depriving cancer cells of glucose is an attractive therapeutic strategy for cancer.
In cases where there is no significant metabolic damage, when I have these folks increase their carbohydrate intake (with starch like tubers and white rice, and fruit) to closer to 150g a day, they almost always feel better. I would like to thank Dr David Diamond for a thoughtful comment and for taking the time to read our blog. Nowhere do we assert that slipping to 300-400 carb calories is dangerous; rather this is in our “safe range” of 200 to 600 carb calories per day and very close to our estimated optimum. Livin’ La Vida Low-Carb Reader’s carb intolerance is a difficult problem to deal with; I sympathize, and largely agree with what LLVLCR says. As noted elsewhere, blood glucose levels are not an indicator of the body’s glucose status, and will remain normal even when there is a serious glucose deficiency. Patients who are ill such as cancer, post surgical, after the hospital are stressed and their basic metabolic rate is increased.
The dominant dietary factors stimulating IGF-1 release are “protein and energy intake … and energy intake may be of greater importance.” Our diet is generally lower in protein than other low-carb diets, and as a nourishing diet with macronutrient intakes near the body’s utilization needs, it is highly effective at minimizing appetite and total energy intake, as perusal of our “Results” page will show. Glycosylation of proteins occurs primarily intracellularly in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies, not on cell membranes. Peter Dobromylskyj of “Hyperlipid” has had a very busy year with a new daughter and new home, so I’m not in the least surprised that he hasn’t yet had time to read our book.
The human glycome is much more than a lectin signaling system: it has a myriad of structural and functional roles, some of them discussed above. Re “I can’t see glucose deficiency being a gut problem as this is the organ with the highest exposure to dietary glucose,” two factors which limit availability of dietary glucose to gut cells are (a) dietary glucose is absorbed in the small intestine but gut problems are most common in the colon where bacterial populations are highest, and (b) we are considering very low carb diets that provide little dietary glucose.
Cancer is an extremely complex and interesting disorder and I’ll be delighted to hear Peter’s ideas. Peter makes an extremely important point: that minor dietary defects may take decades to reveal themselves. Peter says “I don’t know,” but in truth we all don’t know: dietary science is complex and all of our positions are somewhat speculative.
Valerie Berkowitz should be aware that we do recommend tomato consumption, but we do not consider it a “safe starch” because its calories are mainly in the form of sugars. Dr Ann Childers links to an article in Discover magazine and avers that the humans of the Ice Age and the Inuit were “without cancer, diabetes, tooth decay, glutathione deficiency, vitamin C deficiency or gut dysbiosis.” These claims are unsupported. First is her observation that the protein quality of food, especially the presence of immuno-reactive proteins, is extremely important for health.
Second is the point that just because it is possible to manufacture glucose from protein does not mean that optimal amounts of glucose will actually be manufactured if none are eaten.


Amy Kubal seems to be under the misimpression that I recommend 1 pound of safe starches daily for “everyone.” No, this is a recommendation for healthy people, I understand that some people with defects of metabolic regulation or neurological disorders will benefit from ketogenic diets or severe carb restriction. It is not obvious to me from her description that her recommended cancer diet differs much from ours. Dr Lauren Noel notes that other than a few minor cell types, “all tissues can run on ketones,” and supposes this refutes the need for dietary carbohydrate. Dr Noel believes that eating white rice and sweet potatoes will aggravate Candida infections. Dr Daniel Chong is quite right that starches have been a part of the evolutionary human diet, since at least Australopithecus 3.5 million years ago. Dr Joe Leonardi’s comments are intelligent, and it sounds as though his own dietary advice is excellent. Dr BG makes an excellent point: that carbs do in practice improve the health of many paleo dieters, in part via improving adrenal function. These cases of improved health upon higher carb consumption should be a warning to those other writers who question whether it’s possible to have a glucose deficiency. On the issue of taste, we do recommend that starches be eaten as part of a meal in combination with sauces, vegetables, fats, and meats. Our bodies do need glucose, and it may be preferable to obtain it directly from diet than to have to manufacture it from protein. An appropriate population of commensal bacteria tends to stabilize the gut and make it resistant to dysbiosis. The amount of glucose in blood is not related to the amount of glucose the body consumes in a day. The Taubesian idea of intentionally creating a glucose deficiency to force the body to breakdown triglycerides for glycerol is a clever but flawed strategy for weight loss. There is room to disagree about the optimal level of glucose intake, and I hope Zoe will look into our arguments for a slightly higher carb consumption than she is used to. Dr Stephen Phinney seems to be under the misimpression that my term “safe starches” refers to low glycemic index foods. Dr Phinney avers that “there is no absolute human requirement for dietary carbohydrate.” I am not sure what “absolute” means, but I do believe that health will usually be improved if the diet includes some carbohydrate. Re the issue of vitamin deficiencies, there are plenty of reports of nutrient deficiencies on clinical ketogenic diets, thus Dr Phinney’s need to include the adjective “well-formulated” before ketogenic diets. On the issue of dysbiosis, I assume Dr Phinney will agree that some non-zero level of mucus production is optimal, and that a level of mucus production below that optimum impairs health.
Dr Richard Bernstein is the author of a book we frequently recommend to diabetics, so it’s unfortunate that he may have gotten the mistaken impression we recommend higher carbohydrate consumption for diabetics.
But even in people who do absorb it, it has fewer receptors than glucose, so it’s not going to be absorbed as well, making it more available to pathogens. Now, as for fructose impairing ketogenesis, this maybe so, but that doesn’t make it bad. Second, from subjective experience I know that eating fruits (sometimes in large quantities) has many beneficial effects on me (mood, feeling good, better digestion, etc) whereas even small amounts of refined sugars have the opposite effect. As a side note, if I go for a few days without fruits (say I’m camping and all I have to eat are good meats and potatoes), my body will crave fruits (the feeling is acute, as I am dehydrated or need salt badly). Last, but not least, I find the approach to fructose to be preaching to the choir — it is good enough if you believe fructose to be the evil in the modern diet. This would allow for better tasting food, and possibly more nutritious (I’d venture to say that fruits in general are more nutritious than rice or potatoes).
Just a quick note about the weight I was suggesting above (I had in mind watermelon, where you don’t eat 55-65% of it). This could be taken another way – where you have diseases of excessive mucus, such as cystic fibrosis, restricting carbs might be a valid way of managing them? I certainly found that restricting carbs reduced my excess mucus, which was allergenic and toxic rather than genetic. So… I had CFS for 13 years and only managed to have any energy after eating a largely raw diet of mainly fruit meals. People who are diabetic have many things that they need to monitor and keep up with such as medications, insulin and also their blood glucose levels.
For many if they are new diabetics they will need to have a fasting blood sugar chart in which they can look at while taking their fasting blood sugar until they reach the point that they know what numbers are normal for them and what a normal range is for them. A blood glucose level chart is a great handy tool to have around if you need help remembering the numbers at first or you need help by other people on keeping your numbers regulated. A drop of blood is placed on a test strip and the monitor displays the blood glucose concentration.
Levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood are closely controlled by two hormones; insulin and glucagon. It causes the liver to convert glycogen back to glucose and to release glucose into the bloodstream.
If you want to know the number for normal A1C levels for diabetics, you have come to the right place.
This glycated hemoglobin will exist for around 120 days, that is why usually A1C test is good for 3 months. We have a basic diet that is designed for healthy people (represented in the apple – food plate) and we recommend modified versions of the diet for various health conditions – including diabetes. This is especially the case in diabetes, if beta cell loss has reduced basal insulin levels and excessive gluconeogenesis is occurring. We often say, borrowing from Tolstoy, that “every healthy person is biologically alike, every diseased person is unhealthy in his own way.” Obesity, for instance, is a heterogeneous disease and there is not a single prescription that will be optimal for every obese person. Ketones can displace up to perhaps 60% of this, but ketones do not diffuse well into cortical areas of the brain and the brain always requires some glucose.
Glucose needs are slightly reduced by some endogenous sources of glucose, such as from glycerol released from lipolysis of triglycerides or phospholipids. For most people, we suggest 400 to 600 carb calories per day, about 200 less than the body utilizes. Immune function (which may utilize significant glucose in people with infections) and glycogen replacement (high utilization in athletes) are two reasons that can be significant in some persons, but in the vast majority of people the biggest reason for glucose utilization is the construction and maintenance of the human glycome. However, these proteins are subject to various post-translational modifications, chief of which is glycosylation. For many proteins, only glycosylated forms are allowed to leave the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes where they are formed; nonglycosylated forms are ubiquinated and destroyed. Glycosaminoglycans such as hyaluronan and proteoglycan components such as heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate are important building blocks of the extracellular matrix.
Mucins, the most important molecules in mucus, tears, and saliva, are predominantly composed of carbohydrate.
Despite blood glucose levels in the normal range, they cease producing mucus and their airways become dry and irritated.
The brain may import glucose passively, driven by a concentration gradient, but not so the rest of the body. This is an understudied area of physiology, but the primary regulators seem to be thyroid hormones. Pathologies this may produce include dry eyes, dry mouth, constipation or hard stools, and slow healing of scratch wounds. Since that was published, well over 50 low-carb Paleo dieters have reported to me that dry eyes and other mucin deficiency symptoms were cured by adding safe starches to their diet. This includes many cases of glucose deficiency symptoms that developed on very low-carb Paleo or GAPS diets and were cured on our diet.
These problems didn’t resolve until we luckily stumbled upon PHD and added back safe starches.
At the Ancestral Health Symposium, two dozen people came up to Shou-Ching and I and told us their health had been improved by adding safe starches to their low-carb Paleo diets. The immune defense against these infections is glucose-dependent (as it relies on production of reactive oxygen species using glucose) and thyroid hormone-dependent (as thyroid hormone drives not only glucose availability, but also the availability of iodine for the myeloperoxidase pathway). Thus, reduced production of mucus can impair intestinal immunity and promote gut dysbiosis or systemic infection by pathogens that enter through the gut. Bacteria can metabolize the amino acid glutamine as well as mucosal sugars, so it is not possible to completely starve gut bacteria with a low-carb diet.
There is too little experience with very low-carb diets to answer this question, but I think no biomedical scientist would exclude the possibility. On the Standard American Diet, many diet-induced diseases do not show up for 40 to 50 years.
I am only saying that while I believe low-carb is good, I don’t believe that very low-carb is better, and I think everyone should acknowledge that very low-carb diets may have unexplored risks. Sugary plant foods typically provide a mix of glucose and fructose; starches digest entirely to glucose.
Glucose is more nutritious because, as noted above, it has structural uses throughout the human body. Glucose is treated by our evolved physiology as a non-toxic nutrient: it is allowed free entry to the blood where it is accessible to all cells of the body.
In a condition of glucose deficiency, a “glycemic load” is likely to be highly beneficial: it will be nourishing and repair the nutrient deficiency.
Were Tom to eat 400 calories per day from safe starches for a week, he might find his glycemic control was considerably improved. A typical vegetable has about 80 carb calories per pound, half as glucose and half as fructose. Vegetables are recommended in our diet due to their micronutrient and fiber content, not their carbohydrate content. It may be of interest to them to know that some of our readers have experienced easier weight loss, reduced appetite, and diminished food cravings after adding “safe starches.” Our “Results” page has examples. We do not come from a “glucose mentality” and agree that fat and ketones are fine metabolic fuels. I am not asserting that no one can do well on a very low-carb diet, only that as carb consumption approaches zero risks of health problems increase. I think Chris has read enough of our work to know that we recommend ketogenic diets as a therapy for various conditions, including neurological disorders of all kinds, and generally hold that dietary adjustments are desirable in many health conditions. This reduces the risk of failing to provide adequate glucose for optimal cellular and extracellular function.
Luckily for both of us, failure to consume safe starches, if that is what our ancestors did, is not so damaging to health as to necessarily result in early death and failure to leave descendants. The most frequently cited benefit was feeling better after adding safe starches to the diet, with relief of dry eyes the most common symptomatic improvement.
Loren Cordain’s assertion that eating sugary plants like yams, sweet potatoes, and berries is preferable to eating starchy plants like rice and potatoes may be a defensible position, but we believe the evidence is strong that glucose is preferable to fructose as a carb source, and does not support the notion that rice or white potatoes are intrinsically dangerous foods. However, it in no way rebuts our observations about the negative health effects of a deficiency of mucus arising from a glucose deficiency.
I agree with Anonymous Prominent Member’s point about the importance of practical experience.
Uffe Ravnskov can find the scientific studies in support of our views on our blog and in our book. The issue Mike discussed, of an excess of mucus due to intestinal injury, is unrelated to the issue we discuss, of a mucus deficiency due to glucose deficiency.
It happens that the incidence of kidney stones, glutathione deficiency, and vitamin C deficiency is increased on very low carb ketogenic diets for epilepsy, and other very low carb diets. I’ve explained above why a glucose deficient diet can downregulate production of glycoproteins and other structural glucose-containing compounds. However, except in the brain (where ketogenic dieting can significantly reduce glucose levels) this is a difficult strategy to implement.
Their hair loss stops, their body temperature increases and their mood and energy improves. In some cases increasing carbohydrate intake moderately, to approximately 100g per day, actually re-starts the weight loss again.
Healthy people will do best on 100-150g per day; obesity is a heterogeneous disease and some will do best on a carb intake in that normal range, others (especially those who are more diabetic) will do best on very low-carb diets.
However, I do think that for healthy people the potential harms from very low-carb are greater than the potential harms from excessive carb consumption, so it is perhaps safer to advise eating in the upper end of the range, since a large number of people will deviate from their target.
LLVLCR may wish to read my reply to Tom Naughton; I would say something similar in LLVLCR’s case. Andreas Eenfeldt that those with diabetes and metabolic syndrome may do better with lower carb intake than is optimal for healthy people. Eenfeldt may wish to visit our “Results” page to learn about the mucus deficiency issue on very low carb. Production of glycoproteins such as mucin is a much more sensitive indicator of whole-body glucose status.
Jeff Volek should be aware that if “there is no defined condition associated with not consuming carbs,” it may be because biomedical scientists have spent little to no time observing people who do not consume carbs. Gerber’s experience is a helpful reminder that knowledge of the Warburg effect, while helpful for understanding cancer, is not sufficient knowledge to design an anti-cancer diet. We recommend a ketogenic diet for many neurological disorders and brain cancers, and readers have used our version of the ketogenc diet to cure migraines and ameliorate genetic diseases such as Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (see our “Ketogenic Diet” category for more).
A third factor to consider is that the gut, due to its mucin production, immune activity, and rapid turnover in cells and extracellular matrix, is a major consumer of glucose. On the Standard American Diet, an unhealthy diet, it often takes 50 years for chronic diseases to appear.
William Davis for his assessment that our “diet seems a rational, workable program” and agree with him that diabetics will benefit from reducing starch consumption. Nor is it the case that Ice Age humans ate zero-carb diets, nor any other humans who had access to starchy plants.
Indeed, our “safe starches” are defined by their lack of these toxic or immunogenic proteins. It is well established that macrobiotic dieters, who eat low-fat diets, can develop lipid deficiencies, notwithstanding the fact that lipids can be manufactured from glucose.


It makes a lot of points whose truth I acknowledge, but doesn’t address any of the arguments I’ve made, and certainly doesn’t support the conclusion that there is no benefit from dietary carbohydrate.
Primal and Perfect Health Diet are indeed extremely close, and Mark properly focuses on the important points, such as avoiding grains, fructose, and seed oils. However, although the brain can run on ketones, it turns out that ketones don’t diffuse well to the cortical areas of the brain, and the brain always requires some glucose even in extreme ketosis. Dietary carbs can feed Candida in the gut, but they also feed competing probiotic bacteria and promote intestinal barrier integrity and immune function, and thus their effect on the gut flora is complex. The history may go back even farther: recent anthropology speculates that the common human-chimp ancestor may have been bipedal and lived in open woodlands where starches but not sugary fruits were the predominant food. He asserts, “If glycosylation is truly important there is enough glucose available to perform this function without eating glucose or carbs” which is precisely the point at issue.
Since he posted a series on Facebook to which I had already begun drafting a reply, I’ll finish that and post it on my blog next week.
Dr BG herself reports, “I feel ‘better’ on higher carbs for the adrenals.” Dr BG also notes, “On Paleohacks there are countless stories of people on VLC paleo who feel dizzy or lightheaded. Antibiotics, starvation of carbohydrates, and other factors that deplete gut bacteria may increase the risk of fungal or other infections. The “stock” of glucose in blood is continually replenished by a “flow” from the liver as tissues draw it down.
Its chief defect is that triglycerides break down to about 11% glucose by calories, but the body’s glucose utilization is close to 30% of energy. No, it has nothing to do with the carbohydrate; “safe” means that after cooking the food lacks toxic, bioactive, or immunogenic proteins.
I agree with him on this point: it is possible to formulate ketogenic diets in such a way that they don’t generate nutrient deficiencies.
Leucine, glucose, and energy metabolism after 3 days of fasting in healthy human subjects.  Am J Clin Nutr.
Adaptive dysfunction of selenoproteins from the perspective of the triage theory: why modest selenium deficiency may increase risk of diseases of aging. Functional organization of the Golgi N- and O-glycosylation pathways involves pH-dependent complex formation that is impaired in cancer cells. Analysis of the human cancer glycome identifies a novel group of tumor-associated N-acetylglucosamine glycan antigens. Increased susceptibility to colitis and colorectal tumors in mice lacking core 3-derived O-glycans.
Pathway to diabetes through attenuation of pancreatic beta cell glycosylation and glucose transport.
Increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in patients with painful sensory neuropathy. To then say that yeah, they contain large quantities of a poison is weakening both arguments. However, it forces the argument into torturous territory, like explaining why we have such a strong taste for sweet. Well if you give me a free choice between watermelon and a raw potato, or even a cooked potato, I’m going for the watermelon every time. Also tropical fruits are the MOST delicious… mangos, melons, dates, figs, papayas, bananas, as well as being the most nutritious. Low blood sugar can simply be treated by making sure that you add more sugar to your daily intake so that you can keep your body regulated. A blood glucose level chart or blood glucose level graph is also handy to have in case you are dealing with the elderly who is a new diabetic and has trouble with remembering things.
They are then given a drink containing 75g of glucose and their blood glucose level is monitored over the next two hours. If there is a lack of insulin, or your body does not react well to insulin in such a way that its effectiveness in lowering the blood sugar is compromised, then your blood sugar level will remain high. So we have to take all these information with a grain of salt simply because these numbers are only indication. However, whatever your A1C level is, you must know how it works in order for you to understand what you need to do to handle it properly.
After that your body will start to regenerate the red blood cells and the new blood cells will have a different A1C measurement since it will have a different level of glycated hemoglobin in it. Not many people could bring such a roundtable together, and it’s an honor for us to be part of it.
In this case, replacing protein rather than providing dietary carbs may be a more helpful strategy. Diseases of metabolic derangement raise rather complex issues which we explore regularly on our blog. Over half of all human proteins need to be glycosylated for proper function, and such is the variety of ways in which they can be glycosylated that there are an estimated 2,000,000 compounds in the human glycome. During times of glucose scarcity, blood glucose levels are maintained to sustain brain and nerve function, but hormonal patterns change to prevent peripheral tissues from using glucose to make compounds like hyaluronan and mucin. During glucose deficiency, T3 thyroid hormone levels decrease and reverse-T3 levels increase. As this was about 5% of conference attendance of 500, and not all people at the conference were low-carb and only a minority had tried our diet, I think it’s a safe bet that at least 20% of people who eat very low-carb diets will experience overt glucose deficiency symptoms. Nor is it desirable, as this would eliminate a protective layer against systemic infection by pathogens that enter the body through the gut. First, it is less reactive, less likely to glycate (fructate) proteins or promote lipid peroxidation.
Fructose is treated by our evolved physiology as a toxin: it is shunted to the liver where it is rapidly disposed of. On a low carb diet, a safe starch is likely to be nourishing, regardless of its glycemic index.
The digestive tract typically consumes about 50 calories of glucose in digesting a pound of vegetable matter, due to intestinal and immune utilization. So we do not consider that a single macronutrient ratio applies to everyone, but we do believe that intolerance of a “normal” macronutrient ratio is diagnostic of a dysfunction of some kind. So if symposium attendees were not dropping like flies, perhaps we deserve a bit of the credit.
However, cancers often evolve an ability to take in glucose independently of insulin and other hormones that regulate glucose utilization in normal cells. He is quite right that cancers disable glycosylation by suppressing enzymes involved in it. Blood glucose levels are maintained even through the late stages of starvation, and cancer cells can evolve insulin-independence and the ability to import glucose massively from blood. In other cases, any increase in carbohydrate intake – in any form – will cause weight gain and other unpleasant symptoms. Our “Results” page includes feedback from a number of people who lost weight on our diet better than on other low-carb diets. Our comment threads, and other sites such as PaleoHacks, are full of people who have reported this experience. Low-carb is good, control of blood glucose is good, but it is not obvious that zero-carb is optimal.
It can generally be healed with the addition of 50 g starch to the diet; sometimes vitamin C supplementation is needed as well. Dr Volek may consult our “Results” page for examples of people who have developed adverse health conditions from very low-carb dieting. We also recommend practices that introduce ketosis intermittently, such as daily intermittent fasting, to everyone as a good general health practice. Perhaps his reaction may have been just a reflex: more IGF1 reduction, more ketosis, more cowbell.
If there are problems with very low carb diets, we should not necessarily expect them to appear immediately.
Something similar can happen on very low-carb diets, especially if dietary protein is insufficient. Also, while ketones can replace glucose as a fuel, they cannot glycosylate proteins, or generate ROS in the manner needed by immune cells. More importantly, ketosis promotes systemic invasion by Candida and glucose is needed for the immune defense to Candida, so a moderate carb intake is helpful to the defense against systemic Candida. In our “Food Plate,” the body of the apple signifies foods that are best eaten as part of a meal – starches, vegetables, meats, soups, sauce – and the “pleasure foods” are good snacks or desserts. As a result, this strategy cannot meet glucose needs without releasing free fatty acids beyond energy needs. As discussed above, blood glucose levels are not an adequate indicator of the body’s glucose status. The signal is soo strong, and the fix so immediate and effective that there must be something more to it than meets the eye. People with health issues may need to restrict fruits, but that’s a different bowl of wax.
That seems on the left side of the plateau, I think it could be increased to 2-3 fruits per day (adjusting the starch intake accordingly) without any risk of toxicity. It would only take 3 or 4 mangos to get into the 100-150g carb range and maybe 4 or 5 bananas. It has to be reviewed together with your lifestyle and habits and consulted with your doctor and dietician. So for instance if you have a 6.0 A1C test result, this test result will be good for about 3 months. Thus wheat, which includes gluten and various inhibitors of digestion that survive cooking, is an unsafe starch, while white rice, in which the known toxins (possibly excepting a recently discovered miRNA) are destroyed in cooking, is a safe starch. As our “Results” page shows, several people who had gut trouble on the very low-carb (and generally excellent) GAPS diet were cured on our diet.
We cannot be sure that there may not be negative health effects from severe carb restriction that will show up only after decades. Second, Paracelsus’s rule tells us that the “dose makes the poison.” Dietary glucose is distributed via the blood throughout the body, so that levels are low in any one location.
Some fructose may be converted to glycogen and then to glucose, but some may be converted to fat and much may be intercepted by gut bacteria. Thousands of copies of our book have been sold, and hundreds of people have reported results back to us. Rather we assert that a zero-carb diet is suboptimal for health, and not robust to certain health problems, such as some infections. To answer Adele, part of the issue is likely a protein deficiency: the need to utilize protein for gluconeogenesis may induce a protein deficiency on an otherwise adequate dietary intake. As a result, one could argue that things would run the opposite way than Adele proposes: reducing dietary glucose, which generally does not reduce blood glucose levels, will not affect cancer metabolism, but will limit availability of glucose to normal cells for structural use. Paradoxically, eating some dietary carbs can even decrease average 24-hour blood glucose levels by increasing insulin sensitivity in normal cells. Consumption of medium chain triglycerides or coconut oil in conjunction with starches will trigger a mild ketosis, see Ketogenic Diets, I: Ways to Make a Diet Ketogenic, Feb 24, 2011.
As Candida is an effective intracellular pathogen that can flourish systemically, this is a very important consideration.
Many of these folks are also doing HIIT and hard core CROSSFIT!” Of course, exercise utilizes glucose and will exacerbate any glucose deficiency.
If these are not successfully disposed of, then blood free fatty acid levels may become elevated, which leads to the phenomenon of “lipotoxicity” which can promote diabetes.
IOW, even if we agree that fructose is a toxin, I find this argument weakens this position. I realized that is not sustainable long term but it highly influenced me… the experience. The reason is because some people who also have problems with their cholesterol and blood pressure, will be at risk for other problems when their A1C test shows a high number. That is why it is quite common for doctors to suggest A1C test to be done at least twice a year, and more frequently if deemed necessary. To say that something is a “safe starch” is not to imply that it is a desirable food for, say, a Type I diabetic. Other factors are that vitamin C degrades through a pathway that generates oxalate in the kidneys, a risk factor for calcium oxalate stones.
Diamond’s statement, but argue that it supports our recommendation to eat at least 50 g of safe starches.
Whether and to what degree glucose deficiency and lipotoxicity would occur in any attempt to execute such a strategy is an empirical matter, but no reader should assume that such a strategy is riskless.
However, at an intellectual level I find some things unsatisfying with regards to fructose.
So the net contribution of vegetables to the body’s glucose status is small and may be negative. On the blog, I answer questions from people with health problems, ask them to report back results, and many return weeks or months later to report cures or improvements. Vitamin C does indeed share insulin-dependent receptors with glucose, which implies that glucose competes with C but also that insulin promotes C entry into cells for recycling, so the overall effect of consuming carb-rich foods is unclear.
Dr Noel might wish to consult our “Results” page for a few cases in which fungal infections were exacerbated on very low-carb diets and cured on our diet.
Since few people know how to properly formulate a ketogenic diet, this has to be considered a risk to low carb diets.
Vitamin K, an example of triage theory: is micronutrient inadequacy linked to diseases of aging?



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