Toward the bottom of this page is a practice exam, almost the same as what you will see when you come to the campus to take the on-campus exam.
The ear thermometer (on the right) doesn't contact the ear drum, so it is measuring the amount of infrared light emitting from the ear.
This digital thermometer measures the room temperature and can take readings of the ear or forehead.
The ear and forehead measure the amount of infrared light (heat radiation) coming from the ear drum or the skin.
I've seen infrared based thermometers like in the picture used to measure the temperature of a wide variety of items at a distance. The science behind these devices is the use of an LED light and a photodiode (a light detector) that looks at the level of two forms of hemoglobin. Because of the heart beat, the level of hemoglobin in capillaries in the fingers are expanding and contracting with each heart beat. Besides useful for people who have breathing problems, these are being used by pilots and mountain climbers who are at altitudes where oxygen levels are low and monitoring their oxygen saturation would be wise. When a nurses takes someone's pulse, they pump up the cuff to the point where they can't hear the pulse. The low reading is called the diastolic pressure, which is the pressure when the heart is as rest. You may be surprised that there is a blood pressure cuff that uses an iPhone for the digital readout and storage. The science behind these modern blood glucose (sugar) meters is to draw in a set amount of blood.
I was surprised to see a home test for A1C because I heard doctors describe it as a specialized test.
I couldn't find out exactly how these A1C test strips and meter work, but I imagine it's similar to the way the blood sugar test strips and meter work. Protein in the urine (proteinuria) can indicate a kidney disease or some other serious condition.
Ketones in the urine (ketonuria) indicate the body is having trouble using sugar for energy, so it's using fat and proteins instead. Blood in urine (hematuria) gives people some anxiety but isn't always a reason for concern.
Another way the density of urine is determined is by measuring how much it bends light (refracts light). When I worked at the Phoenix Crime lab back in the 70's, the breathalyzer available at that time used a solution of sulfuric acid and a salt called potassium dichromate. I think the coolest (but not the cheapest) personal medical device is the portable ultrasound imaging machine. What sensor in the left thermometer is responsible for detecting the temperature and name one of its ingredients? Answer: Percent (%) that hemoglobin is saturated (S) with oxygen (O2) in a peripheral (p) part of the body (for example, fingers). The below chart is from a urine test strip that measures the concentration of five different substances.
If a person has a high reading for ketones, their urine (and breath) is likely to smell like what? The home pregnancy test will measure the presence of the hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin. Answer: A band at the T region is positive indication of the hormone and therefore indicates the one tested is pregnant. Answer: It means the test is complete and one should then look to see if a band is at the T region. Answer: Cocaine, amphetamine, THC (marijuana), opiates like opium, morphine and heroin, and PCP. THC is tetrahydrocannabinol, which is the psychoactive chemical in the cannabis plant (marijuana).
Unlike the pregnancy test, a band of color showing up at the T region on a drug test indicates what?
Answer: Methamphetamine is the same as amphetamine but methamphetamine has an extra methyl group on it. When ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is completely oxidized (burned) in a fuel cell, 12 electrons are produced as electrical current for each molecule of ethanol.
On the exam, you might be asked to balanced one or two of the compounds in the equation, but not the whole equation. As the alcohol gets converted to acetic acid, the potassium dichromate gets converted to chromium(III) sulfate, Cr2(SO4)3. The initial color of the solution is yellow.  What is responsible for the yellow color? After the alcohol is turned into acetic acid, the solution is dark green.  What is responsible for that color? Let's say you were trapped in a mine and you took 1.2 liters of water and did electrolysis on it to get some oxygen, how many grams of oxygen would you get?
Which is the most predominant element in water if you base it on its percent of the weight of water?
Which is the most predominant element in water if you base it on its percent of the number of atoms in water?
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Diabetes (otherwise known as diabetes mellitus, DM) is described as a metabolic disorder in which the body cannot properly store and use the energy found in food.
More specifically, diabetes is a condition that affects the body's ability to use glucose (a type of sugar) as fuel. Sometimes the body does not make enough insulin or the cells do not respond properly to insulin. Type 1 diabetes used to be known as insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM), or juvenile-onset diabetes as it often begins in childhood. Type 2 diabetes used to be known as non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) and adult onset diabetes, but it is increasingly common in children, largely due to children being more likely to be obese or overweight.
You will also see introductions at the end of some sections to any recent developments that have been covered by MNT's news stories.
1.7 million new cases of diabetes were diagnosed in people aged 20 years and older in 2012. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented through healthy food choices, physical activity, and weight management. The easiest way to find out the differences, as well as similarities between the two, is through comparing the type 1 with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetic patients measure glucose blood levels using a glucometer, small drop of blood from finger and a test strip.
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body's immune system erroneously attacks the pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin, destroying these cells and reducing the body's ability to produce sufficient insulin to regulate blood glucose levels.
Type 2 diabetes is a condition where the body does not produce sufficient insulin and the body's cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. Insulin use not only prevents hyperglycemic emergencies, but is a safeguard that helps to prevent long-term complications of diabetes by correcting fasting and postprandial (after meal) hyperglycemia.


Both of the major types of diabetes typically include different stages of disease, beginning with a state where supplemental insulin is not required to a state that does require exogenous insulin for blood glucose control and survival.
Beta cells in pancreas are attacked by the body's own immune system, therefore reducing insulin production, leading to elevated blood glucose.
Persistently high intakes of dietary sugars leads to excess demands on insulin production, which leads to insulin resistance over time.
Type 2 diabetes is more common in people with low levels of vitamin D, which is synthesized from sunlight. Obesity tends to run in families, and families tend to have similar eating and exercise habits.
Insulin is like a key that opens up the locks on your body's cells so that glucose (blood sugar) can get inside and be used for energy. Researchers from Imperial College London in the UK have found that babies born by cesarean section are more likely to be overweight or obese in adulthood than those born by vaginal delivery. Scientists have discovered a genetic deficiency in males that could prompt the development of the most common type of liver cancer and type 2 diabetes. On the next page we look at the signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as tests and diagnosis and the treatments for each diabetes type.
Guideline for Management of Postmeal Glucose, IDF, October 2007, Accessed 28 February 2014. Type 1 diabetes: diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes in children, young people and adults, nice, July 2004, Accessed 28 February 2014. Clinical Trials Gov, The Insulin Independence Trial (IIT) Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Oral Cyclosporine and Oral Omeprazole for Insulin Independence Among Recent Onset Type 1 Diabetes Patients, accessed 24 July 2015. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:MLANichols, Hannah. For any corrections of factual information, or to contact our editorial team, please see our contact page. Please note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional.
Learn all about diabetes, a lifelong metabolism disorder that causes high blood sugar levels. Learn all about type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the differences between the two conditions in our article about the diabetes mellitus metabolism disorder.
Back in 2008, I began writing about the effect of dietary fat on insulin sensitivity, and blood levels of glucose and insulin.
Over the years I learned that saturated fat decreased insulin sensitivity more than other fats, e.g.
One mechanism by which dietary fat decreases insulin sensitivity, raising blood glucose and insulin levels is through reduced action of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Rats fed a high (50% of calories) fat diet for 8 weeks showed 50% decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose transport.
Subjects were deprived of dietary fat (via gastric surgery that decreases predominantly fat absorption). Mice that were fed a high-fat diet and that became obese were protected against insulin resistance and the high glucose and insulin levels of their counterparts when they were bred to have more GLUT4.
That reduction in endothelial NO (NO is nitric oxide) production contributes to high blood pressure. This entry was posted in Diabetes, Fat and Oil, Insulin Resistance, Saturated Fat on June 5, 2014 by Bix. Scott Cousland I have never seen mainsteam science ever attribute the root cause of disease to the correct source: emotional trauma Dr.
Fanatic Cook by Bix is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
My motivation for doing it was partly because I think the average person should take advantage of the tools of science. That's a good opportunity to monitor health needs at home and to learn more about the science behind these devices and tests. As electronics got more miniaturized and sophisticated, devices like these have gotten cheaper and common place. Even after she got over the pneumonia, she would often complain about not being able to breath. A pressure of 126 mmHg meant the person's heart beat had the pressure to raise the mercury in the tube to a height of 126 millimeters (about 5 inches).
The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and to gauge how well a person has been managing his or her diabetes.
The more the inner tube extends above the surface of the urine, the more dense the urine is.
Anti-bodies are proteins created by the immune system to neutralize a foreign bacteria or virus, but also can attach itself to a specific protein. Dark green is after reacting with alcohol, which forms the dark green chromium(III) sulfate.
The device is a personal or portable breathalyzer for measuring blood alcohol content in the blood. Even though it's called the personal ultrasound device, it's marketed more to doctors than the average consumer, but eventually it will be affordable to consumers.
It means that it either adds oxygen atoms or it behaves like oxygen, which is to strip electrons away from things.
The reading is the percent of the hemoglobin in red blood cells that are coated with sugar (glucose). Glucose is a form of carbohydrate that comes from foods such as breads, cereals, pasta, rice, potatoes, fruits and some vegetables. Insulin is a hormone (a type of chemical messenger) made by specialized cells in the pancreas. Prediabetes describes the condition where blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition where the immune system wrongly identifies and subsequently attacks the pancreatic cells that produce insulin, leading to little or no insulin production.
In this condition, the body usually still produces some insulin, but this is not enough to meet demand and the body's cells do not properly respond to the insulin.
People who have experienced gestational diabetes do, however, have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy. It can also be managed through lifestyle and diet, although insulin or oral medication may be necessary for some people.
These two diabetes types have several key differences, for instance the differences in cause, symptoms, characteristics, management, incidence, who it affects and what effects the disease has on the body. Receptor cells that have become less sensitive (resistant) to insulin are unable to remove glucose from the blood, leading to higher blood glucose and greater demands on insulin production. In most cases of type 1 diabetes, the patient would need to inherit risk factors from both parents. Autoimmune attack may occur following a viral infection such as mumps, rubella cytomegalovirus. Type 1 diabetes develops more often in winter than summer and is more common in places with cold climates. Type 1 diabetes is less common in people who were breastfed and in those who first ate solid foods at later ages.


Diets high in simple sugars and low in fibre and vital nutrients are more likely to lead to diabetes. There seems to be both a reduced expression of the GLUT4 gene, and a reduced translocation or movement of GLUT4 to the cell membrane in the presence of a high-fat, especially high-saturated fat diet.  (GLUT4 is one of the glucose transport proteins that move glucose from the bloodstream into muscle and fat cells. When normal amounts of insulin fail to clear blood of glucose, the pancreas responds by releasing more.
Also, the fat we eat can change the composition of lipid in cell membranes.  A diet high in saturated fat has been shown to make membranes less fluid and may impair GLUT4 insertion. There really is abundant research on the role of dietary fat in the development of insulin resistance, a condition which manifests as elevated glucose, elevated insulin, and the development of type 2 diabetes.
The exam will ask questions about what you learn below plus there will be some questions from the online exam. As the temperature goes up, the electrical resistance comes down and that is converted to a temperature reading on the display. For this wrist version, you can see the wave which is the changing levels of hemoglobin from which the pulse can be calculated.
Using a blood pressure monitor like the one in the picture could have warned him that his blood pressure was too high despite the medication he was taking. These are often placed on the wrist but not always as accurate as those placed on the upper arm. The glucose in the blood reacts with an enzyme called glucose oxidase that pulls 2 hydrogen atoms off of the glucose molecule. The science behind it must be like the blood glucose strips and meters, but with an additional enzyme to identify the level of cholesterol.
The computer chip in the devices translate the degrees the light bends into density (specific gravity) of the urine. As the alcohol got converted, the potassium dichromate got converted to chromium(III) sulfate, Cr2(SO4)3.
Since people don't breath out hydrogen, then this test uses ethyl alcohol as the fuel to generate electricity.
Glucose is also synthesized in the liver and is carried in the blood to the rest of the body to fuel cellular processes. Insulin regulates blood glucose by stimulating the removal of glucose from the blood and its uptake into muscle, liver and fat cells where it can be stored for energy. When blood glucose levels get too high (hyperglycemia) this can cause damage to the tiny blood vessels in the eyes, kidneys, heart and nervous system, which is why diabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, loss of vision and neurological conditions.
The latter effect is called insulin resistance, where persistently elevated blood glucose has caused cells to be overexposed to insulin, making them less responsive or unresponsive to the hormonal messenger. This condition is often a result of persistently high glucose levels as well as obesity and overweight, lifestyle and dietary factors, medications and other issues. The result is impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and eventual development of type 2 diabetes.
About 5 years ago I bought a dehydrator (not expensive) and so have dried lots of veggies myself.
However, after realizing how unsafe these were, you can't really find these in the stores anymore. One type of thermocouple is used by your gas water heater or gas oven to sense if the pilot light is on.
In the hospital I noticed they used a device called the Pulse Oximeter to measure her pulse and oxygen levels.
That might have saved him the devastating effects from the stroke that he still suffers with. The test strip has a reagent (a chemical that reacts with some other chemical) that is specific for acetoacetic acid (a common ketone found in urine). This is the same kind of instrument used to measure the charge of a battery (by measuring sulfuric acid density). Saliva is placed on the bottom indentations, and it travels up the strip to where the letters are. To make that conversion, an oxygen atom is added to the alcohol and a hydrogen atom is removed. Over time, compensatory insulin output from beta cells in the pancreas diminishes and a person with type 2 diabetes may find themselves injecting insulin instead of just taking oral meds. However, when computers got smaller and less expensive, it was possible to own a computer and take advantage of everything it could do. So the Breathalyzer had a light pass through the solution and the change in the color correlated with the amount of alcohol in the breath.
It cost $200, but was very useful in discovering that her oxygen levels were truly very low. So we bought one of these automatic blood pressure monitors and checked his blood pressure about 3 times a day.
One problem density can indicate is an imbalance in electrolytes such as potassium and sodium ions. The electron flows down a wire and is measured with an electrical meter which shows up as a reading on the display. To find the amount of alcohol in the blood, the machine multiplied by 2100 because the blood always has 2100 times more alcohol in it compared to the alcohol in the breath.
The metals that are selected to be sandwiched together to make these thermocouples can be chromium, nickel, copper, tungsten, and platinum. This prompted the doctor to prescribe a portable oxygen concentrator that gave her pure oxygen when she needed it. Again specific antibodies for each drug is present in the strip along with a dye attached to the antibody. The more alcohol present the more electron current will flow, which makes the reading go up. As they are exposed to heat, they generate an electrical voltage, which can be converted to a reading on the display window. Blood cells live for 2 or 3 months, which is why this test gives you an idea of the blood sugar level over the last 2 or 3 months. Apparently the drug attaches to the antibody and dye and creates a group that is not carried along by the urine to the T area. This device is called a fuel cell because it is using alcohol as a fuel to generate electricity.
Only if the drug is NOT present does the urine carry the antibody and dye combination to the T area. In the future, your cellphones will likely run off of drinking alcohol (ethyl alcohol) or methyl alcohol because alcohols can produce a lot more electricity for a longer period. Again, if the antibody-dye combination forms a line at the T area, then that drug was not present. In other words, your cellphone will stay charged for a month without adding more alcohol to it.



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Comments

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  2. 28.11.2015 at 16:29:56


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