Blood glucose monitoring – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood . Primary treatment goals for diabetes patients include the achieving of blood glucose levels that are as close to normal as possible and the but even with such regimens blood glucose levels are often unstable. Byetta an incretin-mimetic is approved as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Learn about type 2 diabetes symptoms treatments and medications by reading Vitals’ get your socks off diabetic foot care in the community colorado thornton patient education guide. The conditions below are often treated with drugs known to include Dry Mouth as one of their side effects or associated directly with Dry Mouth symptoms. Glycogenolysis Definition Glycogenolysis is the process of degradation of glycogen to glucose 1 phosphate and glucose in liver and muscle. The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in type 2 diabetics is This phenomenon is thus not isolated to diabetes mellitus type 2 since poor insulin regulation is also found in other The prognosis for metastatic or unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma has recently Diabetes High Blood Sugar Cold Massachusetts Worcester improved due to Our research has shown significant treatment results for diabetics. Diabetes is a type of lifestyle-related disease that affects many people worldwide with approximately 90% of patients being diagnosed with diabetes type 2. For those who are taking oral hypoglycaemic drugs, as well as those with type 1 diabetes (a condition where your body’s pancreas does not produce any insulin), one is strongly recommended to monitor their blood glucose levels frequently.
Monitoring blood glucose levels can help you better understand how your daily activities, medication, food, insulin, mood swing and stress influence your blood sugar levels. Since most blood glucose monitors come with a memory to store the readings in which this data can be downloaded to a computer and hence helping a doctor to monitor and analyze so that a better treatment of diabetes can be recommended for the patient. To maintain the accuracy of the reading of a blood glucose meter, it should be recalibrated each time the reading is taken the device should be properly maintained. You should always ask your doctor’s advice regarding correct instructions in using a glucose meter. After getting the reading from your blood glucose meter, make sure you write it down in a record book everyday so that you can better keep track of your diabetes condition. Another important point for you is that you should keep your blood glucose level as close as possible to its normal range so as to help reduce the risk of long-term complications arising from diabetes. Note: If you are unable to perform this blood glucose testing, you can still perform urine test by using urine test strips to check the condition of your glucose levels. Introduction: All the muscles in the human body show biochemical specialisation which allows them to perform their particular physiological functions. Voluntary muscles contain a variety of fibre types which are specialised for particular tasks.
Type 1 or slow oxidative fibres have a slow contraction speed and a low myosin ATPase activity. These differences are nicely illustrated by the serial sections from rat diaphragm published by Gauthier and Lowey (1979) J. In cardiac muscle and some types of smooth muscle the cells are in electrical contact through communicating gap junctions. Catecholamine hormones such as adrenalin are released during frightening or stressful situations.
Contraction in cardiac muscle is triggered by a wave of membrane depolarisation which spreads from neighbouring cells.
The sodium channel undergoes a second conformational change, as a result of which these channels close spontaneously after a few milliseconds in all excitable tissues.
The sodium pump (1) is activated by phosphorylation, which allows it to handle the increased ion traffic across the sarcolemma when cardiac work output rises.
A small protein called phospholamban associated with the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (9) is phosphorylated, and this accelerates calcium uptake by the S.R. The enzymes triglyceride lipase (14) and glycogen phosphorylase (15) are activated by phosphorylation. The system(s) which terminate CICR are far from clear, There must be some mechanism, since otherwise rising cytosolic calcium would lock the S.R. The repeated entry of external calcium ions during the plateau phase of each cardiac action potential requires a cardio-specific calcium export system to stabilise the internal calcium concentration. Smooth muscles form a very heterogenous group of tissues, and the properties of vascular smooth muscles differ greatly from those in the airway, gut or reproductive tract. In contrast to the "all or none" reactions associated with nerves and striated muscles, smooth muscles often show a graded response to membrane depolarisation. Troponin is absent from smooth muscles, and their actin regulatory system (where present) differs considerably from the thin filament regulatory system found in striated muscles. The myosin regulatory system is much more important in smooth muscles than in striated muscle. Isolated vascular smooth muscle contracts in response to acetyl choline, but this compound relaxes intact blood vessels as a result of nitric oxide generated by endothelial cells. Cardiac muscle contracts quite slowly, but it is used continuously and the total energy consumption is high. Linear 5' AMP (not 3'5' cyclic AMP) is a major allosteric activator for glycogen phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase, and is also the immediate precursor for the local hormone adenosine, a powerful vasodilator which increases blood flow to rapidly metabolising tissues. Linear 5' AMP is an activator for AMP-activated protein kinase [AMPK] which stimulates glucose uptake by skeletal muscle during exercise and under conditions of metabolic stress.
The purine nucleotide cycle is an unusual feature of skeletal muscle, which serves to replenish TCA cycle and glycolytic intermediates when the energy demand is high.
Type 1 Diabetes Care Plan Guidelines Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus INDICATION Definition “Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders At diagnosis Staged Diabetes Management recommends starting patients on Insulin Stage 2 or 3 and beginning diabetes education immediately. In this article we’re going to review the evidence linking Diabetes High Blood Sugar Cold Massachusetts research about diabetes type 1 colorado aurora Worcester inflammation to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and learn why inflammation may be the Evidence that experimentally induced local inflammation in fat tissue improves insulin resistance and causes weight loss supports this theory. With diagnosis of type 1 diabetes having almost doubled in the last five years this handy guide is a vital tool in the daily management of diabetes in young people making it Click Here to order your own copy of Low GI Diet for Gluten-free Cooking from Dymocks.
Gestational diabetes is a condition characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) If you have had gestational diabetes before, or if your doctor is concerned about your risk of developing gestational diabetes, a test may be performed before the 13th week of pregnancy. Frequent checking and monitoring of your glucose blood level can help you stay healthy while reducing the risk of long-term complications arising from diabetes. These factors include overall health, age, and whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Similarly, people with type 2 diabetes (a condition when your body’s cells ignore the insulin or your pancreas does not produce enough insulin) are also advised to monitor their glucose level so that the given treatment can meet the desired goals. This info is much needed as it will aid in better management of your diabetes besides delaying or preventing diabetic complications which include kidney failure, blindness and diabetic indulged eye disease. From the blood glucose monitor, you get a reading of your blood glucose level in a digital form.
Most manufacturers provide good service support but some do not, so you should look for the meter which offers the best service and technical support. It is always easier to prick on your fingertip as it is less painful to prick particularly on one side. Talk to your doctor if your blood glucose level is not within the normal range and ask him or her to suggest a good range for your blood glucose level and also what you should do to maintain a healthy blood glucose level. The eyeballs are steered by extra-ocular muscles when reading: they must contract quickly and precisely, but the muscles in your back and buttocks evolved for continuous heavy lifting where fuel economy is important. Each fibre is an enormous, multi-nucleate cell, formed by fusing hundreds of myoblasts end-to-end. Smooth muscle is found in the blood vessels, gut, skin, eye pupils, urinary and reproductive tracts. These cells are specialised for steady, continuous activity and are highly resistant to fatigue.


They are built for aerobic metabolism and can use either glucose or fats as a source of energy.
They have nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are ligand-gated sodium channels concentrated in a specialised region of the muscle sarcolemma beneath the axon terminus. They increase the force and frequency of cardiac contractions by binding to Beta-1 receptors, which are protein molecules protruding from the outer face of the cardiac sarcolemma. Depending on the type of smooth muscle, catecholamines may produce either contraction (alpha receptors linked to intracellular calcium stores), or relaxation (beta receptors linked to adenyl cyclase). In cardiac muscle, but NOT skeletal muscle, slower voltage-gated calcium channels, probably identical with dihydropyridine receptors (5) take over and maintain a positive inward current for several hundred milliseconds (in human ventricle) during the plateau phase of the cardiac action potential. This allows flexible head groups from the protein myosin in the thick filaments (8) to interact with the protein actin in the thin filaments. Adenyl cyclase manufactures 3'5' cyclic AMP, which is continuously destroyed by a phosphodiesterase enzyme. Cardiac and skeletal ryanodine receptors probably differ in their precise intracellular location. The transmembrane protein triadin might provide a link to either measure or modulate calcium binding to the low-affinity binding protein calsequestrin in the lumen of the S.R. This is achieved by the electrical exchange of one intracellular Ca++ ion for three extracellular Na+ ions in cardiac muscle.
This specifically increases the force of cardiac (but not skeletal muscle) contraction by interfering with the cardiac Ca++ export system.
Many of these differences arise from tissue-specific expression of cell surface receptors, but even among the intracellular proteins, the variation between different smooth muscles is at least as great as that between the different types of striated muscle.
Smooth muscle myosins do not self-associate into the thick filaments seen in striated muscles.
Cell to cell transmission via communicating gap junctions may be very important in smooth muscles, as in the heart. The enzyme myosin light chain kinase is activated by calcium + calmodulin, and phosphorylates the DTNB "regulatory" light chains in the myosin S1 head groups. Fuel economy is very important, not only for minimising food requirements, but also for reducing unwanted heat production.
It is totally specialised for energy production, and achieves the highest sustained metabolic rates (and the highest arterio-venous oxygen extractions) of any tissue in the body. The free cytosolic ADP concentration is normally very low, because it is actively taken up by mitochondria in exchange for ATP.
AMP is deaminated to yield inosine monophosphate (IMP) which is converted to adenylosuccinate and then back to AMP. These tissues are degraded in an orderly fashion, and release mainly alanine and glutamine into the blood. It has been included to show the complexity of the systems controlling gene expression in muscle tissues, and to provide a quick method for locating reviews and original papers on particular aspects of muscle biochemistry. Diabetes High Blood Sugar Cold Massachusetts type 2 diabetes dietary control tn nashville Worcester articles in PubMed by Peter M Nilsson. Journal compilation 2007 Blackwell Munksgaard PERIODONTOLOGY 2000 Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease B R I A N L.
Certain virus like Coxsackie B virus may infect the pancreas leading to Diabetes High Blood Sugar Cold Massachusetts Worcester destruction of Beta (B) cells of Islets of Lange Diabetes (Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2) Diet Symptoms. For people with diabetes kidney problems are usually picked up during a check-up by their doctor.
Monitoring diabetes or blood glucose level is important to help monitor how much glucose present in your blood. Personal preferences and your understanding regarding your health condition can help you better target your blood glucose level.
Many blood glucose monitors come with different features with some of them made specifically for those who have poor eyesight or other disabilities. It is always advisable to ask your doctor which area (such as thigh, or forearm) should be used with your meter. Certainly, in most cases, ‘acceptable’ blood glucose levels can be slightly varied from one individual to another.
You may also need to advise your doctor about what you have eaten, how active you are during the day, and how medications affect your insulin when discussing your glucose level with them, so that they can help you manage your diabetes or blood glucose level.
They show a striated pattern, reflecting the regular arrangement of sarcomeres within each cell.
The pattern of gene expression within each voluntary muscle cell is governed by the firing pattern of its single motor neurone. These are general purpose muscle fibres which give the edge in athletic performance, but they are more expensive to operate than type 1.
In the figure above, the left hand section was stained for the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, the centre panel shows direct immunofluorescence against "fast" type myosin, and the right hand section was stained for alkali-stable ATPase activity (i.e. These ion channels respond to acetylcholine (secreted from the nerve) by depolarising the muscle sarcolemma near the motor end plate. This starts with the spontaneous depolarisation of the specialised pacemaker cells in the sino-atrial node, spreads via the atria to the atrio-ventricular node and thence to the conducting fibres in the Bundle of His (in the intraventricular septum) and the Purkinje system. These activate G-proteins within the membrane, which in turn activate the enzyme adenyl cyclase on the inner face of the sarcolemma. This relaxation is apparently mediated by the cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation and inactivation of the enzyme myosin light chain kinase, which plays a central role in smooth muscle contraction. The cell membrane (sarcolemma) is usually more permeable to potassium ions than to sodium ions, and this gives rise to a membrane potential of about 80mV (inside negative) in relaxed muscle.
As in nerves and skeletal muscle, the membrane potential in cardiac muscle is eventually restored to its resting value by a delayed efflux of positive potassium ions from the cells. About 10% of the calcium needed to activate cardiac contraction enters during each beat from the ECF. A change in myosin conformation causes the thick and thin filaments to slide against each other and hydrolyse ATP, which provides the energy for contraction.
The steady-state concentration of cyclic AMP depends on the balance between synthesis and degradation.
They eventually increase the supply of ATP and provide the energy for the anticipated extra work.
Smooth muscle contraction speeds are very slow when compared with voluntary muscle, but it can achieve a much greater degree of shortening, and it is very economical to operate. The resting potential in smooth muscles is generally lower than in striated muscles, and fast voltage-gated sodium channels are not significant. Caldesmon can be sequestered away from the actin by two separate, calcium-dependent methods: (a) by phosphorylation using protein kinase C, or (b) by binding calcium and calmodulin to form a caldesmon-calcium-calmodulin complex that is unable to bind to actin. This increases the inherent myosin calcium sensitivity, and brings it into the physiological range, allowing contraction to proceed.
Both vascular and airway smooth muscles relax in response to beta adrenergic agonists via cyclic AMP. The different skeletal muscle fibre types are described above: in general the routine tasks are handled by slowly contracting, economical fibres with an fat-based aerobic metabolism, and the more expensive high-speed fibres using carbohydrate fuels are only recruited when the occasion demands. This makes 5' AMP an exquisitely sensitive indicator of the cellular energy supply in all types of muscle, and indeed in all other tissues. Try not to confuse AMPK with protein kinase A (which responds to 3'5' cyclic AMP) since their functions are entirely different.
The net effect is an AMP-dependent conversion of aspartate to fumarate and ammonia whenever the mechanical work load increases.


These amino acids help to maintain blood glucose during fasting through gluconeogenesis in liver, kidney and gut. Use OMIM to identify one or two important papers in your area of interest, and then use the citation search option in BIDS to see who has subsequently quoted them. Other problems that sometimes happen with gestational diabetes Women with gestational diabetes also can develop preeclampsia* (pree-e-klamp-see-uh). Therefore, it is particularly important for you to discuss with your doctor which one suits you best.
Motor neurones branch within their target muscle and thereby control several muscle fibres, called a motor unit.
These are large cells with a poor surface to volume ratio and their limited capillary supply slows the delivery of oxygen and removal of waste products.
The depolarisation triggers voltage-gated sodium channels which spread the excitation over the remainder of the cell. These cells finally activate the bulk of the ventricular muscle in the chamber walls, in each case through direct electrical contacts. Adenyl cyclase produces 3'5' cyclic AMP, which is an important second messenger controlling numerous intra-cellular activities. Vascular smooth muscle redistributes the blood supply during exercise, and visceral smooth muscle empties the gut in stressful or frightening situations.
Calcium ions are also removed from the cytosol into the ECF by an ATP-driven calcium pump (2) in all tissues.
Movement and ATP hydrolysis continue until the calcium ions are removed from the cytosol at the end of each contraction. They are also expressed in brain, egg cells and many other tissues, where they regulate calcium release from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
Chloride ion circulation (electroneutral uptake of NaCl plus electrical export of chloride ions) may be important in setting the resting potential in the 40mV range. In contrast to this, troponin is a permanent feature of striated muscle thin filaments, and never dissociates from the actin. These effects are of considerable medical significance in the treatment of hypertension and asthma.
Smooth muscle is particularly economical because it has a low myosin: actin ratio, a low ATPase activity and a much lower contraction speed.
AMPK protects cells from stresses that cause ATP depletion by switching off ATP-consuming biosynthetic pathways, whereas PKA is part of the hormonal second messenger system. The process can be used repeatedly because the aspartate pool is many times larger than the pool of TCA intermediates and is constantly replenished from the blood or the internal muscle protein stores. Skeletal muscles lack a urea cycle, but they are able to transaminate most amino acids and degrade their carbon skeletons as far as Krebs cycle intermediates, such as succinyl-CoA and fumarate. Early symptoms of diabetes especially type 2 diabetes can be subtle or seemingly harmless if you have symptoms at all. Learn about type 1 and 2 diabetes (diabetes dellitus) symptoms including increased visual symptoms of diabetic retinopathy eugene oregon urination thirst weight loss fatigue nausea vomiting skin infections and blurred vision. The high precision eye muscles have only a few fibres in each motor unit, but the muscles in your back have thousands.
Notice the differences in the fibre diameters, which correlates with their requirements for efficient gas and substrate exchange. Cyclic AMP activates protein kinase A which phosphorylates many intracellular enzymes, temporarily modifying their properties. In contrast to all this, the force of contraction in voluntary muscle is unaffected by circulating hormones. The remainder is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through a channel known as the ryanodine receptor (6). Most of the calcium ions are returned to the sarcoplasmic reticulum by a calcium pump (9) but about 10% leave the cell via proteins (2) and (3) described above. This enzyme phosphorylates several of the proteins involved in the contraction process, and temporarily alters their properties until a protein phosphatase restores the status quo ante by removing the phosphate group. Spike depolarisations associated with calcium ion entry are seen in some types of smooth muscle, but the fast action potentials associated with nerves and striated muscles are not observed. Phosphorylation of myosin light chains on a second site by protein kinase C interferes with this process and leads to smooth muscle relaxation.
It is ideal for sphincters and slow squeezes, and is used for these tasks in preference to striated fibres. There is a high capillary density and the cells are small, with a high surface to volume ratio. Surplus cycle intermediates are converted via an allosteric NAD-linked "malic" enzyme into pyruvate, which is transaminated to yield alanine. The Digestive System Lays the Foundation of Good Diabetes High Blood Sugar Cold blood glucose levels normal chart california salinas Massachusetts Worcester Health. Nicholson, MD, MPH, who is Associate Professor, Obstetrics and Gynecology Director, Diabetes and Obesity Core Center for Women's Health Research Gestational diabetes, or diabetes that is diagnosed during pregnancy in a woman who previously did not have diabetes, occurs when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar efficiently. Ryanodine receptors are widely distributed in the body, and are present in non-muscle tissues such as brain. Calcium ions are stored within the sarcoplasmic reticulum loosely bound to a protein, calsequestrin (10). They are blocked by the important drugs verapamil and nifedipine, which reduce the force of cardiac contraction, while maintaining an adequate cardiac output by relaxing vascular smooth muscle and reducing the peripheral vascular resistance. Receptors are distributed fairly evenly over the surface of smooth muscle cells, and are not organised in synapses or motor end plates seen in nerves and voluntary muscles. The tissue is rich in myoglobin (for oxygen transport) and creatine + creatine phosphate (for energy transport). Some amino acids such as serine are deaminated to pyruvate and ammonia, which is de-toxified yielding glutamine. Women who are overweight, over age 25, or have previously given birth to a baby over 9 pounds are at a higher risk for the condition.
The calcium concentration inside resting cells is low, but rises sharply during contractions. Many types of smooth muscle require external calcium in order to contract, and have nifedipine-sensitive calcium channels very similar to the dihydropyridine receptors observed in cardiac muscle. The organ shows a distinct preference for free fatty acids, ketone bodies and lactate; but requires insulin for efficient glucose uptake and utilisation. In this way surplus nitrogen is exported from the muscles to the liver, kidney and gut for further processing. Glucose tolerance tests are also used in pregnancy to confirm whether a pregnant woman has developed gestational diabetes.
The operation of the ryanodine receptor depends in a mysterious way on the flow of calcium ions through the dihydropyridine receptors in cardiac muscle, but not in other muscle types. The entire medical industry has built a huge business around the diagnosis and treatment for Gestational Diabetes fully believing that it prevents fetal deaths, congenital anomalies, newborn complications, macrosomic babies, lessens birth injuries due to macrosomia and decreases c-section June 16, 2011 by Brittany Dixon 33 Comments.



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