You are now in the sixth month of your pregnancy as your little one already looks like a tiny person. Your baby looks almost like what he will look like at birth, with the face almost done developing and all the external organs and body parts in their proper place. This is also the week when the protective keratin layer starts developing, so your baby’s skin can thicken as he grows inside the womb [4].
His lungs are now preparing for breathing after birth, as the capillary vessels and pneumocytes (specialized lung cells) begin to form [6]. The tiny bones in the inner ear keep maturing into the 23rd week, improving the baby’s hearing and balance [7]. Those kicks and punches are growing so strong with the developing muscles and nervous system that you might even be able to see a tiny hand or feet poke from inside your abdomen!
Another interesting thing to observe is your baby’s sleep and wake pattern, as he probably already has one. Your baby bump continues to grow while the hormone relaxin keeps loosening joints and muscles, making you feel clumsier every day [6].
The symptoms of morning sickness, diarrhea and food aversions have probably been replaced by a new set of discomforts. Your blood pressure level is monitored regularly during prenatal visits as pregnancy increases the risk of high blood pressure and preeclampsia [14]. An ultrasound performed this week shows your baby like a little doll sucking on his thumb and moving his arms and legs.
Most of us know someone who has been diagnosed with diabetes but we may not fully understand the specifics of the disease. Let’s look at some important aspects of Diabetes and how we can prevent this disease from occurring. Pregnant women who have never had diabetes before but who have high blood glucose (sugar) levels during pregnancy are said to have gestational diabetes. The severity of the symptoms and the rate at which they develop may differ depending on which type of diabetes you have.
Early detection and treatment of diabetes can decrease the risk of developing the complications of diabetes, which is quite extensive. Diet: This entails following a healthy eating plan rather than a restrictive and difficult program. Insulin: People with type 1 diabetes will have to take insulin by injection while only some of those with type 2 diabetes are treated this way.
For more information visit the Bermuda Diabetes Association or the American Diabetes Association website. People’s Pharmacy provides a great book to help you better understand diabetes as well. Diabetes acquired during gestation period, a period of fetal development in the uterus from conception to birth is termed as gestational diabetes or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Being one of the most common health problems for pregnant women, gestational diabetes affects about 18% of pregnant women, as per the records of American Diabetes Association.
Since, the rise in blood sugar levels occur after the development of the body of the fetus, no birth defects or body deformities are observed, unlike babies who are born to women who have been diagnosed of diabetes prior to pregnancy.
High levels of insulin interfere with fat metabolism, leading to an increase in the size of the baby and the formation of macrosomia or a “fat baby”.
Elevated levels of glucose can also affect the lungs of the newborns, thus requiring more oxygen and causing breathing problems, commonly termed as respiratory distress syndrome. Often women are subjected to constant hormonal fluctuations, more so during pregnancy, which in turn, affects the functioning of insulin. However, the transfer from the blood and the utilization of glucose by cells requires a hormone called insulin that is released by the pancreas.
Failure of the pancreatic beta cells to produce adequate amounts of insulin or insulin resistance developed by the body’s cells in pregnant women does not allow her body to counteract the effect of the rise in the blood sugar levels, thus leading to hyperglycemia and gestational diabetes. No symptoms have been identified so far for gestational diabetes, which makes it mandatory for conducting glucose-screening tests during the 24-28 weeks of pregnancy.
She is then made to drink large quantities of a sugar drink and the measurement of the blood sugar levels is done two hours after the consumption of the drink.
If left untreated, gestational diabetes can pose serious health problems for both the baby and the mother.
Once you are diagnosed with gestational diabetes, a team of health care providers including a gynecologist, a registered dietician, a diabetes specialist or a diabetes educator can advice you on the different ways of bringing your blood sugar levels under control.
Frequent breast feeding or feeding using a feeding tube that goes directly into the stomach of the baby is one of the most effective ways of keeping blood sugar levels at an optimum level in babies.
Yet another treatment involves the intravenous infusions of glucose in the infants to make up for the low levels of glucose.
Even though, it is normal to gain weight during pregnancy, it is advisable to keep your blood sugar levels under control by balancing your intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates. Consult a professional nutritionist, who will help you design a well-balanced diet including the correct ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Gestational diabetes is a temporary phase and pregnant women, generally do not remain diabetic after the delivery.
Gestational Diabetes acts just like Type 2 except that it is brought on by pregnancy hormones. The American Diabetes Association encourages nutritional counseling who will set a meal plan with you as well as evaluate your sugar level that you will be recording as part of monitoring your sugar level. Exercise and eating according to your set meal plan will be the key to getting you through to your healthy baby’s birth. Disclaimer: PTP is sharing information found openly on the web to support creating awareness about Diabetes. You are now in the seventh month of your pregnancy, so two-third of the waiting period to meet your baby is over.

The brain structure continues to get more complex with characteristic indentions and grooves developing along its surface [2].
Your baby is still practicing breathing in and out while blood vessels are developing throughout both the lungs.
Your baby is now practicing various reflex actions including sucking harder than before, grasping anything that floats within range (usually the umbilical cord) and blinking his eyes [7]. The developing fat layers give the fetus an opaque and chubby appearance while fingernails begin to appear [9].
The 28th week is an important phase of twin fetal viability with preterm multiples born this week having equal chances of surviving as single babies (about 90%).
Your baby is almost as big as a kabocha squash [14], being about 15 inches (38 cm) long from head to toe with his weight ranging around 2.25 pounds (almost a kilogram) [15].
You have probably gained between 17 and 25 pounds in the earlier two trimesters [2], with the ideal weight gain level for the third trimester being around 5 pounds [7]. A 2D ultrasound performed this week will show your baby to be quite active, moving his arms and legs a lot, grabbing he umbilical cord and sucking on his thumb. Your doctor might order a blood test this week for checking your hemoglobin levels to detect anemia [17], while your blood pressure levels will be measured during each prenatal visit. Rh-negative women are given a Rhogam shot (an Rh immunoglobulin or RhIg injection) to prevent Rhesus factor sensitization in the mother in case the baby’s blood possesses the antigen [18].
The 23rd week marks a milestone as if you had to deliver your baby now, he would have had considerable chances of surviving as about 25% to 35% babies born this week survive with proper medical attention [1]. The downy hair covering his body may grow thicker, allowing you to see it on an ultrasound [5].
In the mean time, the vestibular system – the part of the brain that help to sense movement – matures and becomes active as the baby can already sense your movements [1]. Researches show that your baby is less likely to be bothered by sounds he gets used to in the womb (e.g. However, there is nothing to worry about in case the early pregnancy signs refuse to go away or you think you are showing more than you should at this stage, as each pregnancy is unique and each baby has a different growth rate.
This additional weight is essential for providing the fetus with all the necessary nutrients, while it also helps later with breastfeeding your baby [12].
Your doctor may also order a blood test to check for abnormal blood sugar levels if you have a history of diabetes.
Some couples opt or a 3D or 4D ultrasound to see their baby in detail; but, they are quite expensive and you may not get the desired result unless the baby is in a favorable position [15]. Those who have diabetes know how important it is to understand their body, pay attention to their diet, take regular tests and to keep an eye out for warning signs.
Those who have this type need insulin therapy and other treatments in order for the body to function correctly. While the cause of gestational diabetes is still unclear, studies have suggested that insulin resistance may play a role. From skin and eye complications to kidney and heart problems, diabetes takes a toll on the entire body if left untreated.
Regardless of which type of diabetes, this is a vital part of the treatment and management of diabetes. These tablets are generally called oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA’s) and any of them may be taken alone or in combination. Women who have never experienced diabetes and have been diagnosed with abnormal blood sugar levels only during pregnancy suffer from gestational diabetes.
However, insulin imbalances in the mother can certainly affect the metabolism of glucose in the growing fetus. This not only predisposes newborns to obesity and diabetes but also subjects them to many birth traumas like collar bone fracture, damaged shoulder nerves, etc. Excess production of red blood cells gives a flushed and red appearance to the newborn babies skin and makes them more prone to jaundice. Reduction in the levels of minerals is yet another sign of a hypoglycemic newborn, which manifests itself in the form of muscle twitching and cramping.
Our body converts carbohydrates from the diet into glucose and releases it into the bloodstream. The hormones released by the placenta, a channel used for the movement of nutrients, blood and water from the mother to the fetus, render the insulin dysfunctional, thereby requiring three times more than the normal levels that are maintained in the mother’s body. Strong family history of diabetes, obesity, an age over 35, high blood pressure, an unexplained still birth in the past, etc., can also increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes in pregnant women. An oral glucose tolerance test is conducted to test for the ability of the woman’s body to metabolize sugar. A higher than normal range of glucose levels indicates a higher susceptibility of the pregnant women to develop gestational diabetes and makes it extremely important for her to constantly monitor her blood sugar levels. Hence, maintaining a healthy weight through a healthy diet and exercise can help a woman suffering from gestational diabetes in controlling her blood sugar levels and giving birth to a healthy baby. Physical activity or moderate exercises during pregnancy including walking for about 30 minutes a day, yoga and light aerobic exercises that do not place a lot of strain on your abdominal area can mimic the effects of insulin in driving the movement of glucose into the cells from the bloodstream. Moreover, studies have found that breast feeding has a strong impact on glucose metabolism in babies and hence can help in stabilizing the blood sugar levels. Babies diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome require an external source of oxygen or a breathing tube to enable the proper functioning of their lungs. Make healthy food choices and stay active to allow your body to utilize glucose more efficiently.
In order to stabilize your glucose levels, do not skip meals and avoid foods containing animal fat, trans fatty acids, refined sugar and other high sugar containing foods like cakes, ice creams, candies, cookies , chocolates, soft drinks and soda. It can, however, put them at a higher risk of developing diabetes during the next pregnancy or diabetes mellitus during the later stages of their lives. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. With the beginning of the third trimester, you are probably starting to experience a new set of symptoms along with the existing ones.

The increasing number of brain tissues in the 28th week contributes in higher brain activity levels. The chemical agent surfactant is produced to prevent the air sacs from sticking with each other once the lungs begin to absorb oxygen after your baby’s birth.
Your baby can now blink or even turn his head in the womb if you shine a bright light on your belly from the outside [5]. Another noticeable change this week is the disappearance of the downy hair (lanugo) covering the fetus, as the job of regulating his body temperature is taken over by the fat underneath the skin layer [10].
Try to keep track of how much your baby is moving so you can detect any abnormality in his sleep and wake pattern as soon as possible.
However, they are still at considerable risk of long term complications like cerebral palsy, vision problems and chronic breathing difficulties [13]. The relaxin hormone loosening your joints and the growing belly shifting your center of gravity are causing your to drop things, bump into your furniture and trip over more often. You might notice a thick yellowish fluid (colostrum) leaking from the nipples as your body is still preparing for breastfeeding [16].
You can also opt for a 3D ultrasound at this stage to get the first picture for your baby album. You may also have to take a glucose challenge test (if you have not already) to check for gestational diabetes. However, the skin layer grows faster than the fat layer, making your baby look a little saggy or wrinkly at this stage [3]. The total weight gain level should range from 25 to 35 pounds (35 to 45 pounds if carrying twins), distributed throughout the pregnancy. Gestational diabetes starts when your body is not able to make and use all the insulin it needs for pregnancy. Find out if you are at an increased risk for having type 2 diabetes by completing a fast and easy Diabetes Risk Test.
Together with healthy eating patterns, most of those with type 2 diabetes are able to keep their diabetes under control.
Even though, insulin cannot cross the placenta, glucose and other nutrients can pass through, leading to the accumulation of glucose in the blood of the fetus, which forces the fetus’s pancreas to produce ample amount of insulin for metabolizing glucose. Moreover, delivery becomes possible only through a cesarean operation, which causes discomfort to the mother during her post-delivery period. Other prominent symptoms of hypoglycemic newborns include poor suck, refusal to feed, jitteriness, high pitched cry, lethargy, temperature instability, hypothermia, listlessness, etc.
Glucose enters the cells and is metabolized further, to be used as a primary source of energy.
After being made to fast for 4-6 hours, the blood sugar levels of the expectant women are measured.
Besides monitoring the mother’s glucose levels, it is just as important to frequently regulate and monitor the blood sugar levels in infants to avoid complications like seizures. Keep a track of your calorie and sugar intake and constantly monitor your glucose levels using a glucose meter or strips. If the blood glucose levels remain high, despite a change in your eating habits, you should consider consulting a doctor and taking oral medication or insulin injections for controlling blood sugar levels. Moreover, regulating blood glucose levels in pregnant women plays a crucial role in preventing obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, among other things in children. If you see something in our posts that you think would help you, consult your Doctor first before making any changes. Your baby is going through the final developmental phase, with preterm babies born in the 28th week having a 90% survival rate without any major neurological or physical defects [1].
The fetal brain waves are also starting to show distinguishable sleep cycles when your baby is asleep.
This is also the week when the irises are filling with pigment; however, the eye color is not permanent and can change until he is 1 year old [6]. Wearing flat comfortable shoes and moving slowly are recommended to avoid falling and harming your baby [4].
At the same time, the developing veins and arteries just underneath the skin give your baby a reddish hue; it will go away gradually as the fat layer grows. At first, your pancreas tries to make up for this by producing extra insulin but over time it isn’t able to keep up with this demand and in turn blood glucose levels become abnormal.
Since the glucose can not be converted into energy, it builds up and causes high levels in the blood (hyperglycemia). For those with type 1 diabetes, food intake and insulin injection balance is an important key to properly control blood glucose levels. Do not adhere to crash diets that deplete your body of all the essential nutrients, vitamins and minerals. The rapid eye movement (REM) phase can be detected as well, indicating that your baby might have started dreaming by this week [3]. The exact reasons responsible for this action are still not known; but, it lets your baby taste the amniotic fluid as his taste buds are now matured enough [8].
In most cases, the babies settle into a head down position by this week, preparing for birth; but, they are likely to continue turning for a couple of more weeks [12]. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose levels with healthy eating and regular exercise. Which could lead to macrosomia, when baby is too big to enter birth canal, or dystocia, when the baby enters birth canal, head exits but shoulders get stuck.

Hypoglycemia wikivet
Normal blood sugar level for diabetic patients
Fasting blood sugar high random normal c


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