Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a combination of several abnormalities of the heart and great blood vessels. In the normal heart, oxygen-poor (blue) blood returns to the right atrium from the body, travels to the right ventricle, then is pumped through the pulmonary artery into the lungs where it receives oxygen. In hypoplastic left heart syndrome, most of the structures on the left side of the heart are small and underdeveloped. Some congenital heart defects may be due to a genetic defect  that causes heart problems to occur more often in certain families.
The symptoms of hypoplastic left heart syndrome may look like other medical conditions and heart problems.
A pediatric cardiologist specializes in the diagnosis and medical management of congenital heart defects, as well as heart problems that may develop later in childhood. Your child will most likely be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) or special care nursery once symptoms are noted.
After surgery, infants will return to the intensive care unit (ICU) to be closely watched during recovery. Your child may need other equipment not mentioned here to provide support while in the ICU, or afterwards. Your child will be kept as comfortable as possible with several different medications; some that relieve pain, and some that relieve anxiety. After discharge from the ICU, your child will recuperate on another hospital unit before going home. Infants who spent a lot of time on a ventilator, or who were fairly ill while in the ICU, may have trouble feeding initially. Pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, may be recommended to keep your child comfortable at home. If any special treatments are to be given at home, the nursing staff will ensure that you are able to provide them, or a home health agency may assist you. Without intervention, most infants with HLHS will not survive longer than a few days to a few weeks.
Infants and children who have the staged surgical procedures will require special care and treatment to support growth and nutrition.
In the long-term, there is significant risk for progressive development of complications, such as heart failure, heart rhythm problems, protein-losing enteropathy, and liver congestion resulting in cirrhosis.
Regular follow-up care at a center offering highly-specialized congenital cardiac care should continue throughout the individual's lifespan.
This is the sudden drastic drop of blood pressure that will cause body organs lack of blood and fail to function.
Anaphylaxis is a dangerous allergic reaction to food, medications, insect stings, hormone changes or exercise. Pregnant women usually experience hormone changes and circulation expansion that will decrease a few points of blood pressure.
A loss of blood due to injury, heavy periods or internal bleeding (tumour, ulcer, surgery complications).
Some hypertension medicines may be too strong and cause slow heart rate, excessive loss of sodium and water.
Unbalanced diets with low iron and vitamin B-12 intake will interfere your body to produce sufficient red blood cells, which will eventually lead to anemia. Anxiety may cause one to feel intense, tired, breathe improperly, dehydrate and has low blood sugar. After getting to know about hypotension causes, let’s find out more about its effect and treatments. The information provided in this website is for educational purposes only and should not be considered as medical advice or treatment.
Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus by viral eradication in chronic hepatitis C: Myth or reality? It is a congenital (present at birth) syndrome, meaning that the heart defects occur due to underdevelopment of sections of the fetal heart starting during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. Oxygen-rich (red) blood returns to the left atrium from the lungs, passes into the left ventricle, and then is pumped out to the body through the aorta. The valve that controls blood flow between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart.


The largest artery in the body and the primary blood vessel leading from the heart to the body. The cardiologist will examine the child, listen to the heart and lungs, and make other observations that help in the diagnosis.
A diagnostic test that uses invisible X-ray energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film. A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmias or dysrhythmias), and detects heart muscle damage.
A procedure that evaluates the structure and function of the heart by using sound waves recorded on an electronic sensor that produce a moving picture of the heart and heart valves.
Initially, your child may be placed on oxygen, and possibly even on a ventilator, to assist with breathing. The first one shortly after birth, the second at about 4 to 6 months of age, and the final at about 2 to 3 years of age (the timing of these stages may vary). The first operation serves to make the right ventricle the main pumping chamber for blood flow to the body. A second operation replaces the Blalock-Taussig or Sano shunt with another connection to the pulmonary artery.
This operation allows all the oxygen-poor (blue) blood returning to the heart to flow into the pulmonary artery and lungs, greatly improving the oxygenation of the blood. A machine that helps your child breathe while he or she is under anesthesia during the operation. Small, plastic tubes inserted through the skin into blood vessels to provide IV fluids and important medicines that help your child recover from the operation. A specialized IV placed in the wrist or other area of the body where a pulse can be felt, that measures blood pressure continuously during surgery and while your child is in the ICU.
A small, flexible tube that keeps the stomach drained of acid and gas bubbles that may build up during surgery. A small, flexible tube that allows urine to drain out of the bladder and measures how much urine the body makes. A drainage tube may be inserted to keep the chest free of blood that would otherwise accumulate after the incision is closed. A machine that constantly displays a picture of your child's heart rhythm, and monitors heart rate, blood pressure, and other values. The staff will also be asking for your input as to how best to soothe and comfort your child.
These babies may have an oral aversion; they might equate something placed in the mouth, such as a pacifier or bottle, with a less pleasant sensation, such as being on the ventilator.
Special nutritional supplements may be added to formula or pumped breast milk to increase the number of calories in each ounce, thereby allowing your baby to drink less and still consume enough calories to grow. Feedings given through a small, flexible tube that passes through the nose, down the esophagus, and into the stomach, that can either supplement or take the place of bottle-feedings. Your child's doctor will discuss pain control before your child is discharged from the hospital. Heart transplantation is an option, but because of the difficulty in obtaining a donor heart for an infant, the series of surgical procedures described above is most often recommended. Some specialized centers where a greater number of procedures are done have achieved survival rates that are higher than at centers where fewer procedures are done. These children often have diminished physical strength as well as slowed developmental progress and may need support. When more bloods are delivered to intestine after eating, the blood vessels fail to adjust and cause the blood pressure to fall. This includes improper heart rate (too fast or too slow), heart valves disease, heart attack and heart failure. One’s blood pressure will fall, hard to breath, cough, headache, skin itchy and swelling in the affected part.
The common reason of dehydration is heat stroke, over exercising, fever, serious vomiting and diarrhea. Since vitamin B-12 can only be found in meats, eggs and milk, strict vegans may have a greater risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. It receives oxygen-rich (red) blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta, which takes the blood to the body.


When the chamber is small and poorly developed, it will not function effectively and can't provide enough blood flow to meet the body's needs. Diagnostic testing for congenital heart disease varies by the child's age, clinical condition, and institutional preferences. Intravenous (IV) medications may be given to help the heart and lungs function more efficiently.
The outflow from the right ventricle (the pulmonary artery) and the outflow from the left ventricle (the aorta) are connected side-by-side in order to allow all blood from either the right or left ventricles to reach the body. In this operation, the Blalock-Taussig or Sano shunt is removed, and the superior vena cava (the large vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the head and arms back to the heart) is connected to the right pulmonary artery. The Glenn shunt, connecting the superior vena cava to the right pulmonary artery, is left in place. A small, plastic tube is guided into the windpipe and attached to the ventilator, which breathes for your child while he or she is too sleepy to breathe effectively. This helps determine how well the heart is functioning. Immediately after surgery, the heart will be a little weaker than it was before, and the body may start to hold onto fluid, causing swelling and puffiness. Some infants are just tired, and need to build their strength up before they will be able to learn to bottle-feed. Infants who can drink part of their bottle, but not all, may be fed the remainder through the feeding tube. Other medications that you should take note are antidepressants, painkillers, Parkinson’s disease drugs and Viagra.
The left ventricle must be well-developed, strong, and muscular in order to pump enough blood to the body to meet its requirements. For this reason, an infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome will not live long without surgical intervention. A connection is also made to make a pathway for blood to flow into the lungs to receive oxygen.
Blood from the head and arms then passively flows into the pulmonary artery and lungs to receive oxygen.
A second connection is made directing blood from the inferior vena cava to the right pulmonary artery as well.
The chest is then closed several days later after the swelling in the chest has gone down and the heart has had a chance to adjust to the new circulation. After a HLHS operation, children will usually benefit from remaining on the ventilator for at least a few days.
The staff will give you instructions regarding medications, activity limitations, and follow-up appointments before your child is discharged.
Infants who are too tired to bottle-feed at all may receive their formula or breast milk through the feeding tube alone. It is serious and requires immediate treatment because the bacteria’s’ toxins will hurt various major organs. This may be accomplished with either a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt, in which the tube to the lungs is connected to the aorta,  or a modified Sano procedure, in which the tube is connected to the right ventricle. However, oxygen-poor (blue) blood returning to the heart from the lower body through the inferior vena cava will still mix with oxygen-rich (red) blood in the left heart and travel to the body, so the child will remain cyanotic. This connection can be created in slightly different variations, depending on the method your child's surgeon prefers, and what is best for your child. However, the infant will still have cyanosis since oxygen-poor (blue) blood from the right atrium and oxygen-rich (red) blood from the left side of the heart mix and flow through the aorta to the body.
This operation helps create some of the connections necessary for the final operation, the Fontan procedure.
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