The presence of ketones in urine indicates that the body is making use of fat as energy source instead of glucose. Though standard normal values may differ from one laboratory to another, generally they follow the following with only slight variations.
The accumulation of ketones in the body could lead to serious health problems especially for individuals with diabetes. High level of ketones in urine can be avoided by maintaining a well-balanced diet to ensure that the body has the right amount of energy source. Menstrual cycle is a very vital part of a women’s life and yet not all women are completely aware of the facts associated with this change and are also sometimes, shy to discuss  them.
Also known as celiac sprue and gluten-sensitive enteropathy, celiac disease is a digestive and autoimmune disorder that may result in damage of lining of small intestine particularly when gluten foods are eaten. Urine may be assessed both at the bedside (dipstick) and in the laboratory (microscopy, culture, sensitivity and urinary electrolytes). Specific gravity of urine is a measure of the amount of solutes dissolved in urine as compared to water (1.000). Specific Gravity measures the ability of the kidney to concentrate or dilute the urine and is directly proportional to urine osmolality (solute concentration). The glomerular filtrate of blood plasma is usually acidified by renal tubules and collecting ducts from a pH of 7.4 to about 6 in the final urine. Control of pH is important in the management of several diseases, including bacteriuria, renal calculi, and drug therapy. Dipstick urinalysis detects protein with Bromphenol blue indicator dye and is most sensitive to albumin and less sensitive to Bence-Jones protein and globulins. Determines the presence of whole or lysed white cells in the urine (pyuria) by detecting leucocyte esterase activity. False negative: Intercurrent or recent antibiotic therapy (especially gentamicin, tetracycline and cephalosporins), glycosuria, proteinuria, high specific gravity.
Nitrates in the urine are converted to nitrites in the presence of Gram-negative bacteria such as E.coli and Klebsiella.
The pseudoperoxidase reaction of erythrocytes, free haemoglobin or myoglobin catalyses chromogen oxidation on the dipstick to produce a colour change. Ketones (acetone, aceto-acetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid) are the end-point of incomplete fat metabolism. Bilirubin is formed as a by-product of red blood cell degradation in the liver, and then conjugated with the solubilising sugar, glucuronic acid and excreted in bile. Raised conjugated bilirubinaemia (with bilirubinuria) is associated with hepatocellular disease, cirrhosis, viral and drug induced hepatitis, biliary tract obstruction (e.g. Very sensitive but non-specific test to determine liver damage, haemolytic disease and severe infections. If someone get volume resuscitation with IV fluids and IV glucose together, Specific Gravity is decreased or increased ?
Purpose: Measures carbohydrate metabolism after the ingestion of a challenge dose of glucose. Mechanism: After the ingestion of challenge glucose dose, the body absorbs the dose rapidly. Tell that patient that he or she needs to fast for 10 to 16 hours before the test as ordered by the physician.


Remind the patient not to smoke, drink alcohol and coffee, and not to eat 8-12 hours before the test or during the test.
Exertion of strenuous activities is also contraindicated 8-12 hours prior to the test and during the test. Offer a challenge dose of 50, 75 or 100 grams of carbohydrate (as ordered by the physician) which is usually a sweetened carbonated drink or a gelatin. Inform the patient that he or she may feel a slight discomfort from the needle punctures and the pressure of the tourniquet.
Inform the patient that he should not discard the first urine specimen voided after waking up.
Test saliva only if user wishes to check for leakage of mercury from amalgam dental filings. Hm-Chelat is non-toxic and works through the creation of a magnetic gradient in the blood after it has been absorbed follwing ingestion.
The Free Radical Test kit tests urine for Malondialdehyde (MDA), a by-product of free radical activity, in the body.
Osumex’s Free Radical Test is a simple, inexpensive, easy to use kit which provides result in minutes. Excessive free radicals cause a lot of health issues including dementia, arthritis, cancers, aging, etc. The Osumex Adrenal Function Urine Test is a simple home test for the function of the user's adrenals.
A trial sample of 1% NaCl is provided so that the user can practise to recognise the colour change for the completion of the test. The Osumex Sulkowitch Urine Calcium Test is a simple home test for the presence of calcium in urine using a simple titration procedure.
This is a kit to test water, particularly well, rain, or any untreated "outside" water to check that it is safe to consume. This bacteria test enables user to find out if the sample water contains coliform bacteria. This 2-test pack enables user to find out if the sample water contains iron (both ferrous and ferric). Again hardness of water is not harmful to health but where the level of hardness is high, it generally indicate the presence of iron. However, it was discoverd that a lot of the "distilled" water sold by retail outlets contained presence of metals when tested. Health Canada, Food Standards Agency (UK) and the FDA (USA) have not evaluated these statements. Ketonuria, as this condition is referred to, is characterized by the high quantity of ketone bodies in the urine. If, for some reason, there is not enough glucose that the body can use, it will switch to using stored fats. These are long-term illnesses, fever, dehydration, hyperthyroidism and other disorders in which the metabolism is increased, glycogen storage disease, renal glycosuria, poisoning, alkalosis, pregnancy and lactation. Before the test, any medications or drugs that could affect the test results must be stopped. If the condition is left unattended it could eventually result in ketoacidosis and hyperglycemia.


However, the cause must be determined first so that the appropriate treatment method can be applied. As a general rule it is considered to be a manly thing since it is associated with heavy lifting and such bodily activities.  Women form only 9% of those diagnosed. Often, substances such as protein or glucose will begin to appear in the urine before patients are aware that they may have a problem.
Urine for laboratory analysis must be transferred quickly and at the correct temperature otherwise breeding ground for contaminants.
However, the diagnosis may be missed in up to 20% of cases if a negative urinalysis dipstick is used to exclude UTI. The presence of bilirubinuria may be an early indicator of liver disease and occur befor the clinical signs of jaundice develop. Within the intestine, the bilirubin is converted into stercobilin (exrcreted in faeces) and urobilinogen (excreted by the kidneys). Our Team, headed by Mike Cadogan & Chris Nickson, consists (mostly) of emergency physicians and intensivists based in Australia and New Zealand.
This mechanism causes the plasma glucose levels to rise and reach its peak within 30 minutes to 1 (one) hour. A program of between 6 - 12 months is suggested for an appreciable reduction of the heavy metals load.
Starvation could be a result of not eating for a long time, alcoholism, bulimia and anorexia. If it is found out that the condition is a result of starvation, diet modification to ensure that there will be sufficient source of carbohydrates will be recommended. How wonderful it is to feel a life growing inside, to nurture it and build a world for it where no fear can touch that little gift of God. Most urobilinogen is excreted in the faeces or transported back to the liver and converted into bile. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas in response thus, causing the glucose levels of the body return to its normal state within 2-3 hours.
In a normal state, the amount of ketone that gets into the urine is minimal or nothing at all. Fasting, high protein-low carbohydrate diets, severe vomiting and frequent diarrhea could likewise lead to starvation. For ketonuria resulting from insufficient level of insulin, the amount of insulin shot may need to be modified. It is during this period that plasma and urine glucose are monitored to assess the insulin secretion of the pancreas and the ability of the body to metabolize glucose. But when the primary source of energy is stored fat, the quantity of unmetabolized ketones become significant it can be detected in the urine.
Those with diabetes who test positive for ketones in urine must see their doctor so that management of the disease can be improved.
A test strip specific for the identification of these bodies is dipped in the urine sample.



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