All matter in the natural world is composed of one or more of the 92 fundamental substances called elements. An atom is the smallest quantity of an element that retains the unique properties of that element. Atoms are made up of even smaller subatomic particles, three types of which are important: the proton, neutron, and electron. In their most common form, many elements also contain the same number of neutrons as protons. The periodic table of the elements, shown in [link], is a chart identifying the 92 elements found in nature, as well as several larger, unstable elements discovered experimentally.
An isotope that contains more than the usual number of neutrons is referred to as a heavy isotope. Interventional Radiologist The controlled use of radioisotopes has advanced medical diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Radioisotopes emit subatomic particles that can be detected and tracked by imaging technologies. Although electrons do not follow rigid orbits a set distance away from the atom’s nucleus, they do tend to stay within certain regions of space called electron shells. The atoms of the elements found in the human body have from one to five electron shells, and all electron shells hold eight electrons except the first shell, which can only hold two. The factor that most strongly governs the tendency of an atom to participate in chemical reactions is the number of electrons in its valence shell.
All atoms (except hydrogen and helium with their single electron shells) are most stable when there are exactly eight electrons in their valence shell. In nature, atoms of one element tend to join with atoms of other elements in characteristic ways.
The human body is composed of elements, the most abundant of which are oxygen (O), carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N). The tendency of an atom to be stable or to react readily with other atoms is largely due to the behavior of the electrons within the atom’s outermost electron shell, called its valence shell.
The smallest unit of an element that still retains the distinctive behavior of that element is an ________. The characteristic that gives an element its distinctive properties is its number of ________. On the periodic table of the elements, mercury (Hg) has an atomic number of 80 and a mass number of 200.59. The most abundant elements in the foods and beverages you consume are oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. These four elements—oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen—together make up more than 95 percent of the mass of the human body, and the body cannot make elements, so it is helpful to have them in consumables.
Magnesium’s 12 electrons are distributed as follows: two in the first shell, eight in the second shell, and two in its valence shell.
Because the majority of diabetic patients have type 2 diabetes, the rest of this web module will focus on diagnosis and management of this population.
In type 2 diabetes, it is important to remember that insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction are closely linked. Before type 2 diabetes fully develops (a€?pre-diabetesa€? period), insulin resistance may already be present.
At some point, type 2 diabetics can no longer increase or maintain insulin secretion levels to compensate for increasing insulin resistance.
A A patient can also be diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on an elevated Hemoglobin A1C. The diagnosis of impaired glucose tolerance or pre-diabetes is included in the table below. Diagnosis of diabetes must be confirmed on a subsequent day unless unequivocal symptoms of diabetes are present. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is the preferred test to diagnose diabetes in children and non-pregnant adults.
The 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is more sensitive and slightly more specific than the FPG. The diagnosis of pre-diabetes can be categorized as a€?impaired fasting glucosea€? (IFG) or a€?impaired glucose tolerancea€? (IGT). The incidence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents has dramatically increased in the past 10 years.
Clinical judgment should be used to test for for diabetes in high-risk patients who do not meet these criteria. When should women with gestational diabetes (GDM) and no pre-pregnancy history of diabetes be screened initially for diabetes mellitus?
An element is a pure substance that is distinguished from all other matter by the fact that it cannot be created or broken down by ordinary chemical means.
In other words, an atom of hydrogen is a unit of hydrogen—the smallest amount of hydrogen that can exist.
The number of positively-charged protons and non-charged (“neutral”) neutrons, gives mass to the atom, and the number of each in the nucleus of the atom determine the element. In the planetary model, helium’s two electrons are shown circling the nucleus in a fixed orbit depicted as a ring. One proton is the same as another, whether it is found in an atom of carbon, sodium (Na), or iron (Fe). The most common form of carbon, for example, has six neutrons as well as six protons, for a total of 12 subatomic particles in its nucleus.
The elements are arranged in order of their atomic number, with hydrogen and helium at the top of the table, and the more massive elements below.
In the periodic table of the elements, elements in a single column have the same number of electrons that can participate in a chemical reaction.


An isotope is one of the different forms of an element, distinguished from one another by different numbers of neutrons.
Interventional radiologists are physicians who treat disease by using minimally invasive techniques involving radiation. One of the most advanced uses of radioisotopes in medicine is the positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, which detects the activity in the body of a very small injection of radioactive glucose, the simple sugar that cells use for energy. Rather, they are constantly reacting with other atoms to form and to break down more complex substances. An electron shell is a layer of electrons that encircle the nucleus at a distinct energy level. This principle is referred to as the octet rule, and it states that an atom will give up, gain, or share electrons with another atom so that it ends up with eight electrons in its own valence shell. For example, carbon commonly fills its valence shell by linking up with four atoms of hydrogen. Helium, as well as larger atoms with eight electrons in their valence shell, is unlikely to participate in chemical reactions because they are stable.
According to the octet rule, magnesium is unstable (reactive) because its valence shell has just two electrons. It also suggests that combination therapy for type 2 diabetes will likely play a role in most patients in order to address the insulin resistance and deficiency. It is poorly reproducible, more expensive, and inconvenient for patients, and rarely used in clinical practice. 50% of undiagnosed patients are eventually diagnosed after complications of diabetes develop especially cardiovascular complications.
Testing for diabetes should be considered in all individuals at age 45 years and above, particularly in those with a BMI a‰?25* and, if normal, should be repeated at 3-year intervals. Only children at increased risk for the presence of the development of type 2 diabetes should be tested. Women with GDM should be screened for diabetes 6 a€“ 12 weeks postpartum and should be followed up with a subsequent screening for the development of diabetes or pre-diabetes. While your body can assemble many of the chemical compounds needed for life from their constituent elements, it cannot make elements. The number of negatively-charged electrons that “spin” around the nucleus at close to the speed of light equals the number of protons. Although this model is helpful in visualizing atomic structure, in reality, electrons do not travel in fixed orbits, but whiz around the nucleus erratically in a so-called electron cloud. The periodic table is a useful device because for each element, it identifies the chemical symbol, the atomic number, and the mass number, while organizing elements according to their propensity to react with other elements.
These electrons are known as “valence electrons.” For example, the elements in the first column all have a single valence electron, an electron that can be “donated” in a chemical reaction with another atom. Many conditions that could once only be treated with a lengthy and traumatic operation can now be treated non-surgically, reducing the cost, pain, length of hospital stay, and recovery time for patients.
The PET camera reveals to the medical team which of the patient’s tissues are taking up the most glucose. To fully understand anatomy and physiology you must grasp how atoms participate in such reactions. If the valence shell is full, the atom is stable; meaning its electrons are unlikely to be pulled away from the nucleus by the electrical charge of other atoms. For example, oxygen, with six electrons in its valence shell, is likely to react with other atoms in a way that results in the addition of two electrons to oxygen’s valence shell, bringing the number to eight.
In so doing, the two elements form the simplest of organic molecules, methane, which also is one of the most abundant and stable carbon-containing compounds on Earth. The smallest unit of an element that retains all of the properties of that element is an atom.
All other atoms tend to accept, donate, or share electrons in a process that brings the electrons in their valence shell to eight (or in the case of hydrogen, to two). These electrons are known as “valence electrons.” For example, the elements in the first column all have a single valence electron—an electron that can be “donated” in a chemical reaction with another atom. It is therefore likely to participate in chemical reactions in which it donates two electrons. Over several years, insulin secretion can no longer meet insulin needs and eventually fasting hyperglycemia develops. An object’s mass is the amount of matter contained in the object, and the object’s mass is the same whether that object is on Earth or in the zero-gravity environment of outer space. So, what gives an element its distinctive properties—what makes carbon so different from sodium or iron? A radioactive isotope is an isotope whose nucleus readily decays, giving off subatomic particles and electromagnetic energy. For example, in the past, the only options for a patient with one or more tumors in the liver were surgery and chemotherapy (the administration of drugs to treat cancer). Thus, the most metabolically active tissues show up as bright “hot spots” on the images ([link]). If the valence shell is not full, the atom is reactive; meaning it will tend to react with other atoms in ways that make the valence shell full.
When two hydrogen atoms each share their single electron with oxygen, covalent bonds are formed, resulting in a molecule of water, H2O. As stated above, another example is water; oxygen needs two electrons to fill its valence shell.
But, atoms themselves contain many subatomic particles, the three most important of which are protons, neutrons, and electrons. Once again, a diagnosis of diabetes must be confirmed on a subsequent day unless unequivocal symptoms of diabetes are present. Just as a magnet sticks to a steel refrigerator because their opposite charges attract, the positively charged protons attract the negatively charged electrons.


The number of protons and neutrons may be equal for some elements, but are not equal for all. All of the isotopes of carbon have the same number of protons; therefore, 13C has seven neutrons, and 14C has eight neutrons. Different radioactive isotopes (also called radioisotopes) differ in their half-life, the time it takes for half of any size sample of an isotope to decay. Some liver tumors, however, are difficult to access surgically, and others could require the surgeon to remove too much of the liver. PET can reveal some cancerous masses because cancer cells consume glucose at a high rate to fuel their rapid reproduction. If you take a look at the periodic table of the elements, you will notice that hydrogen and helium are placed alone on either sides of the top row; they are the only elements that have just one electron shell ([link]).
These particles do not vary in quality from one element to another; rather, what gives an element its distinctive identification is the quantity of its protons, called its atomic number. If it were to react with another atom, would it be more likely to accept or to donate one or more electrons?
A diagnosis of diabetes must be confirmed on a subsequent day unless unequivocal symptoms of diabetes are present. Where gravity strongly pulls on an object’s mass its weight is greater than it is where gravity is less strong. Calcium is essential to the human body; it is absorbed and used for a number of processes, including strengthening bones. Moreover, the elements that make up any given compound always occur in the same relative amounts. The different isotopes of an element can also be indicated with the mass number hyphenated (for example, C-12 instead of 12C). For example, the half-life of tritium—a radioisotope of hydrogen—is about 12 years, indicating it takes 12 years for half of the tritium nuclei in a sample to decay.
Moreover, chemotherapy is highly toxic to the liver, and certain tumors do not respond well to it anyway. A second shell is necessary to hold the electrons in all elements larger than hydrogen and helium. Again, a look at the periodic table reveals that all of the elements in the second row, from lithium to neon, have just two electron shells.
This single electron is likely to be drawn into relationships with the atoms of other elements, so that hydrogen’s single valence shell can be stabilized. Incidentally, the name “hydrogen” reflects its contribution to water (hydro- = “water”; -gen = “maker”). Protons and neutrons contribute nearly all of an atom’s mass; the number of protons and neutrons is an element’s mass number. Currently, FPG and 2-hour OGTT are the recommended tests for detecting all states of hyperglycemia. An object of a certain mass weighs less on the moon, for example, than it does on Earth because the gravity of the moon is less than that of Earth.
When you consume dairy products your digestive system breaks down the food into components small enough to cross into the bloodstream. In glucose, there are always six carbon and six oxygen units for every twelve hydrogen units. Its atomic number is 92 (it has 92 protons) but it contains 146 neutrons; it has the most mass of all the naturally occurring elements. Excessive exposure to radioactive isotopes can damage human cells and even cause cancer and birth defects, but when exposure is controlled, some radioactive isotopes can be useful in medicine. In some such cases, an interventional radiologist can treat the tumors by disrupting their blood supply, which they need if they are to continue to grow. Heavier and lighter versions of the same element can occur in nature because these versions have different numbers of neutrons. The number of protons and electrons within a neutral atom are equal, thus, the atom’s overall charge is balanced. Moreover, all atoms of carbon, whether found in your liver or in a lump of coal, contain six protons.
In this procedure, called radioembolization, the radiologist accesses the liver with a fine needle, threaded through one of the patient’s blood vessels. The elemental calcium in cheese, therefore, is the same as the calcium that forms your bones. Thus, the atomic number, which is the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom, identifies the element. The radiologist then inserts tiny radioactive “seeds” into the blood vessels that supply the tumors. Because an atom usually has the same number of electrons as protons, the atomic number identifies the usual number of electrons as well.
In the days and weeks following the procedure, the radiation emitted from the seeds destroys the vessels and directly kills the tumor cells in the vicinity of the treatment.
The elements in the human body are shown in [link], beginning with the most abundant: oxygen (O), carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and nitrogen (N). Each element’s name can be replaced by a one- or two-letter symbol; you will become familiar with some of these during this course.



Glucose test zwangerschapsdiabetes
Vital signs for a hypoglycemic patient


Comments

  1. 19.08.2014 at 14:31:13


    Alone or in conjunction with a sulfonylurea high blood.

    Author: Vista
  2. 19.08.2014 at 22:32:12


    Out when you're between reading.

    Author: ELIK_WEB
  3. 19.08.2014 at 11:14:50


    Hypoglycemia is unconscious they should be treated.

    Author: Lady_Dronqo
  4. 19.08.2014 at 13:49:38


    Dental association recommends that their own blood glucose levels as often as they you are.

    Author: SabaH_OlmayacaQ